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Microb Biotechnol ; 15(7): 1984-1994, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794785


Infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can trigger excessive interleukin (IL)-6 signalling, leading to a myriad of biological effects including a cytokine storm that contributes to multiple organ failure in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Using a mouse model, we demonstrated that nasal inoculation of nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (NPP) of SARS-CoV-2 increased IL-6 content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Nasal administration of liquid coco-caprylate/caprate (LCC) onto Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis)-colonized mice significantly attenuated NPP-induced IL-6. Furthermore, S. epidermidis-mediated LCC fermentation to generate electricity and butyric acid that promoted bacterial colonization and activated free fatty acid receptor 2 (Ffar2) respectively. Inhibition of Ffar2 impeded the effect of S. epidermidis plus LCC on the reduction of NPP-induced IL-6. Collectively, these results suggest that nasal S. epidermidis is part of the first line of defence in ameliorating a cytokine storm induced by airway infection of SARS-CoV-2.

COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Interleukin-6 , Lung , Mice , Nasal Cavity/microbiology , Phosphoproteins , SARS-CoV-2
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259318, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496537


PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiota of infants with possible and confirmed pertussis compared to healthy controls. METHODS: This prospective study included all infants <1 year with microbiologically confirmed diagnosis of pertussis attended at a University Hospital over a 12-month period. For each confirmed case, up to 2 consecutive patients within the same age range and meeting the clinical case definition of pertussis but testing PCR-negative were included as possible cases. A third group of asymptomatic infants (healthy controls) were also included. Nasopharyngeal microbiota was characterized by sequencing the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Common respiratory DNA/RNA viral co-infection was tested by multiplex PCR. RESULTS: Twelve confirmed cases, 21 possible cases and 9 healthy controls were included. Confirmed whooping cough was primarily driven by detection of Bordetella with no other major changes on nasopharyngeal microbiota. Possible cases had limited abundance or absence of Bordetella and a distinctive microbiota with lower bacterial richness and diversity and higher rates of viral co-infection than both confirmed cases and healthy controls. Bordetella reads determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were found in all 12 confirmed cases (100%), 3 out of the 21 possible cases (14.3%) but in any healthy control. CONCLUSION: This study supports the usefulness of 16S rRNA gene sequencing for improved sensitivity on pertussis diagnosis compared to real-time PCR and to understand other microbial changes occurring in the nasopharynx in children <1 year old with suspected whooping cough compared to healthy controls.

Microbiota , Whooping Cough/microbiology , Bordetella/genetics , Bordetella/isolation & purification , Bordetella/pathogenicity , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Nasal Cavity/microbiology , Pharynx/microbiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Whooping Cough/diagnosis
mSphere ; 5(4)2020 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726126


Staphylococcus aureus is a highly significant infection problem in health care centers, particularly after surgery. It has been shown that nearly 80% of S. aureus infections following surgery are the same as those in the anterior nares of patients, suggesting that the anterior nares is the source of the infection strain. This has led to the use of mupirocin ointment being applied nasally to reduce infections; mupirocin resistance is being observed. This study was undertaken to determine whether gel composed of 5% glycerol monolaurate solubilized in a glycol-based, nonaqueous gel (5% GML gel) could be used as an alternative. In our study, 40 healthy human volunteers swabbed their anterior nares for 3 days with the 5% GML gel. Prior to swabbing and 8 to 12 h after swabbing, S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcal CFU per milliliter were determined by plating the swabs on mannitol salt agar. Fourteen of the volunteers had S. aureus in their nares prior to 5% GML gel treatment, most persons with the organisms present in both nares; five had pure cultures of S. aureus All participants without pure culture of S. aureus were cocolonized with S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Five of the S. aureus strains produced the superantigens commonly associated with toxic shock syndrome, though none of the participants became ill. For both S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci, the 5% GML gel treatment resulted in a 3-log-unit reduction in microorganisms. For S. aureus, the reduction persisted for 2 or 3 days.IMPORTANCE In this microflora study, we show that a 5% glycerol monolaurate nonaqueous gel is safe for use in the anterior nares. The gel was effective in reducing Staphylococcus aureus nasally, a highly significant hospital-associated pathogen. The gel may be a useful alternative or additive to mupirocin ointment for nasal use prior to surgery, noting that 80% of hospital-associated S. aureus infections are due to the same organism found in the nose. This gel also kills all enveloped viruses tested and should be considered for studies to reduce infection and transmission of coronaviruses and influenza viruses.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Carrier State/microbiology , Laurates/pharmacology , Monoglycerides/pharmacology , Nasal Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Colony Count, Microbial , Gels/chemistry , Gels/pharmacology , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Middle Aged , Mupirocin/pharmacology , Nasal Cavity/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Young Adult