Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 70
Filter
1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 61, 2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758178

ABSTRACT

Variants are globally emerging very quickly following pandemic prototypic SARS-CoV-2. To evaluate the cross-protection of prototypic SARS-CoV-2 vaccine against its variants, we vaccinated rhesus monkeys with three doses of prototypic SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine, followed by challenging with emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). These vaccinated animals produced neutralizing antibodies against Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants, although there were certain declinations of geometric mean titer (GMT) as compared with prototypic SARS-CoV-2. Of note, in vivo this prototypic vaccine not only reduced the viral loads in nasal, throat and anal swabs, pulmonary tissues, but also improved the pathological changes in the lung infected by variants of Alpha, Beta, and Delta. In summary, the prototypic SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine in this study protected against VOCs to certain extension, which is of great significance for prevention and control of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Protection , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Anal Canal/virology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lung/virology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Nasal Cavity/virology , Pharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Viral Load/drug effects
2.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(11): e88, 2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753355

ABSTRACT

Nasopharyngeal swabs have been widely to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nasopharyngeal COVID-19 testing is a generally safe and well-tolerated procedure, but numerous complications have been reported in the media. Therefore, the present study aimed to review and document adverse events and suggest procedural references to minimize preventable but often underestimated risks. A total of 27 articles were selected for the review of 842 related documents in PubMed, Embase, and KoreaMed. The complications related to nasopharyngeal COVID-19 testing were reported to be rarely happened, ranging from 0.0012 to 0.026%. Frequently documented adverse events were retained swabs, epistaxis, and cerebrospinal fluid leakage, often associated with high-risk factors, including severe septal deviations, pre-existing skull base defects, and previous sinus or transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Appropriate techniques based on sufficient anatomical knowledge are mandatory for clinicians to perform nasopharyngeal COVID-19 testing. The nasal floor can be predicted by the line between the nostril and external ear canal. For safe testing, the angle of swab insertion in the nasal passage should remain within 30° of the nasal floor. The swab was gently inserted along the nasal septum just above the nasal floor to the nasopharynx and remained on the nasopharynx for several seconds before removal. Forceful insertion should be attempted, and alternative examinations should be considered, especially in vulnerable patients. In conclusion, patients and clinicians should be aware of rare but possible complications and associated high-risk factors. The suggested procedural pearls enable more comfortable and safe nasopharyngeal COVID-19 testing for both clinicians and patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/adverse effects , Humans , Nasal Cavity/anatomy & histology , Nasal Cavity/virology , Nasopharynx/anatomy & histology , Specimen Handling/methods
4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 2199-2201, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505680

ABSTRACT

We report pilot studies to evaluate the susceptibility of common domestic livestock (cattle, sheep, goat, alpaca, rabbit, and horse) to intranasal infection with SARS-CoV-2. None of the infected animals shed infectious virus via nasal, oral, or faecal routes, although viral RNA was detected in several animals. Further, neutralizing antibody titres were low or non-existent one month following infection. These results suggest that domestic livestock are unlikely to contribute to SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Host Specificity , Livestock/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Camelids, New World/virology , Cattle/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Goats/virology , Horses/virology , Host Specificity/immunology , Humans , Nasal Cavity/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Rabbits/virology , Rectum/virology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sheep/virology , Species Specificity , Vero Cells , Virus Shedding , Viscera/virology
6.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367923

ABSTRACT

Strategies to combat COVID-19 require multiple ways to protect vulnerable people from infection. SARS-CoV-2 is an airborne pathogen and the nasal cavity is a primary target of infection. The K18-hACE2 mouse model was used to investigate the anti-SARS-CoV-2 efficacy of astodrimer sodium formulated in a mucoadhesive nasal spray. Animals received astodrimer sodium 1% nasal spray or PBS intranasally, or intranasally and intratracheally, for 7 days, and they were infected intranasally with SARS-CoV-2 after the first product administration on Day 0. Another group was infected intranasally with SARS-CoV-2 that had been pre-incubated with astodrimer sodium 1% nasal spray or PBS for 60 min before the neutralisation of test product activity. Astodrimer sodium 1% significantly reduced the viral genome copies (>99.9%) and the infectious virus (~95%) in the lung and trachea vs. PBS. The pre-incubation of SARS-CoV-2 with astodrimer sodium 1% resulted in a significant reduction in the viral genome copies (>99.9%) and the infectious virus (>99%) in the lung and trachea, and the infectious virus was not detected in the brain or liver. Astodrimer sodium 1% resulted in a significant reduction of viral genome copies in nasal secretions vs. PBS on Day 7 post-infection. A reduction in the viral shedding from the nasal cavity may result in lower virus transmission rates. Viraemia was low or undetectable in animals treated with astodrimer sodium 1% or infected with treated virus, correlating with the lack of detectable viral replication in the liver. Similarly, low virus replication in the nasal cavity after treatment with astodrimer sodium 1% potentially protected the brain from infection. Astodrimer sodium 1% significantly reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1α, IL-1ß, TNFα and TGFß and the chemokine MCP-1 in the serum, lung and trachea vs. PBS. Astodrimer sodium 1% nasal spray blocked or reduced SARS-CoV-2 replication and its sequelae in K18-hACE2 mice. These data indicate a potential role for the product in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection or for reducing the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dendrimers/administration & dosage , Nasal Cavity/virology , Nasal Sprays , Polylysine/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Brain/virology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Dendrimers/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Liver/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Polylysine/therapeutic use , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load/drug effects , Viremia , Virus Replication/drug effects
7.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367922

ABSTRACT

Patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019, suffer from respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms. Among these symptoms, the loss of smell has attracted considerable attention. The objectives of this study were to determine which cells are infected, what happens in the olfactory system after viral infection, and how these pathologic changes contribute to olfactory loss. For this purpose, Syrian golden hamsters were used. First, we verified the olfactory structures in the nasal cavity of Syrian golden hamsters, namely the main olfactory epithelium, the vomeronasal organ, and their cellular components. Second, we found angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression, a receptor protein of SARS-CoV-2, in both structures and infections of supporting, microvillar, and solitary chemosensory cells. Third, we observed pathological changes in the infected epithelium, including reduced thickness of the mucus layer, detached epithelia, indistinct layers of epithelia, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and apoptotic cells in the overall layers. We concluded that a structurally and functionally altered microenvironment influences olfactory function. We observed the regeneration of the damaged epithelium, and found multilayers of basal cells, indicating that they were activated and proliferating to reconstitute the injured epithelium.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Chemoreceptor Cells/virology , Olfactory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vomeronasal Organ/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Chemoreceptor Cells/pathology , Male , Mesocricetus , Nasal Cavity/pathology , Nasal Cavity/virology , Olfactory Mucosa/metabolism , Olfactory Mucosa/pathology , Olfactory Receptor Neurons/metabolism , Olfactory Receptor Neurons/pathology , Olfactory Receptor Neurons/virology , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , Regeneration , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vomeronasal Organ/metabolism , Vomeronasal Organ/pathology
9.
Am J Emerg Med ; 50: 381-387, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Provider-collected nasopharyngeal specimens for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) molecular testing are the standard of care in many clinical settings, but patient-collected saliva and anterior nares specimens are less invasive and more flexible alternatives. Prior studies comparing specimen types for SARS-CoV-2 molecular testing have been limited by small sample sizes and low pretest probability. We conducted a large observational study among symptomatic adults at 7 emergency departments of Kaiser Permanente Southern California to examine sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 molecular tests by specimen type and patient characteristics. METHODS: Provider-collected nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) specimens and patient-collected saliva and anterior nares specimens were collected at the same visit and analyzed with the Roche cobas® SARS-CoV-2 assay. Patients were considered truly positive for SARS-CoV-2 if any of the three specimens was positive and negative if all three specimens were negative. Factors associated with discordant and missed positive results were examined with multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 2112 patients, 350 (16.6%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Sensitivity of NP/OP was 93.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 90.6%-96.0%), sensitivity of saliva was 87.7% (83.8%-91.0%), and sensitivity of anterior nares was 85.4% (81.3%-89.0%). Patients ages 18-39 years versus ≥40 years were more likely to have discordant results [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.97 (1.12-3.45)], as were patients with <4 symptoms versus ≥4 [aOR 2.43 (1.39-4.25)]. Cycle threshold values were higher for saliva and anterior nares than NP/OP specimens, as well as for specimens in discordant versus concordant sets and patients with fewer symptoms. CONCLUSION: This study provides robust evidence that patient-collected saliva and anterior nares are sensitive for SARS-CoV-2 molecular testing in emergency department settings, particularly among adults ages ≥40 years and those with multiple symptoms. Higher sensitivity of provider-collected NP/OP specimens must be weighed against the benefits of patient-collected specimens in tailored strategies for SARS-CoV-2 testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Nasal Cavity/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Saliva/virology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5328-5332, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363671

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is one of the recently identified zoonotic coronaviruses. The one-hump camels are believed to play important roles in the evolution and transmission of the virus. The animal-to-animal, as well as the animal-to-human transmission in the context of MERS-CoV infection, were reported. The camels shed the virus in some of their secretions, especially the nasal tract. However, there are many aspects of the transmission cycle of the virus from animals to humans that are still not fully understood. Rodents played important roles in the transmission of many pathogens, including viruses and bacteria. They have been implicated in the evolution of many human coronaviruses, especially HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1. However, the role of rodents in the transmission of MERS-CoV still requires more exploration. To achieve this goal, we identified MERS-CoV that naturally infected dromedary camel by molecular surveillance. We captured 15 of the common rodents (rats, mice, and jerboa) sharing the habitat with these animals. We collected both oral and rectal swabs from these animals and then tested them by the commercial MERS-CoV real-time-PCR kits using two targets. Despite the detection of the viral shedding in the nasal swabs of some of the dromedary camels, none of the rodents tested positive for the virus during the tenure of this study. We concluded that these species of rodents did not harbor the virus and are most unlikely to contribute to the transmission of the MERS-CoV. However, further large-scale studies are required to confirm the potential roles of rodents in the context of the MERS-CoV transmission cycle, if any.


Subject(s)
Camelus/virology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Epidemiological Monitoring/veterinary , RNA, Viral/genetics , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Nasal Cavity/virology , Rats , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rectum/virology , Rodentia/virology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4985, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361633

ABSTRACT

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is driven by contact, fomite, and airborne transmission. The relative contribution of different transmission routes remains subject to debate. Here, we show Syrian hamsters are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection through intranasal, aerosol and fomite exposure. Different routes of exposure present with distinct disease manifestations. Intranasal and aerosol inoculation causes severe respiratory pathology, higher virus loads and increased weight loss. In contrast, fomite exposure leads to milder disease manifestation characterized by an anti-inflammatory immune state and delayed shedding pattern. Whereas the overall magnitude of respiratory virus shedding is not linked to disease severity, the onset of shedding is. Early shedding is linked to an increase in disease severity. Airborne transmission is more efficient than fomite transmission and dependent on the direction of the airflow. Carefully characterized SARS-CoV-2 transmission models will be crucial to assess potential changes in transmission and pathogenic potential in the light of the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 evolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Fomites , Administration, Intranasal , Aerosols , Animals , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Lung/virology , Mesocricetus , Nasal Cavity/virology , Particle Size , RNA, Viral/genetics , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Vaccination , Virus Replication , Virus Shedding
12.
J Exp Med ; 218(10)2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345702

ABSTRACT

IFN-I and IFN-III immunity in the nasal mucosa is poorly characterized during SARS-CoV-2 infection. We analyze the nasal IFN-I/III signature, namely the expression of ISGF-3-dependent IFN-stimulated genes, in mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients and show its correlation with serum IFN-α2 levels, which peak at symptom onset and return to baseline from day 10 onward. Moreover, the nasal IFN-I/III signature correlates with the nasopharyngeal viral load and is associated with the presence of infectious viruses. By contrast, we observe low nasal IFN-I/III scores despite high nasal viral loads in a subset of critically ill COVID-19 patients, which correlates with the presence of autoantibodies (auto-Abs) against IFN-I in both blood and nasopharyngeal mucosa. In addition, functional assays in a reconstituted human airway epithelium model of SARS-CoV-2 infection confirm the role of such auto-Abs in abrogating the antiviral effects of IFN-I, but not those of IFN-III. Thus, IFN-I auto-Abs may compromise not only systemic but also local antiviral IFN-I immunity at the early stages of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Interferon Type I/pharmacology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Nasal Cavity/immunology , Nasal Cavity/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Viral Load/drug effects , Viral Load/immunology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/immunology
13.
Arch Virol ; 166(9): 2551-2561, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309044

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to identify and validate a sensitive, high-throughput, and cost-effective SARS-CoV-2 real-time RT-PCR assay to be used as a surveillance and diagnostic tool for SARS-CoV-2 in a university surveillance program. We conducted a side-by-side clinical evaluation of a newly developed SARS-CoV-2 multiplex assay (EZ-SARS-CoV-2 Real-Time RT-PCR) with the commercial TaqPath COVID-19 Combo Kit, which has an Emergency Use Authorization from the FDA. The EZ-SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR incorporates two assays targeting the SARS-CoV-2 N gene, an internal control targeting the human RNase P gene, and a PCR inhibition control in a single reaction. Nasopharyngeal (NP) and anterior nares (AN) swabs were tested as individuals and pools with both assays and in the ABI 7500 Fast and the QuantStudio 5 detection platforms. The analytical sensitivity of the EZ-SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR assay was 250 copies/ml or approximately 1.75 genome copy equivalents per reaction. The clinical performance of the EZ-SARS-CoV-2 assay was evaluated using NP and AN samples tested in other laboratories. The diagnostic sensitivity of the assay ranged between 94 and 96% across the detection platforms, and the diagnostic specificity was 94.06%. The positive predictive value was 94%, and the negative predictive value ranged from 94 to 96%. Pooling five NP or AN specimens yielded 93% diagnostic sensitivity. The overall agreement between these SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR assays was high, supported by a Cohen's kappa value of 0.93. The EZ-SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR assay performance attributes of high sensitivity and specificity with AN sample matrix and pooled upper respiratory samples support its use in a high-throughput surveillance testing program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/economics , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , Epidemiological Monitoring , Gene Expression , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/economics , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Nasal Cavity/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods , Viral Load
14.
Arch Virol ; 166(9): 2461-2468, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292555

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) can be spread by animal activity. Although cattle farming is widespread in Turkey, there are few studies of BCoV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current situation regarding BCoV in Turkey. This is the first study reporting the full-length nucleotide sequences of BCoV spike (S) genes in Turkey. Samples were collected from 119 cattle with clinical signs of respiratory (n = 78) or digestive tract (n = 41) infection on different farms located across widely separated provinces in Turkey. The samples were screened for BCoV using RT-nested PCR targeting the N gene, which identified BCoV in 35 samples (9 faeces and 26 nasal discharge). RT-PCR analysis of the S gene produced partial/full-length S gene sequences from 11 samples (8 faeces and 3 nasal discharge samples). A phylogenetic tree of the S gene sequences was made to analyze the genetic relationships among BCoVs from Turkey and other countries. The results showed that the local strains present in faeces and nasal discharge samples had many different amino acid changes. Some of these changes were shown in previous studies to be critical for tropism. This study provides new data on BCoV in Turkey that will be valuable in designing effective vaccine approaches and control strategies.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Diarrhea/veterinary , RNA, Viral/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/veterinary , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Agriculture , Amino Acid Substitution , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/classification , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/virology , Epidemiological Monitoring/veterinary , Evolution, Molecular , Feces/virology , Humans , Mutation , Nasal Cavity/virology , Phylogeny , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Turkey/epidemiology
15.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 21(8): 638-641, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291190

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Many SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) have been reported recently that were linked to increased transmission. In our earlier study using VOC 202012/01 (U.K. variant) and D614G variant in the hamster model, we observed higher viral RNA shedding through nasal wash in the case of U.K. variant with lower pathogenicity in lung. In this study, we have studied transmission of these two variants by direct contact, aerosol, and fomite routes in Syrian hamsters and compared the viral load and body weight changes in hamsters exposed by both variants to understand the transmission efficiency. Methods: Nasal, throat, and rectal swabs were collected sequentially to assess viral load till 14 days. Results: Transmission could be established by direct, aerosol, and fomite contact in Syrian hamsters. Body weight loss or viral load in the contact animals exposed did not show any statistical significance. Conclusion: The study demonstrated comparable transmission of both U.K. and D614G variants of SARS-CoV-2 in Syrian hamsters in the given conditions. Provided these data, it seems that all the routes of exposure are effective leading to higher transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Aerosols , Animals , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Fomites/virology , HIV Antibodies/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Lung , Male , Mesocricetus , Nasal Cavity/virology , Pharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Rectum/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , United Kingdom , Viral Load , Weight Loss
16.
J Virol Methods ; 295: 114184, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240482

ABSTRACT

With increasing demands for SARS-CoV-2 testing, as well as the shortages for testing supplies, collection devices, and trained healthcare workers (HCWs) to collect specimens, self-collection is an attractive prospect to reduce the need for HCWs and expenditure of personal protective equipment. Apart from the traditional nasopharyngeal swab used for SARS-CoV-2 detection, alternative specimens have been validated such as a combined swabs of the oropharynx and anterior nares (OP/N), or throat samples using saline gargles. Both the alternative specimen types are amenable to self-collection. Objectives. This study aimed to compare the sensitivity of HCW-collected (OP/N) swabs, self-collected OP/N swabs, and self-collected saline gargles. Among 38 individuals previously testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (or their close contacts), two self-collected specimen types (OP/N and saline gargles) were compared to HCW-collected OP/N swabs. SARS-CoV-2 testing was performed on three molecular assays: a laboratory-developed test (LDT), and two commercial assays on automated platforms: Cobas 6800 (Roche Diagnostics) and Panther (Hologic). The sensitivity of self-collected OP/N swabs was equivalent to healthcare worker (HCW)-collected OP/N swabs at 100.0 % [92.6%-100.0%] for all three molecular tests. The sensitivity of saline gargles was not significantly different than HCW-collected OP/N swabs, but varied slightly between instruments at 93.8 % [85.9%-93.8%] for the LDT, 96.8 % [88.6%-96.8%] for the Cobas assay, and 96.7 % [89.2%-96.9%] for the Panther assay. Overall, self-collection using OP/N swabs or saline gargles are reasonable alternatives to HCW-based collections for SARS-CoV-2 detection, and could facilitate broader surveillance strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Health Personnel , Humans , Nasal Cavity/virology , Oropharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/virology , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10519, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233722

ABSTRACT

The clinical utility of antigen test using anterior nasal samples has not been well evaluated. We conducted a prospective study in a drive-through testing site located at a PCR center to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the antigen test QuickNavi-COVID19 Ag using anterior nasal samples and to compare the degrees of coughs or sneezes induction and the severity of pain between anterior nasal collection and nasopharyngeal collection. The study included a total of 862 participants, of which 91.6% were symptomatic. The median duration from symptom onset to sample collection was 2.0 days. Fifty-one participants tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 on reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) with nasopharyngeal samples, and all of them were symptomatic. In comparison to the findings of RT-PCR, the antigen test using anterior nasal samples showed 72.5% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI] 58.3-84.1%) and 100% specificity (95% CI 99.3-100%). Anterior nasal collection was associated with a significantly lower degree of coughs or sneezes induction and the severity of pain in comparison to nasopharyngeal collection (p < 0.001). The antigen test using anterior nasal samples showed moderate sensitivity in symptomatic patients who were at the early stages of the disease course but was less painful and induced fewer coughs or sneezes.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Male , Middle Aged , Nasal Cavity/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load , Young Adult
18.
Infection ; 49(4): 763-764, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the incidence of new cases of coronavirus disease increased exponentially, the use of viral swabs to collect nasopharyngeal specimens are increasing drastically. Therefore, healthcare workers military staff and uneducated nonprofessional's were ordered to make this swabs. Subsequently case reports reported about basal skull perforation, cerebrospinal fluid fistula and injury due to an incorrect technique. METHODS: Search of the literature. RESULTS: Only in 44% of the videos (Youtube) nasal swabs were correctly performed. Due to an false technique biological sampling resulted in false-negative COVID-19 tests. CONCLUSION: Although professional societies started to report about this unacceptable situation, no publication reported about this health endangerment. In this time of overwhelming information and diversity of opinions, it is necessary to report about this in the hope, all media and TV reports will follow this article to show correctly performed nasal swabs to reduce false-negative COVID-19 tests and injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasal Cavity/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/standards , COVID-19/virology , False Negative Reactions , Humans , Nasal Cavity/injuries , Specimen Handling/methods
19.
Virol J ; 18(1): 59, 2021 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143228

ABSTRACT

The sample collection procedure for SARS-CoV-2 has a strong impact on diagnostic capability, contact tracing approach, ultimately affecting the infection containment performance. This study demonstrates that self-collected nasal-swab has shown to be a valid and well tolerated procedure to SARS-CoV-2 surveillance in a healthcare system. More significantly, no performance adequacy difference was detected in self-administered swabs between healthcare worker (HCW) and non-HCW which allows to speculate that this procedure could be successfully extended to the entire population for mass screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasal Cavity/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An outbreak of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)-associated respiratory infectious diseases (COVID-19) emerged in 2019 and has spread rapidly in humans around the world. The demonstration of in vitro infectiousness of respiratory specimens is an informative surrogate for SARS-CoV-2 transmission from patients with COVID-19; accordingly, viral isolation assays in cell culture are an important aspect of laboratory diagnostics for COVID-19. METHODS: We developed a simple and rapid protocol for isolating SARS-CoV-2 from respiratory specimens using VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells, a cell line that is highly susceptible to the virus. We also investigated a correlation between isolation of SARS-CoV-2 and viral load detected by real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) using N2 primer/probe set that has been developed for testing of COVID-19 in Japan. RESULTS: The SARS-CoV-2 isolation protocol did not require blind passage of inoculated cells and yielded the results of viral isolation within 7 days after inoculation. Specimens with cycle threshold (Ct) values of <20.2, determined by rRT-PCR, were predicted to be isolation-positive. On the other hand, 6.9% of specimens with Ct values >35 were virus isolation-positive, indicating that low viral loads (high Ct values) in upper respiratory specimens do not always indicate no risk of containing transmissible virus. CONCLUSION: In combination with rRT-PCR, the SARS-CoV-2 isolation protocol provides a means for assessing the potential risk of transmissible virus in upper respiratory specimens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Humans , Nasal Cavity/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Specimen Handling , Vero Cells
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL