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1.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 23(4): 103, 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779704

ABSTRACT

Vaccination has produced a great improvement to the global health by decreasing/eradicating many infectious diseases responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Thanks to vaccines, many infections affecting childhood have been greatly decreased or even eradicated (smallpox, measles, and polio). That is why great efforts are made to achieve mass vaccination against COVID-19. However, developed vaccines face many challenges with regard to their safety and stability. Moreover, needle phobia could prevent a significant proportion of the population from receiving vaccines. In this context, microneedles (MNs) could potentially present a solution to address these challenges. MNs represent single dose administration systems that do not need reconstitution or cold-chain storage. Being self-administered, pain-free, and capable of producing superior immunogenicity makes them a more attractive alternative. This review explores microneedles' types, safety, and efficacy in vaccine delivery. Preclinical and clinical studies for microneedle-based vaccines are discussed and patent examples are included.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Administration, Cutaneous , Child , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Needles , Technology , Vaccination
2.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 42(3): 281-6, 2022 Mar 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737395

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of thumb-tack needles based on "Biaoben acupoint compatibility" on sequela symptoms, mental state and pulmonary ventilation function in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during recovery period. METHODS: Fifty cases of COVID-19 during recovery period were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 25 cases in each group. The patients in the observation group were treated with thumb-tack needles at Guanyuan (CV 4), Zusanli (ST 36) and Taiyuan (LU 9). The patients in the control group were treated with sham thumb-tack needles at identical acupoints as the observation group. The treatment in the two groups was given once a day, 7-day treatment was taken as a course of treatment, and totally two courses of treatment were given. The TCM symptom score, Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) score, Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) score, pulmonary function (forced vital capacity [FVC], forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1], peak expiratory flow [PEF]), the severity of pulmonary ventilation dysfunction and pulmonary imaging changes in the two groups were compared before and after treatment. RESULTS: Compared before treatment, the total scores and each item scores of TCM symptom scale, HAMA scores and HAMD scores in the two groups were reduced after treatment (P<0.05). Except for the symptom scores of dry throat and dry stool, the total score and each item score of TCM symptom scale, HAMA score and HAMD score in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). Compared before treatment, FVC, FEV1 and PEF in the two groups were increased after treatment (P<0.05), and those in the observation group were higher than the control group (P<0.05). The severity of pulmonary ventilation dysfunction in the two groups was reduced after treatment (P<0.05), and the severity in the observation group was better than that in the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the lung shadow area in the two groups was decreased (P<0.05), and that in the observation group was smaller than the control group (P<0.05). The improvement of imaging change in the observation group was better than that in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The thumb-tack needles based on "Biaoben acupoint compatibility" could significantly reduce the sequela symptoms, anxiety and depression in patients with COVID-19 during recovery stage, and improve the pulmonary ventilation function.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , COVID-19 , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Depression/etiology , Humans , Needles , Respiratory Function Tests , Thumb
4.
Pharm Dev Technol ; 27(1): 83-94, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528078

ABSTRACT

Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, many have seriously worried that the plus burden of seasonal influenza that might create a destructive scenario, resulting in overwhelmed healthcare capacities and onwards loss of life. Many efforts to develop a safe and efficacious vaccine to prevent infection by coronavirus and influenza, highlight the importance of vaccination to combat infectious pathogens. While vaccines are traditionally given as injections into the muscle, microneedle (MN) patches designed to precisely deliver cargos into the cutaneous microenvironment, rich in immune cells, provide a noninvasive and self-applicable vaccination approach, reducing overall costs and improving access to vaccines in places with limited supply. The current review aimed to highlight advances in research on the development of MNs-mediated cutaneous vaccine delivery. Concluding remarks and challenges on MNs-based skin immunization are also provided to contribute to the rational development of safe and effective MN-delivered vaccines against these emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Orthomyxoviridae , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Needles , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/methods
5.
Theranostics ; 11(20): 10012-10029, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512995

ABSTRACT

Various living organisms have proven to influence human health significantly, either in a commensal or pathogenic manner. Harnessing the creatures may remarkably improve human healthcare and cure the intractable illness that is challenged using traditional drugs or surgical approaches. However, issues including limited biocompatibility, poor biosafety, inconvenience for personal handling, and low patient compliance greatly hinder the biomedical and clinical applications of living organisms when adopting them for disease treatment. Microneedle arrays (MNAs), emerging as a promising candidate of biomedical devices with the functional diversity and minimal invasion, have exhibited great potential in the treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases, which is expected to improve organism-based therapies. In this review, we systemically summarize the technologies employed for the integration of MNAs with specific living organisms including diverse viruses, bacteria, mammal cells and so on. Moreover, their applications such as vaccination, anti-infection, tumor therapy and tissue repairing are well illustrated. Challenges faced by current strategies, and the perspectives of integrating more living organisms, adopting smarter materials, and developing more advanced technologies in MNAs for future personalized and point-of-care medicine, are also discussed. It is believed that the combination of living organisms with functional MNAs would hold great promise in the near future due to the advantages of both biological and artificial species.


Subject(s)
Biological Therapy/methods , Drug Delivery Systems/instrumentation , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Administration, Cutaneous , Bacteria , Biological Therapy/trends , Cells , Immunotherapy/methods , Immunotherapy/trends , Needles , Skin/drug effects , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/trends , Viruses
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 732298, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506693

ABSTRACT

Immune modulating therapies and vaccines are in high demand, not least to the recent global spread of SARS-CoV2. To achieve efficient activation of the immune system, professional antigen presenting cells have proven to be key coordinators of such responses. Especially targeted approaches, actively directing antigens to specialized dendritic cells, promise to be more effective and accompanied by reduced payload due to less off-target effects. Although antibody and glycan-based targeting of receptors on dendritic cells have been employed, these are often expensive and time-consuming to manufacture or lack sufficient specificity. Thus, we applied a small-molecule ligand that specifically binds Langerin, a hallmark receptor on Langerhans cells, conjugated to a model protein antigen. Via microneedle injection, this construct was intradermally administered into intact human skin explants, selectively loading Langerhans cells in the epidermis. The ligand-mediated cellular uptake outpaces protein degradation resulting in intact antigen delivery. Due to the pivotal role of Langerhans cells in induction of immune responses, this approach of antigen-targeting of tissue-resident immune cells offers a novel way to deliver highly effective vaccines with minimally invasive administration.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens/administration & dosage , Green Fluorescent Proteins/administration & dosage , Langerhans Cells/metabolism , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Mannose-Binding Lectins/metabolism , Animals , Antigens/immunology , Antigens/metabolism , COS Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Injections, Intradermal , Langerhans Cells/immunology , Ligands , Miniaturization , Nanomedicine , Needles , Protein Binding , Protein Transport , Proteolysis , THP-1 Cells , Vaccines, Subunit/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/metabolism
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(45)2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475573

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other pathogens with pandemic potential requires safe, protective, inexpensive, and easily accessible vaccines that can be developed and manufactured rapidly at a large scale. DNA vaccines can achieve these criteria, but induction of strong immune responses has often required bulky, expensive electroporation devices. Here, we report an ultra-low-cost (<1 USD), handheld (<50 g) electroporation system utilizing a microneedle electrode array ("ePatch") for DNA vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The low cost and small size are achieved by combining a thumb-operated piezoelectric pulser derived from a common household stove lighter that emits microsecond, bipolar, oscillatory electric pulses and a microneedle electrode array that targets delivery of high electric field strength pulses to the skin's epidermis. Antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 induced by this electroporation system in mice were strong and enabled at least 10-fold dose sparing compared to conventional intramuscular or intradermal injection of the DNA vaccine. Vaccination was well tolerated with mild, transient effects on the skin. This ePatch system is easily portable, without any battery or other power source supply, offering an attractive, inexpensive approach for rapid and accessible DNA vaccination to combat COVID-19, as well as other epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Electroporation/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Costs and Cost Analysis , Electroporation/economics , Electroporation/methods , Equipment Design , Female , Genes, Reporter , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microelectrodes , Needles , Pandemics/prevention & control , Proof of Concept Study , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Skin/immunology , Skin/metabolism , Transfection , Vaccination/economics , Vaccination/instrumentation , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/immunology
8.
Perfusion ; 36(8): 798-802, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455838

ABSTRACT

AIM: Patients with cardiogenic shock or ARDS, for example, in COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2, may require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). An ECLS/ECMO model simulating challenging vascular anatomy is desirable for cannula insertion training purposes. We assessed the ability of various 3D-printable materials to mimic the penetration properties of human tissue by using porcine aortae. METHODS: A test bench for needle penetration and piercing in sampled porcine aorta and preselected 3D-printable polymers was assembled. The 3D-printable materials had Shore A hardness of 10, 20, and 50. 17G Vygon 1.0 × 1.4 mm × 70 mm needles were used for penetration tests. RESULTS: For the porcine tissue and Shore A 10, Shore A 20, and Shore A 50 polymers, penetration forces of 0.9036 N, 0.9725 N, 1.0386 N, and 1.254 N were needed, respectively. For piercing through the porcine tissue and Shore A 10, Shore A 20, and Shore A 50 polymers, forces of 0.8399 N, 1.244 N, 1.475 N, and 1.482 N were needed, respectively. ANOVA showed different variances among the groups, and pairwise two-tailed t-tests showed significantly different needle penetration and piercing forces, except for penetration of Shore A 10 and 20 polymers (p = 0.234 and p = 0.0857). Significantly higher forces were required for all other materials. CONCLUSION: Shore A 10 and 20 polymers have similar needle penetration properties compared to the porcine tissue. Significantly more force is needed to pierce through the material fully. The most similar tested material to porcine aorta for needle penetration and piercing in ECMO-implantation is the silicon Shore A 10 polymer. This silicon could be a 3D-printable material in surgical training for ECMO-implantation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Animals , Aorta , Humans , Needles , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic , Swine
9.
Vaccine ; 39(38): 5410-5421, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351060

ABSTRACT

Traditional bolus vaccine administration leads to rapid clearance of vaccine from lymphoid tissue. However, there is increasing evidence suggesting that the kinetics of antigen delivery can impact immune responses to vaccines, particularly when tailored to mimic natural infections. Here, we present the specific enhancements sustained release immunization confers to seasonal influenza vaccine, including the magnitude, durability, and breadth of humoral responses. To achieve sustained vaccine delivery kinetics, we have developed a microneedle array patch (MIMIX), with silk fibroin-formulated vaccine tips designed to embed in the dermis after a short application to the skin and release antigen over 1-2 weeks, mimicking the time course of a natural influenza infection. In a preclinical murine model, a single influenza vaccine administration via MIMIX led to faster seroconversion, response-equivalence to prime-boost bolus immunization, higher HAI titers against drifted influenza strains, and improved protective efficacy upon lethal influenza challenge when compared with intramuscular injection. These results highlight infection mimicry, achieved through sustained release silk microneedles, as a powerful approach to improve existing seasonal influenza vaccines, while also suggesting the broader potential of this platform technology to enable more efficacious next-generation vaccines and vaccine combinations.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Animals , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Mice , Needles , Silk
10.
ACS Nano ; 15(9): 14347-14359, 2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392778

ABSTRACT

The successful control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is not only relying on the development of vaccines, but also depending on the storage, transportation, and administration of vaccines. Ideally, nucleic acid vaccine should be directly delivered to proper immune cells or tissue (such as lymph nodes). However, current developed vaccines are normally treated through intramuscular injection, where immune cells do not normally reside. Meanwhile, current nucleic acid vaccines must be stored in a frozen state that may hinder their application in developing countries. Here, we report a separable microneedle (SMN) patch to deliver polymer encapsulated spike (or nucleocapsid) protein encoding DNA vaccines and immune adjuvant for efficient immunization. Compared with intramuscular injection, SMN patch can deliver nanovaccines into intradermal for inducing potent and durable adaptive immunity. IFN-γ+CD4/8+ and IL-2+CD4/8+ T cells or virus specific IgG are significantly increased after vaccination. Moreover, in vivo results show the SMN patches can be stored at room temperature for at least 30 days without decreases in immune responses. These features of nanovaccines-laden SMN patch are important for developing advanced COVID-19 vaccines with global accessibility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , DNA , Humans , Needles , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
11.
Int J Pharm ; 608: 121053, 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373073

ABSTRACT

As global vaccine production capacity is limited, every optimization strategy must be explored to rapidly increase the number of people vaccinated. The objective of this study is to determine which medical devices allow the extraction of the maximum number of doses from different vaccine vials (Pfizer-BioNTech, AstraZeneca, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson vaccines) by analyzing all the factors involved in the preparation of the injected doses. By measuring the dead-volume of 32 syringe-needle combinations, we show that fixed-needle syringe with a dead-volume of less than 5 µL can extract up to 7 doses from Pfizer vials, 13 doses from AstraZeneca vials, 12 doses from Moderna vials and 6 doses from Johnson & Johnson vials. We found that the syringe accuracy is important, and can compromise the chances of extracting additional doses when withdrawing too large a volume. For Pfizer vaccine, particular attention must be paid to the choice of dilution syringe, which may compromise the extraction of the 7th dose. The withdrawal of extra doses from vaccine vials was not operator-dependent. In this unprecedented health context, the medical device considerations presented here could help to optimize every COVID-19 vaccine vial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Syringes , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Needles , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 179: 113919, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347010

ABSTRACT

Vaccine administration by subcutaneous or intramuscular injection is the most commonly prescribed route for inoculation, however, it is often associated with some deficiencies such as low compliance, high professionalism, and risk of infection. Therefore, the application of microneedles for vaccine delivery has gained widespread interests in the past few years due to its high compliance, minimal invasiveness, and convenience. This review focuses on recent advances in the development and application of microneedles for vaccination based on different delivery strategies, and introduces the current status of microneedle-mediated vaccination in clinical translation. The prospects for its application including opportunities and challenges are further discussed.


Subject(s)
Needles , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Nanoparticles , Skin/metabolism
14.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211007393, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169942

ABSTRACT

As mass vaccination is underway to combat the COVID-19 pandemic and achieve herd immunity, healthcare professionals need to recognize the fear and phobia of needles among their patients. Approximately 11.5 to 66 million U.S. adults may suffer from this condition. This population often avoids seeking medical care including vaccinations. The exact number of people suffering from this phobia is unknown, and the potential years of life lost in the American health care system cannot be estimated accurately. The resistance to vaccinations among this population may delay achieving herd immunity to end this current pandemic. An overview of needle phobia, vaccinations, and current treatments are explored. The use of telemedicine could prove critical for reaching this population as well as those who are hesitant about vaccinations. Providing education to healthcare providers to identify and manage these patients during the pandemic is necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Fear , Needles , Pandemics , Phobic Disorders , Vaccination/psychology , Adult , Anxiety , Humans , Implosive Therapy , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22179, 2020 Sep 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760050

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assessing the effectiveness and safety of plum-blossom needle for (COVID-19) related headache is the main purpose of this systematic review protocol. METHODS: We will search the following sources for the identification of trials: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (VIP), and the Wanfang Database. The searches were limited to articles published in 2020, but no language restrictions were imposed. Only include randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with or without blinding, and participant or observer reported outcomes, will be included.The primary outcome is the time and rate of appearance of headache induced by COVID-19. The secondary outcome is the length of hospital stay. Two independent reviewers will conduct the study selection, data extraction and assessment. Review Manager Software V.5.3 will be used for the assessment of risk of bias and data synthesis. RESULTS: The results will provide a high-quality synthesis of current evidence for researchers in this subject area. CONCLUSION: The conclusion of our study will provide an evidence to judge whether plum-blossom needle is effective and safe for COVID-19-related headache. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol will not evaluate individual patient information or affect patient rights and therefore does not require ethical approval. Results from this review will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and conference reports. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020199508.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Coronavirus Infections , Headache , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Prunus domestica , Acupuncture Therapy/instrumentation , Acupuncture Therapy/methods , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Flowers , Headache/etiology , Headache/therapy , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Needles , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Treatment Outcome
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