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1.
Biochem J ; 479(5): 609-628, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730329

ABSTRACT

Two years after the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, our understanding of COVID-19 disease pathogenesis is still incomplete. Despite unprecedented global collaborative scientific efforts and rapid vaccine development, an uneven vaccine roll-out and the emergence of novel variants of concern such as omicron underscore the critical importance of identifying the mechanisms that contribute to this disease. Overt inflammation and cell death have been proposed to be central drivers of severe pathology in COVID-19 patients and their pathways and molecular components therefore present promising targets for host-directed therapeutics. In our review, we summarize the current knowledge on the role and impact of diverse programmed cell death (PCD) pathways on COVID-19 disease. We dissect the complex connection of cell death and inflammatory signaling at the cellular and molecular level and identify a number of critical questions that remain to be addressed. We provide rationale for targeting of cell death as potential COVID-19 treatment and provide an overview of current therapeutics that could potentially enter clinical trials in the near future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , Antiviral Agents , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/physiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Inflammasomes/physiology , Interferons/metabolism , Necroptosis/physiology , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Pyroptosis/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
Science ; 374(6571): 1076-1080, 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723462

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory processes that recruit leukocytes to injured or infected tissues are crucial for tissue repair and the elimination of pathogens. However, excessive or chronic inflammation promotes tissue damage and disease, as in arthritis, atherosclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and COVID-19. Intracellular constituents released from dying cells are among the stimuli that trigger proinflammatory gene expression programs in innate immune cells. We explore how programmed cell death mechanisms­apoptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis­may contribute to inflammatory disease. We discuss inhibition of cell death as a potential therapeutic strategy, focusing on the targets RIPK1 (receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase 1), NLRP3 (NLR family pyrin domain containing 3), and GSDMD (gasdermin D) as important mediators of lytic cell death. We also consider the potential benefits of limiting membrane rupture rather than cell death by targeting NINJ1.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Inflammation/physiopathology , Necroptosis , Pyroptosis , Animals , Caspase 8/metabolism , Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal/antagonists & inhibitors , Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal/metabolism , Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein/metabolism , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Inflammation/drug therapy , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Nerve Growth Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Nerve Growth Factors/metabolism , Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/deficiency , Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
3.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 02 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686620

ABSTRACT

Necroptosis, a form of programmed lytic cell death, has emerged as a driving factor in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). As ALI is often associated with a cytokine storm, we determined whether pro-inflammatory cytokines modulate the susceptibility of lung cells to necroptosis and which mediators dominate to control necroptosis. In this study, we pretreated/primed mouse primary lung epithelial and endothelial cells with various inflammatory mediators and assessed cell type-dependent responses to different necroptosis inducers and their underlying mechanisms. We found that interferon-γ (IFNγ) as low as 1 ng/mL preferentially promoted necroptosis and accelerated the release of damage-associated molecular patterns from primary alveolar and airway epithelial cells but not lung microvascular endothelial cells. Type-I IFNα was about fifty-fold less effective than IFNγ. Conversely, TNFα or agonists of Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3), TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 had a minor effect. The enhanced necroptosis in IFNγ-activated lung epithelial cells was dependent on IFNγ signaling and receptor-interacting protein kinase-3. We further showed that necroptosis effector mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) was predominantly induced by IFNγ, contributing to the enhanced necroptosis in lung epithelial cells. Collectively, our findings indicate that IFNγ is a potent enhancer of lung epithelial cell susceptibility to necroptosis.


Subject(s)
Interferon-gamma , Necroptosis , Animals , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/pharmacology , Lung/pathology , Mice , Protein Kinases/metabolism
4.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(12): 1156, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585874

ABSTRACT

Lots of cell death initiator and effector molecules, signalling pathways and subcellular sites have been identified as key mediators in both cell death processes in cancer. The XDeathDB visualization platform provides a comprehensive cell death and their crosstalk resource for deciphering the signaling network organization of interactions among different cell death modes associated with 1461 cancer types and COVID-19, with an aim to understand the molecular mechanisms of physiological cell death in disease and facilitate systems-oriented novel drug discovery in inducing cell deaths properly. Apoptosis, autosis, efferocytosis, ferroptosis, immunogenic cell death, intrinsic apoptosis, lysosomal cell death, mitotic cell death, mitochondrial permeability transition, necroptosis, parthanatos, and pyroptosis related to 12 cell deaths and their crosstalk can be observed systematically by the platform. Big data for cell death gene-disease associations, gene-cell death pathway associations, pathway-cell death mode associations, and cell death-cell death associations is collected by literature review articles and public database from iRefIndex, STRING, BioGRID, Reactom, Pathway's commons, DisGeNET, DrugBank, and Therapeutic Target Database (TTD). An interactive webtool, XDeathDB, is built by web applications with R-Shiny, JavaScript (JS) and Shiny Server Iso. With this platform, users can search specific interactions from vast interdependent networks that occur in the realm of cell death. A multilayer spectral graph clustering method that performs convex layer aggregation to identify crosstalk function among cell death modes for a specific cancer. 147 hallmark genes of cell death could be observed in detail in these networks. These potential druggable targets are displayed systematically and tailoring networks to visualize specified relations is available to fulfil user-specific needs. Users can access XDeathDB for free at https://pcm2019.shinyapps.io/XDeathDB/ .


Subject(s)
Cell Death/physiology , Regulated Cell Death/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cluster Analysis , Databases, Factual , Humans , Necroptosis , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasms/physiopathology , Phagocytosis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Software
5.
Molecules ; 26(24)2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572567

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is the name of the disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection that occurred in 2019. The virus-host-specific interactions, molecular targets on host cell deaths, and the involved signaling are crucial issues, which become potential targets for treatment. Spike protein, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), cathepsin L-cysteine peptidase, transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1), open reading frame 7a (ORF7a), viral main protease (3C-like protease (3CLpro) or Mpro), RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) (Nsp12), non-structural protein 13 (Nsp13) helicase, and papain-like proteinase (PLpro) are molecules associated with SARS-CoV infection and propagation. SARS-CoV-2 can induce host cell death via five kinds of regulated cell death, i.e., apoptosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis, autophagy, and PANoptosis. The mechanisms of these cell deaths are well established and can be disrupted by synthetic small molecules or natural products. There are a variety of compounds proven to play roles in the cell death inhibition, such as pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) for apoptosis, necrostatin-1 for necroptosis, MCC950, a potent and specific inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome in pyroptosis, and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, which can mitigate the corresponding cell death pathways. However, NF-κB signaling is another critical anti-apoptotic or survival route mediated by SARS-CoV-2. Such signaling promotes viral survival, proliferation, and inflammation by inducing the expression of apoptosis inhibitors such as Bcl-2 and XIAP, as well as cytokines, e.g., TNF. As a result, tiny natural compounds functioning as proteasome inhibitors such as celastrol and curcumin can be used to modify NF-κB signaling, providing a responsible method for treating SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. The natural constituents that aid in inhibiting viral infection, progression, and amplification of coronaviruses are also emphasized, which are in the groups of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, diarylheptanoids, and anthraquinones. Natural constituents derived from medicinal herbs have anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties, as well as inhibitory effects, on the viral life cycle, including viral entry, replication, assembly, and release of COVID-19 virions. The phytochemicals contain a high potential for COVID-19 treatment. As a result, SARS-CoV-2-infected cell death processes and signaling might be of high efficacy for therapeutic targeting effects and yielding encouraging outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Death/drug effects , Drug Discovery/methods , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Furans/pharmacology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Indenes/pharmacology , Indoles/pharmacology , Necroptosis/drug effects , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Pyroptosis/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Viral Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors
6.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470800

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary epithelial cells are widely considered to be the first line of defence in the lung and are responsible for coordinating the innate immune response to injury and subsequent repair. Consequently, epithelial cells communicate with multiple cell types including immune cells and fibroblasts to promote acute inflammation and normal wound healing in response to damage. However, aberrant epithelial cell death and damage are hallmarks of pulmonary disease, with necrotic cell death and cellular senescence contributing to disease pathogenesis in numerous respiratory diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and coronavirus disease (COVID)-19. In this review, we summarise the literature that demonstrates that epithelial damage plays a pivotal role in the dysregulation of the immune response leading to tissue destruction and abnormal remodelling in several chronic diseases. Specifically, we highlight the role of epithelial-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and senescence in shaping the immune response and assess their contribution to inflammatory and fibrotic signalling pathways in the lung.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epithelium/immunology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/immunology , Lung/immunology , Alarmins , Animals , Cellular Senescence , Coculture Techniques , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Fibroblasts/cytology , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Fibrosis/metabolism , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Immunity , Inflammation/metabolism , Ligands , Necroptosis , Necrosis/pathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
8.
J Mol Biol ; 434(4): 167249, 2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415577

ABSTRACT

In the past decade, emerging viral outbreaks like SARS-CoV-2, Zika and Ebola have presented major challenges to the global health system. Viruses are unique pathogens in that they fully rely on the host cell to complete their lifecycle and potentiate disease. Therefore, programmed cell death (PCD), a key component of the host innate immune response, is an effective strategy for the host cell to curb viral spread. The most well-established PCD pathways, pyroptosis, apoptosis and necroptosis, can be activated in response to viruses. Recently, extensive crosstalk between PCD pathways has been identified, and there is evidence that molecules from all three PCD pathways can be activated during virus infection. These findings have led to the emergence of the concept of PANoptosis, defined as an inflammatory PCD pathway regulated by the PANoptosome complex with key features of pyroptosis, apoptosis, and/or necroptosis that cannot be accounted for by any of these three PCD pathways alone. While PCD is important to eliminate infected cells, many viruses are equipped to hijack host PCD pathways to benefit their own propagation and subvert host defense, and PCD can also lead to the production of inflammatory cytokines and inflammation. Therefore, PANoptosis induced by viral infection contributes to either host defense or viral pathogenesis in context-specific ways. In this review, we will discuss the multi-faceted roles of PCD pathways in controlling viral infections.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Virus Diseases/pathology , Animals , Humans , Models, Biological , Necroptosis , Pyroptosis
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 631821, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344260

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils or polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are key participants in the innate immune response for their ability to execute different effector functions. These cells express a vast array of membrane receptors that allow them to recognize and eliminate infectious agents effectively and respond appropriately to microenvironmental stimuli that regulate neutrophil functions, such as activation, migration, generation of reactive oxygen species, formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, and mediator secretion, among others. Currently, it has been realized that activated neutrophils can accomplish their effector functions and simultaneously activate mechanisms of cell death in response to different intracellular or extracellular factors. Although several studies have revealed similarities between the mechanisms of cell death of neutrophils and other cell types, neutrophils have distinctive properties, such as a high production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS), that are important for their effector function in infections and pathologies such as cancer, autoimmune diseases, and immunodeficiencies, influencing their cell death mechanisms. The present work offers a synthesis of the conditions and molecules implicated in the regulation and activation of the processes of neutrophil death: apoptosis, autophagy, pyroptosis, necroptosis, NETosis, and necrosis. This information allows to understand the duality encountered by PMNs upon activation. The effector functions are carried out to eliminate invading pathogens, but in several instances, these functions involve activation of signaling cascades that culminate in the death of the neutrophil. This process guarantees the correct elimination of pathogenic agents, damaged or senescent cells, and the timely resolution of the inflammation that is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in the organism. In addition, they alert the organism when the immunological system is being deregulated, promoting the activation of other cells of the immune system, such as B and T lymphocytes, which produce cytokines that potentiate the microbicide functions.


Subject(s)
Cell Death/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Apoptosis/immunology , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Autophagy/immunology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Free Radicals/metabolism , Humans , Necroptosis/immunology , Necrosis/immunology , Necrosis/metabolism , Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/metabolism , Phagocytosis/immunology , Pyroptosis/immunology , Receptors, Death Domain/metabolism
12.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285369

ABSTRACT

Cell death mechanisms are crucial to maintain an appropriate environment for the functionality of healthy cells. However, during viral infections, dysregulation of these processes can be present and can participate in the pathogenetic mechanisms of the disease. In this review, we describe some features of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and some immunopathogenic mechanisms characterizing the present coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Lymphopenia and monocytopenia are important contributors to COVID-19 immunopathogenesis. The fine mechanisms underlying these phenomena are still unknown, and several hypotheses have been raised, some of which assign a role to cell death as far as the reduction of specific types of immune cells is concerned. Thus, we discuss three major pathways such as apoptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis, and suggest that all of them likely occur simultaneously in COVID-19 patients. We describe that SARS-CoV-2 can have both a direct and an indirect role in inducing cell death. Indeed, on the one hand, cell death can be caused by the virus entry into cells, on the other, the excessive concentration of cytokines and chemokines, a process that is known as a COVID-19-related cytokine storm, exerts deleterious effects on circulating immune cells. However, the overall knowledge of these mechanisms is still scarce and further studies are needed to delineate new therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cell Death/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Apoptosis/physiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Necroptosis/physiology , Virus Internalization
13.
Pharmacol Res ; 163: 105297, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922113

ABSTRACT

Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) is a RIP1-targeted inhibitor of necroptosis, a form of programmed cell death discovered and investigated in recent years. There are already many studies demonstrating the essential role of necroptosis in various diseases, including inflammatory diseases, cardiovascular diseases and neurological diseases. However, the potential of Nec-1 in diseases has not received much attention. Nec-1 is able to inhibit necroptosis signaling pathway and thus ameliorate necroptotic cell death in disease development. Recent research findings indicate that Nec-1 could be applied in several types of diseases to alleviate disease development or improve prognosis. Moreover, we predict that Nec-1 has the potential to protect against the complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This review summarized the effect of Nec-1 in disease models and the underlying molecular mechanism, providing research evidence for its future application.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Indoles/pharmacology , Lung/drug effects , Necroptosis/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Imidazoles/metabolism , Indoles/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Signal Transduction
14.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 235, 2020 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841900

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can lead to respiratory illness and multi-organ failure in critically ill patients. Although the virus-induced lung damage and inflammatory cytokine storm are believed to be directly associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) clinical manifestations, the underlying mechanisms of virus-triggered inflammatory responses are currently unknown. Here we report that SARS-CoV-2 infection activates caspase-8 to trigger cell apoptosis and inflammatory cytokine processing in the lung epithelial cells. The processed inflammatory cytokines are released through the virus-induced necroptosis pathway. Virus-induced apoptosis, necroptosis, and inflammation activation were also observed in the lung sections of SARS-CoV-2-infected HFH4-hACE2 transgenic mouse model, a valid model for studying SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. Furthermore, analysis of the postmortem lung sections of fatal COVID-19 patients revealed not only apoptosis and necroptosis but also massive inflammatory cell infiltration, necrotic cell debris, and pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, typical of immune pathogenesis in the lung. The SARS-CoV-2 infection triggered a dual mode of cell death pathways and caspase-8-dependent inflammatory responses may lead to the lung damage in the COVID-19 patients. These discoveries might assist the development of therapeutic strategies to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Caspase 8/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Necroptosis/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/immunology , Animals , COVID-19 , Caspase 8/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Chemokine CCL5/genetics , Chemokine CCL5/immunology , Chemokine CXCL10/genetics , Chemokine CXCL10/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Interleukin-7/genetics , Interleukin-7/immunology , Interleukin-8/genetics , Interleukin-8/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
15.
J Biol Chem ; 295(41): 14040-14052, 2020 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704089

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses have caused several zoonotic infections in the past two decades, leading to significant morbidity and mortality globally. Balanced regulation of cell death and inflammatory immune responses is essential to promote protection against coronavirus infection; however, the underlying mechanisms that control these processes remain to be resolved. Here we demonstrate that infection with the murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) activated the NLRP3 inflammasome and inflammatory cell death in the form of PANoptosis. Deleting NLRP3 inflammasome components or the downstream cell death executioner gasdermin D (GSDMD) led to an initial reduction in cell death followed by a robust increase in the incidence of caspase-8- and receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 3 (RIPK3)-mediated inflammatory cell deathafter coronavirus infection. Additionally, loss of GSDMD promoted robust NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, the amounts of some cytokines released during coronavirus infection were significantly altered in the absence of GSDMD. Altogether, our findings show that inflammatory cell death, PANoptosis, is induced by coronavirus infection and that impaired NLRP3 inflammasome function or pyroptosis can lead to negative consequences for the host. These findings may have important implications for studies of coronavirus-induced disease.


Subject(s)
Caspase 8/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Pyroptosis , Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Macrophages/cytology , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Necroptosis , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/genetics , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/metabolism
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