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2.
Acta Diabetol ; 58(6): 771-778, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083192

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The relationship between metformin therapy and the risk of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has not been reported among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). We aimed to investigate whether metformin therapy was associated with the incidence of COVID-19 among type 2 DM patients in South Korea. METHODS: The National Health Insurance Service-COVID-19 cohort database, comprising COVID-19 patients from 1 January 2020 to 4 June 2020, was used for this study. Among them, adult patients with type 2 DM were included in this study. Metformin users were defined as those who had been prescribed continuous oral metformin for over a period of ≥ 90 days, and the control group was defined as all other patients. RESULTS: Overall, 27,493 patients with type 2 DM (7204, metformin user group; 20,289, control group) were included. After propensity score matching, 11,892 patients (5946 patients in each group) were included in the final analysis. In the logistic regression analysis, the odds of metformin users developing COVID-19 was 30% lower than that of the control group [odds ratio (OR): 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61-0.80; P < 0.001]. However, in the multivariate model, metformin use was not associated with hospital mortality when compared with that of the control group (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 0.81-1.95; P = 0.301). CONCLUSIONS: Metformin therapy might have potential benefits for the prevention of COVID-19 among patients with type 2 DM in South Korea. However, it did not affect the hospital mortality of type 2 DM patients diagnosed with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Databases, Factual/trends , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , National Health Programs/trends , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/chemically induced , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Male , Metformin/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors
3.
Diabetes Metab J ; 44(6): 897-907, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005674

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the infection risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with diabetes (according to treatment method). METHODS: Claimed subjects to the Korean National Health Insurance claims database diagnosed with COVID-19 were included. Ten thousand sixty-nine patients with COVID-19 between January 28 and April 5, 2020, were included. Stratified random sampling of 1:5 was used to select the control group of COVID-19 patients. In total 50,587 subjects were selected as the control group. After deleting the missing values, 60,656 subjects were included. RESULTS: Adjusted odds ratio (OR) indicated that diabetic insulin users had a higher risk of COVID-19 than subjects without diabetes (OR, 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.53; P=0.0278). In the subgroup analysis, infection risk was higher among diabetes male insulin users (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.89), those between 40 and 59 years (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.44). The infection risk was higher in diabetic insulin users with 2 to 4 years of morbidity (OR, 1.744; 95% CI, 1.003 to 3.044). CONCLUSION: Some diabetic patients with certain conditions would be associated with a higher risk of acquiring COVID-19, highlighting their need for special attention. Efforts are warranted to ensure that diabetic patients have minimal exposure to the virus. It is important to establish proactive care and screening tests for diabetic patients suspected with COVID-19 for timely disease diagnosis and management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/economics , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Social Class , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Databases, Factual/trends , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , National Health Programs/trends , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Young Adult
4.
Epilepsy Behav ; 113: 107529, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939368

ABSTRACT

Hygienic and sanitary measures and social distancing policies implemented during the new coronavirus disease - COVID-19 - pandemic have altered the care and follow-up provided by healthcare professionals for patients with chronic diseases, including patients with epilepsy (PWEs). Telemedicine has become a solution for the healthcare of PWEs in many developed countries. In this short communication, we trace a particular perspective for the application of telemedicine for PWEs undergoing ketogenic diet (KD) treatment, considering the social and economic difficulties faced by healthcare teams in resource-poor countries, such as Brazil. During the pandemic, financial strain was the main impediment to following KD. The pandemic increased socioeconomic insecurity and access to KD-related products, as well as increasing anxiety in 71% of PWE, impacting their KD treatment follow-up. The challenges of telemedicine in Brazil include not only social and economic issues but also access to food, healthcare services, and education for the population, in addition to digital inclusion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet, Ketogenic/trends , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/diet therapy , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/epidemiology , National Health Programs/trends , Telemedicine/trends , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Diet, Ketogenic/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Telemedicine/methods , Treatment Outcome
7.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(10): 823-833, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetes has been associated with increased COVID-19-related mortality, but the association between modifiable risk factors, including hyperglycaemia and obesity, and COVID-19-related mortality among people with diabetes is unclear. We assessed associations between risk factors and COVID-19-related mortality in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We did a population-based cohort study of people with diagnosed diabetes who were registered with a general practice in England. National population data on people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes collated by the National Diabetes Audit were linked to mortality records collated by the Office for National Statistics from Jan 2, 2017, to May 11, 2020. We identified the weekly number of deaths in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes during the first 19 weeks of 2020 and calculated the percentage change from the mean number of deaths for the corresponding weeks in 2017, 2018, and 2019. The associations between risk factors (including sex, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic deprivation, HbA1c, renal impairment [from estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)], BMI, tobacco smoking status, and cardiovascular comorbidities) and COVID-19-related mortality (defined as International Classification of Diseases, version 10, code U07.1 or U07.2 as a primary or secondary cause of death) between Feb 16 and May 11, 2020, were investigated by use of Cox proportional hazards models. FINDINGS: Weekly death registrations in the first 19 weeks of 2020 exceeded the corresponding 3-year weekly averages for 2017-19 by 672 (50·9%) in people with type 1 diabetes and 16 071 (64·3%) in people with type 2 diabetes. Between Feb 16 and May 11, 2020, among 264 390 people with type 1 diabetes and 2 874 020 people with type 2 diabetes, 1604 people with type 1 diabetes and 36 291 people with type 2 diabetes died from all causes. Of these total deaths, 464 in people with type 1 diabetes and 10 525 in people with type 2 diabetes were defined as COVID-19 related, of which 289 (62·3%) and 5833 (55·4%), respectively, occurred in people with a history of cardiovascular disease or with renal impairment (eGFR <60 mL/min per 1·73 m2). Male sex, older age, renal impairment, non-white ethnicity, socioeconomic deprivation, and previous stroke and heart failure were associated with increased COVID-19-related mortality in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Compared with people with an HbA1c of 48-53 mmol/mol (6·5-7·0%), people with an HbA1c of 86 mmol/mol (10·0%) or higher had increased COVID-19-related mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 2·23 [95% CI 1·50-3·30, p<0·0001] in type 1 diabetes and 1·61 [1·47-1·77, p<0·0001] in type 2 diabetes). In addition, in people with type 2 diabetes, COVID-19-related mortality was significantly higher in those with an HbA1c of 59 mmol/mol (7·6%) or higher than in those with an HbA1c of 48-53 mmol/mol (HR 1·22 [95% CI 1·15-1·30, p<0·0001] for 59-74 mmol/mol [7·6-8·9%] and 1·36 [1·24-1·50, p<0·0001] for 75-85 mmol/mol [9·0-9·9%]). The association between BMI and COVID-19-related mortality was U-shaped: in type 1 diabetes, compared with a BMI of 25·0-29·9 kg/m2, a BMI of less than 20·0 kg/m2 had an HR of 2·45 (95% CI 1·60-3·75, p<0·0001) and a BMI of 40·0 kg/m2 or higher had an HR of 2·33 (1·53-3·56, p<0·0001); the corresponding HRs for type 2 diabetes were 2·33 (2·11-2·56, p<0·0001) and 1·60 (1·47-1·75, p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Deaths in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes rose sharply during the initial COVID-19 pandemic in England. Increased COVID-19-related mortality was associated not only with cardiovascular and renal complications of diabetes but, independently, also with glycaemic control and BMI. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Population Surveillance , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Databases, Factual/trends , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , National Health Programs/trends , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Population Surveillance/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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