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1.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 117(5): 798-801, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835980

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on immune-modifying therapies requires further investigation because previous studies indicate that patients on immune therapy might have decreased antibody concentrations. METHODS: We present the antireceptor binding domain antibody response over a period of 3 months in 217 patients with IBD who completed standard 2-dose SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine series. RESULTS: Almost all (98.6%) IBD vaccine recipients had a positive antireceptor binding domain antibody response at least 3 months after vaccination. Decreased antibody titers at 3 months were seen in a subset of patients on antitumor necrosis factor-alpha. Approximately 10% of the participants with high-titer antibodies at 1 month had a decrease to low-positive titers at 3 months, which was mostly observed in those on combination therapy and antitumor necrosis factor-alpha monotherapy. DISCUSSION: Larger longitudinal studies are required to define the response in IBD population and its clinical impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Necrosis , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
2.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(5): 1837-1840, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835160

ABSTRACT

A 49-year-old Indian male presented with rapidly progressive vision loss 1 day after receiving the second dose of BNT162b2 mRNA coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech, NY, USA). The eye had secondary angle closure glaucoma, bullous retinal detachment, and massive intraocular hemorrhage. Ultrasound showed an ill-defined subretinal mass with moderate internal reflectivity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed an enhancing heterogeneous subretinal mass. Histopathology showed a necrotic melanocytic lesion arising from the posterior edge of the ciliary body and choroid. Necrotic uveal melanoma was confirmed after expert histopathology opinion. Uveal melanomas can rarely present with tumor necrosis following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melanoma , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Melanoma/diagnosis , Melanoma/pathology , Middle Aged , Necrosis , RNA, Messenger , Uveal Neoplasms , Vaccination
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7664, 2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830108

ABSTRACT

Graphene and its derivative materials are manufactured by numerous companies and research laboratories, during which processes they can come into contact with their handlers' physiological barriers-for instance, their respiratory system. Despite their potential toxicity, these materials have even been used in face masks to prevent COVID-19 transmission. The increasingly widespread use of these materials requires the design and implementation of appropriate, versatile, and accurate toxicological screening methods to guarantee their safety. Murine models are adequate, though limited when exploring different doses and lengths of exposure-as this increases the number of animals required, contrary to the Three R's principle in animal experimentation. This article proposes an in vitro model using primary, non-transformed normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells as an alternative to the most widely used model to date, the human lung tumor cell line A549. The model has been tested with three graphene derivatives-graphene oxide (GO), few-layer graphene (FLG), and small FLG (sFLG). We observed a cytotoxic effect (necrosis and apoptosis) at early (6- and 24-h) exposures, which intensified after seven days of contact between cells and the graphene-related materials (GRMs)-with cell death reaching 90% after a 5 µg/mL dose. A549 cells are more resistant to necrosis and apoptosis, yielding values less than half of NHBE cells at low concentrations of GRMs (between 0.05 and 5 µg/mL). Indeed, GRM-induced cell death in NHBE cells is comparable to that induced by toxic compounds such as diesel exhaust particles on the same cell line. We propose NHBE as a suitable model to test GRM-induced toxicity, allowing refinement of the dose concentrations and exposure timings for better-designed in vivo mouse assays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Graphite , Animals , Graphite/toxicity , Humans , Lung , Mice , Necrosis , Vehicle Emissions/toxicity
4.
JAMA Dermatol ; 158(5): 579-580, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787597
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780025

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to verify the role of laminar necrosis (LN) in the diagnosis of hypoxic damage of the placenta. This is a retrospective case-control study in which 50 cases with laminar necrosis were compared with 100 gestational age-matched controls without laminar necrosis in a 1:2 ratio. The parameters analyzed were: the presence of other placental lesions, obstetric characteristics and neonatal outcome. For each of the 50 cases, the area affected by the lesion was detected, and the lesions were classified into three groups based on the morphology and time of onset of the lesion in order to understand whether these characteristics of the lesion had a clinical-pathology. The results showed that including the search for LN among placental lesions generally examined is useful to guide the pathologist in the diagnosis of placental dysfunction of hypoxic origin.


Subject(s)
Placenta Diseases , Placenta , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Hypoxia , Infant, Newborn , Necrosis/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Retrospective Studies
6.
Kidney360 ; 2(4): 639-652, 2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776889

ABSTRACT

Background: Kidney damage has been reported in patients with COVID-19. Despite numerous reports about COVID-19-associated nephropathy, the factual presence of the SARS-CoV-2 in the renal parenchyma remains controversial. Methods: We consecutively performed 16 immediate (≤3 hours) postmortem renal biopsies in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Kidney samples from five patients who died from sepsis not related to COVID-19 were used as controls. Samples were methodically evaluated by three pathologists. Virus detection in the renal parenchyma was performed in all samples by bulk RNA RT-PCR (E and N1/N2 genes), immunostaining (2019-nCOV N-Protein), fluorescence in situ hybridization (nCoV2019-S), and electron microscopy. Results: The mean age of our COVID-19 cohort was 68.2±12.8 years, most of whom were male (69%). Proteinuria was observed in 53% of patients, whereas AKI occurred in 60% of patients. Acute tubular necrosis of variable severity was found in all patients, with no tubular or interstitial inflammation. There was no difference in acute tubular necrosis severity between the patients with COVID-19 versus controls. Congestion in glomerular and peritubular capillaries was respectively observed in 56% and 88% of patients with COVID-19, compared with 20% of controls, with no evidence of thrombi. The 2019-nCOV N-Protein was detected in proximal tubules and at the basolateral pole of scattered cells of the distal tubules in nine out of 16 patients. In situ hybridization confirmed these findings in six out of 16 patients. RT-PCR of kidney total RNA detected SARS-CoV-2 E and N1/N2 genes in one patient. Electron microscopy did not show typical viral inclusions. Conclusions: Our immediate postmortem kidney samples from patients with COVID-19 highlight a congestive pattern of AKI, with no significant glomerular or interstitial inflammation. Immunostaining and in situ hybridization suggest SARS-CoV-2 is present in various segments of the nephron.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Capillaries/pathology , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Kidney Glomerulus/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Necrosis , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Crit Care ; 68: 38-41, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729887

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe the kidney histopathology of patients with S-AKI and correlate the histological findings with AKI severity, presence of septic shock, and the degree of multiple organic dysfunction (MOD) using the SOFA score. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, observational, and analytical study of a cohort of critically ill patients with S-AKI who died from sepsis at the "Hospital Español" intensive care unit (ICU). Kidney necropsies were performed within 2 h after death. RESULTS: We considered twenty (20) patients, with all of them exhibiting S-AKI stage 3 at the same time. In renal histopathology analysis, nonspecific tubulointerstitial (TI) lesions were found in almost all patients (95%). The more frequently found nonspecific TI lesions involved leukocyte infiltration (85%). Necrotic TI lesions were found in 6 patients (30%), and necrotic tubular cell casts were the most frequent lesions (50% of patients). It was not possible to demonstrate an association between the presence of necrotic TI lesions and factors such as the APACHE II score, the global SOFA score, ICU stays, AKI length and renal replacement therapy (RRT). CONCLUSIONS: The main histopathological findings in kidney necropsies in patients with S-AKI KDIGO 3, showed nonspecific TI lesions, and TI necrosis was only observed in 30% of the cases; therefore, S-AKI cannot be considered to be synonymous with acute tubular necrosis (ATN).


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Critical Illness , APACHE , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Kidney , Male , Necrosis , Prospective Studies
8.
Rehabilitation (Stuttg) ; 61(1): 14-16, 2022 02.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721680
9.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(2)2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673377

ABSTRACT

Oxaliplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used in a variety of malignancies such as colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer. It is a platinum derivative that results in direct cell cytotoxicity with resultant cell death. The most common side effects often noted are neurotoxicity, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, hepatotoxicity and myelosuppression. Oxaliplatin induced digital ischaemia and necrosis is a rare side effect that was observed in our patient. In general, digital ischaemia is a rare vascular disorder that is often associated with autoimmune disease. A patient with digital ischaemia due to oxaliplatin will be described in this case report.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Colorectal Neoplasms , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Humans , Ischemia/chemically induced , Necrosis/chemically induced , Organoplatinum Compounds/adverse effects , Oxaliplatin/adverse effects
10.
Placenta ; 117: 187-193, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550030

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence supports the - rare - occurrence of vertical transplacental SARS-CoV-2 transmission. We previously determined that placental expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, and associated viral cell entry regulators is upregulated by hypoxia. In the present study, we utilized a clinically relevant model of SARS-CoV-2-associated chronic histiocytic intervillositis/massive perivillous fibrin deposition (CHIV/MPFVD) to test the hypothesis that placental hypoxia may facilitate placental SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We performed a comparative immunohistochemical and/or RNAscope in-situ hybridization analysis of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX, hypoxia marker), ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 expression in free-floating versus fibrin-encased chorionic villi in a 20-weeks' gestation placenta with SARS-CoV-2-associated CHIV/MPVFD. RESULTS: The levels of CAIX and ACE2 immunoreactivity were significantly higher in trophoblastic cells of fibrin-encased villi than in those of free-floating villi, consistent with hypoxia-induced ACE2 upregulation. SARS-CoV-2 showed a similar preferential localization to trophoblastic cells of fibrin-encased villi. DISCUSSION: The localization of SARS-CoV-2 to hypoxic, fibrin-encased villi in this placenta with CHIV/MPVFD suggests placental infection and, therefore, transplacental SARS-CoV-2 transmission may be promoted by hypoxic conditions, mediated by ACE2 and similar hypoxia-sensitive viral cell entry mechanisms. Understanding of a causative link between placental hypoxia and SARS-CoV-2 transmittability may potentially lead to the development of alternative strategies for prevention of intrauterine COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fibrin/analysis , Hypoxia/virology , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/analysis , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Carbonic Anhydrase IX/analysis , Chorionic Villi/enzymology , Chorionic Villi/virology , Female , Gestational Age , Histiocytes/pathology , Humans , Hypoxia/pathology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Necrosis/virology , Placenta/chemistry , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Stillbirth , Trophoblasts/enzymology , Trophoblasts/virology
11.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 33(6): 544-553, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541576

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Necrotizing myopathy is a broad term. It includes patients with the recently described immune-mediated necrotizing myopathies (IMNM) who have specific antibodies, such as anti-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase or anti-signal recognition particle, seronegative phenotypes that can be associated with cancer, and other types of myositis and connective tissue diseases involving necrotic muscle fibers as a characteristic pathologic feature. Necrotizing myopathies that are not immune-mediated, such as those caused by drugs, dystrophies, infections, or even hypothyroidism are also included. The purpose of this review is to address the differential diagnosis of these disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: New IMNM have been described over the last few years, some of them related with checkpoint inhibitors, drugs that are being increasingly used in cancer treatment. Necrotizing myopathy has also been reported in association with specific phenotypes and autoantibodies (e.g. anti-Mi2 dermatomyositis, antisynthetase syndrome, and myositis associated with antimitochondrial antibodies). Rarer cases associated with graft-versus-host disease and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection are also emerging. SUMMARY: Differentiation between patients with IMNM and those without the superimposed autoimmune phenomena helps clinicians determine the best individualized approach to use and the appropriate immunosuppressive therapy, whenever needed.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Muscular Diseases , Myositis , Autoantibodies , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscular Diseases/diagnosis , Myositis/diagnosis , Necrosis , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(1): 108-111, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474738

ABSTRACT

Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is considered a relatively rare thrombotic complication in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Most reported cases of PVT develop within 2 weeks from COVID-19 onset. We report a fatal case of extensive gastrointestinal necrosis due to portal and mesenteric vein thrombosis approximately 6 weeks after the onset of critical COVID-19. Excessive elevation of his plasma D-dimer level had continued for weeks during the hospitalization contrary with improvement of respiratory failure. Thrombotic complication should be cautiously paid attention even in the post-acute phase of COVID-19, especially in patients with persistent elevation of plasma D-dimer level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Mesenteric Veins , Necrosis , Portal Vein/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470800

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary epithelial cells are widely considered to be the first line of defence in the lung and are responsible for coordinating the innate immune response to injury and subsequent repair. Consequently, epithelial cells communicate with multiple cell types including immune cells and fibroblasts to promote acute inflammation and normal wound healing in response to damage. However, aberrant epithelial cell death and damage are hallmarks of pulmonary disease, with necrotic cell death and cellular senescence contributing to disease pathogenesis in numerous respiratory diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and coronavirus disease (COVID)-19. In this review, we summarise the literature that demonstrates that epithelial damage plays a pivotal role in the dysregulation of the immune response leading to tissue destruction and abnormal remodelling in several chronic diseases. Specifically, we highlight the role of epithelial-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and senescence in shaping the immune response and assess their contribution to inflammatory and fibrotic signalling pathways in the lung.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epithelium/immunology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/immunology , Lung/immunology , Alarmins , Animals , Cellular Senescence , Coculture Techniques , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Fibroblasts/cytology , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Fibrosis/metabolism , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Immunity , Inflammation/metabolism , Ligands , Necroptosis , Necrosis/pathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
16.
Burns ; 47(7): 1608-1620, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454053

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Necrotising soft tissue infections (NSTI) are destructive and often life-threatening infections of the skin and soft tissue, necessitating prompt recognition and aggressive medical and surgical treatment. After debridement, the aim of surgical closure and reconstruction is to minimize disability and optimize appearance. Although skin grafting may fulfil this role, techniques higher on the reconstructive ladder, including local, regional and free flaps, are sometimes undertaken. This systematic review sought to determine the circumstances when this is true, which flaps were most commonly employed, and for which anatomical areas. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted utilising electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library). Full text studies of flaps used for the management of NSTI's (including Necrotising Fasciitis and Fournier Gangrene) were included. The web-based program 'Covidence' facilitated storage of references and data management. Data obtained in the search included reference details (journal, date and title), the study design, the purpose of the study, the study findings, number of patients with NSTI included, the anatomical areas of NSTI involved, the types of flaps used, and the complication rate. RESULTS: After screening 4555 references, 501 full text manuscripts were assessed for eligibility after duplicates and irrelevant studies were excluded. 230 full text manuscripts discussed the use of 888 flap closures in the context of NSTI in 733 patients; the majority of these were case series published in the last 20 years in a large variety of journals. Reconstruction of the perineum following Fournier's gangrene accounted for the majority of the reported flaps (58.6%). Free flaps were used infrequently (8%), whereas loco-regional muscle flaps (18%) and loco-regional fasciocutaneous flaps (71%) were employed more often. The reported rate of partial or complete flap loss was 3.3%. CONCLUSION: Complex skin and soft tissue defects from NSTIs, not amenable to skin grafting, can be more effectively and durably covered using a spectrum of flaps. This systematic review highlights the important contribution that the plastic surgeon makes as an integral member of multidisciplinary teams managing these patients.


Subject(s)
Burns , Fournier Gangrene , Free Tissue Flaps , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Soft Tissue Infections , Debridement , Fasciitis, Necrotizing/surgery , Fournier Gangrene/surgery , Free Tissue Flaps/transplantation , Humans , Necrosis , Soft Tissue Infections/surgery
17.
Med Hypotheses ; 156: 110684, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415656

ABSTRACT

Some of the COVID-19 patients present with ischemic lesions of their finger and toes. Standard anticoagulant therapy is usually unsuccessful for the treatment of this unique presentation of COVID-19. In this review current evidence is presented, which supports the hypothesis that these necrotic lesions are primarily related to the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps is blood vessels. Also, currently available and potential pharmacological methods of the management of this unique thrombotic complication are discussed. Drugs that possibly could be used in COVID-19 patients suffering from acute ischemia of distal parts of the extremities particularly comprise DNase I and DNase1L3, which could directly dissolve these extracellular webs that are mostly composed of DNA. However, at the moment, none of these enzymes are registered for an intravascular administration in humans. Lactoferrin and dipyridamole are other pharmaceutical agents that could potentially be used for the treatment of neutrophil extracellular traps-evoked digital ischemia. These agents exhibit prophylactic activity against excessive formation of these extracellular structures. Such an experimental treatment should probably be accompanied by standard antithrombotic management with heparin. Open-label and then randomized trials are needed to confirm feasibility, safety and efficacy of the above-suggested management of critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Thrombosis , Humans , Necrosis , Neutrophils , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/drug therapy
18.
Cornea ; 40(12): 1629-1632, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393487

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report an unusual case of bilateral immune-mediated corneal melting and necrosis after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Covishield) vaccination. METHODS: This is a case report and literature review. RESULTS: A 48-year-old man presented to the ophthalmic emergency department with progressive bilateral corneal melting 5 weeks after receiving the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Covishield) vaccine. Systemic complaints of fever, diarrhea, and vomiting were noted in the first 2 weeks, which subsided before the onset of ocular symptoms at day 21 of vaccine administration. The patient could only perceive light bilaterally and demonstrated features of bilateral keratolysis with choroidal detachment on ultrasonography. The microbiological scraping specimen did not reveal growth of any microorganism. Tectonic penetrating keratoplasty was performed, and the host corneal tissue was sent for histopathology, bacterial culture, fungal culture, polymerase chain reaction for herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, and SARS-CoV-2. Microbial culture was sterile, and viral polymerase chain reaction reports were negative. Histopathological examination revealed dense inflammatory cell infiltration. Detailed systemic workup revealed no underlying systemic or autoimmune pathology. CONCLUSIONS: Immune-mediated keratolysis after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Covishield) vaccination is a rare entity, and we believe that this is the first report of a temporal association between a serious ocular adverse event after a single dose of any SARS-CoV-19 vaccine. It may be included as a possible adverse event associated with this vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , Cornea/pathology , Corneal Diseases/etiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/immunology , Immunization/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Corneal Diseases/surgery , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Keratoplasty, Penetrating , Male , Middle Aged , Necrosis , Vaccination/adverse effects
19.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389462

ABSTRACT

Zebrafish has been a reliable model system for studying human viral pathologies. SARS-CoV-2 viral infection has become a global chaos, affecting millions of people. There is an urgent need to contain the pandemic and develop reliable therapies. We report the use of a humanized zebrafish model, xeno-transplanted with human lung epithelial cells, A549, for studying the protective effects of a tri-herbal medicine Coronil. At human relevant doses of 12 and 58 µg/kg, Coronil inhibited SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, induced humanized zebrafish mortality, and rescued from behavioral fever. Morphological and cellular abnormalities along with granulocyte and macrophage accumulation in the swim bladder were restored to normal. Skin hemorrhage, renal cell degeneration, and necrosis were also significantly attenuated by Coronil treatment. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analysis identified ursolic acid, betulinic acid, withanone, withaferine A, withanoside IV-V, cordifolioside A, magnoflorine, rosmarinic acid, and palmatine as phyto-metabolites present in Coronil. In A549 cells, Coronil attenuated the IL-1ß induced IL-6 and TNF-α cytokine secretions, and decreased TNF-α induced NF-κB/AP-1 transcriptional activity. Taken together, we show the disease modifying immunomodulatory properties of Coronil, at human equivalent doses, in rescuing the pathological features induced by the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, suggesting its potential use in SARS-CoV-2 infectivity.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Air Sacs/drug effects , Air Sacs/virology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/etiology , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Kidney/drug effects , Necrosis/pathology , Necrosis/prevention & control , Pandemics , Phytotherapy , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiratory Mucosa/transplantation , Transcriptional Activation/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Zebrafish
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