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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 118: 183-193, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838865

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Molecular testing for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) is costly. Therefore, we appraised the evidence regarding pooling samples from multiple individuals to test for CT/NG. METHODS: In this systematic review, we searched 5 databases (2000-2021). Studies were included if they contained primary data describing pooled testing. We calculated the pooled sensitivities and specificities for CT and NG using a bivariate mixed-effects logistic regression model. RESULTS: We included 22 studies: most were conducted in high-income countries (81.8%, 18 of 22), among women (73.3%, 17 of 22), and pooled urine samples (63.6%, 14 of 22). Eighteen studies provided 25 estimates for the meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy, with data from 6,913 pooled specimens. The pooled sensitivity for CT was 98.4% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 96.8-99.2%, I2=77.5, p<0.001), and pooled specificity was 99.9% (95% CI: 99.6-100.0%, I2=62.6, p<0.001). Only 2 studies reported pooled testing for NG, and both reported similarly high sensitivity and specificity as for CT. Sixteen studies provided data on the cost of pooling, reporting cost-savings ranging from 39%-90%. CONCLUSIONS: Pooled testing from multiple individuals for CT is highly sensitive and specific compared with individual testing. This approach has the potential to reduce the cost of screening in populations for which single anatomic site screening is recommended.


Subject(s)
Chlamydia Infections , Gonorrhea , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia trachomatis , Female , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
Sex Transm Dis ; 48(12): 939-944, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reported cases of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections are increasing among Canadian men. Estimates of community-based CT/NG prevalence are lacking among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM). METHODS: Respondent driven sampling was used to recruit GBM in Montréal, Canada between February 2017 and June 2018. Specimens provided from urogenital, rectal, and pharyngeal sites were analyzed using nucleic acid amplification test to detect CT/NG. Prevalence estimates of CT/NG, overall and by anatomical site were calculated. All estimates are respondent-driven sampling-adjusted. RESULTS: Among 1177 GBM, the prevalence of rectal, urogenital, pharyngeal and overall were respectively 2.4%, 0.4%, 0.4%, and 2.8% for CT infections, and 3.1%, 0.4%, 3.5%, and 5.6% for NG infections. If testing had been limited to the urogenital site, 80% and 94% of CT and NG infections, respectively, would have been missed. CONCLUSIONS: This community-based study among GBM shows that the CT prevalence was about half of that observed for NG. A large part of CT/NG infections involves only the extragenital sites, highlighting the need for systematic multisite screening regardless of symptoms. In the mist of the COVID-19 pandemic and the limited CT/NG screening capacity due to test kits shortage, it might be considered to prioritize rectal and pharyngeal CT/NG testing over urogenital testing in asymptomatic GBM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlamydia Infections , Gonorrhea , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Canada/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Chlamydia trachomatis/genetics , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genetics , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(1)2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607862

ABSTRACT

We describe an unusual case of a male patient presenting with penile and testicular swelling following an unprotected and traumatic sexual encounter. It was suspected that an isolated penile injury occurred during intercourse; however, ultrasound imaging identified an intact tunical layer and right-sided epididymo-orchitis. Following screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), he was discharged with antibiotics and advice to attend the Sexual Health Centre for contact tracing. He represented with a periurethral abscess and an antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) strain of Neisseria gonorrhoea was identified. Appropriate antibiotic treatment was initiated. Examination-under-anaesthesia, following abscess drainage, revealed a contained collection with no urethral fistula; however, a flat urethral lesion was seen during urethroscopy. Repeat urethroscopy and biopsy of the lesion indicated polypoid urethritis. Periurethral abscess secondary to gonococcal urethritis is a rare complication, but one that we should be suspicious of, especially with the growing incidence of AMR-STIs.


Subject(s)
Gonorrhea , Urethral Diseases , Urethritis , Abscess/etiology , Gonorrhea/complications , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Urethral Diseases/diagnosis , Urethral Diseases/etiology , Urethritis/diagnosis , Urethritis/drug therapy
6.
APMIS ; 130(1): 34-42, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511283

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the societies and health care systems globally, and resulted in many social and physical distancing restrictions to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2. These restrictions have also likely affected the frequency of intimate contacts and the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Compared to most other countries, Sweden especially in Spring-Autumn 2020 pursued mainly milder voluntary, that is, not mandatory enforced by laws, recommended restrictions and the impacts of these on society and spread of STIs remain largely unknown. We describe the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the national and regional incidence, epidemiology and diagnostic testing of chlamydia and gonorrhoea in Sweden in 2020. Compared to 2019, we found a significant decrease in incidence of chlamydia (-4.5%) and gonorrhoea (-17.5%), and in diagnostic testing (-10.5% for chlamydia, -9.4% for gonorrhoea) in 2020. However, the decrease in chlamydia incidence, which has mainly been decreasing in the last 10 years, was not significant when compared with the average incidence in 2017-2019. The largest decrease in national incidence of both infections was observed among young and heterosexual patients, however, some Swedish regions showed an increased incidence, particularly of chlamydia. Increased "internet-based self-sampling" testing approach partly compensated for a decreased attendance at STI clinics. Studies, including sexual behaviour, prevention, reasons for attending STI health care, STIs in different anatomical sites and management of STIs, are required to elucidate the impact of COVID-19-associated social and physical distancing restrictions on sexual activity and the incidence and epidemiology of chlamydia and gonorrhoea in Sweden.


Subject(s)
Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Chlamydia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Incidence , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Sweden/epidemiology
7.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(11): e0264620, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480240

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic reduced the sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing volume due to social-distancing and stay-at-home orders, among other reasons. These events highlighted previously known benefits of at-home STI self-testing or specimen self-collection and accelerated testing demand via telemedicine. We review testing outside traditional clinical settings. We focus on three curable bacterial STIs among the top 10 U.S. nationally notifiable conditions with screening recommendations: syphilis, gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as the gonococcus [GC]), and chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis). At least 19 million GC/C. trachomatis (GC/CT) screening or diagnostic tests are performed annually, presenting a considerable challenge during the pandemic. Unlike for HIV, STI at-home tests are currently not commercially available. However, innovative telemedicine providers currently offer services where specimen self-collection kits are mailed to patients at home who then ship them to laboratories for processing. We discuss technical and regulatory aspects of modifications for home-based specimen self-collection. The telemedicine provider typically manages and communicates results, provides linkage to care, and is responsible for billing and case reporting. We also describe rapid testing devices in development that may present an opportunity for future self-testing. In summary, COVID-19 has accelerated the evaluation and development of STI self-tests and specimen self-collection. The remaining obstacles are high price, regulatory approval, support for laboratories offering the service, and uncertainty regarding whether target populations with the greatest need are reached effectively. However, increased testing, convenience, and privacy are potential benefits that may enhance uptake and outlast the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlamydia Infections , Gonorrhea , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Chlamydia trachomatis , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Humans , Laboratories , Mass Screening , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Testing , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e052823, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462970

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The incidence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and its antimicrobial resistance is increasing in many countries. Antibacterial mouthwash may reduce gonorrhoea transmission without using antibiotics. We modelled the effect that antiseptic mouthwash may have on the incidence of gonorrhoea. DESIGN: We developed a mathematical model of the transmission of gonorrhoea between each anatomical site (oropharynx, urethra and anorectum) in men who have sex with men (MSM). We constructed four scenarios: (1) mouthwash had no effect; (2) mouthwash increased the susceptibility of the oropharynx; (3) mouthwash reduced the transmissibility from the oropharynx; (4) the combined effect of mouthwash from scenarios 2 and 3. SETTING: We used data at three anatomical sites from 4873 MSM attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in 2018 and 2019 to calibrate our models and data from the USA, Netherlands and Thailand for sensitivity analyses. PARTICIPANTS: Published available data on MSM with multisite infections of gonorrhoea. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of gonorrhoea. RESULTS: The overall incidence of gonorrhoea was 44 (95% CI 37 to 50)/100 person-years (PY) in scenario 1. Under scenario 2 (20%-80% mouthwash coverage), the total incidence increased (47-60/100 PY) and at all three anatomical sites by between 7.4% (5.9%-60.8%) and 136.6% (108.1%-177.5%). Under scenario 3, with the same coverage, the total incidence decreased (20-39/100 PY) and at all anatomical sites by between 11.6% (10.2%-13.5%) and 99.8% (99.2%-100%). Under scenario 4, changes in the incidence depended on the efficacy of mouthwash on the susceptibility or transmissibility. The effect on the total incidence varied (22-55/100 PY), and at all anatomical sites, there were increases of nearly 130% and large declines of almost 100%. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of mouthwash on gonorrhoea incidence is largely predictable depending on whether it increases susceptibility to or reduces the transmissibility of gonorrhoea.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , Gonorrhea , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Incidence , Male , Models, Theoretical , Mouthwashes , Neisseria gonorrhoeae
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e25265, 2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455403

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Complement deficiency are known to be predisposed to disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI). We herein present a case of DGI involving a Japanese man who latently had a complement 7 deficiency with compound heterozygous variants. PATIENT CONCERNS: A previously healthy 51-year-old Japanese man complained of sudden-onset high fever. Physical examination revealed various skin lesions including red papules on his trunk and extremities, an impetigo-like pustule on left forearm, and tendinitis of his right forefinger. DIAGNOSIS: Blood culture testing detected gram-negative cocci, which was confirmed to be Neisseria gonorrhoeae based on mass spectrometry and a pathogen-specific PCR test. INTERVENTIONS: Screening tests for underlying immunocompromised factors uncovered that complement activities (CH50) was undetectable. With a suspicion of a congenital complement deficiency, genetic analysis revealed rare single nucleotide variants in complement 7 (C7), including c.281-1G>T and a novel variant c.1454C>T (p.A485V). CH50 was normally recovered by adding purified human C7 to the patient's serum, supporting that the patient has C7 deficiency with compound heterozygous variants. OUTCOMES: Under a diagnosis of DGI, the patient underwent an antibiotic treatment with cefotaxime for a week and was discharged without any sequela. LESSONS: DGI is a rare sexually-transmitted infection that potentially induces systemic complications. Complement immunity usually defeats N. gonorrhoeae and prevents the organism from causing DGI. This case highlighted the importance of suspecting a complement deficiency when a person develops DGI.


Subject(s)
Complement C7/deficiency , Genetic Variation/genetics , Gonorrhea/genetics , Hereditary Complement Deficiency Diseases/genetics , Hereditary Complement Deficiency Diseases/microbiology , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Complement C7/genetics , Female , Gonorrhea/microbiology , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged
10.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255878, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic illuminated the benefits of telemedicine. Self-collected specimens are a promising alternative to clinician-collected specimens when in-person testing is not feasible. In this study, we assessed the adequacy of self-collected pharyngeal and rectal specimens for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among individuals undergoing chlamydia and gonorrhea screening. METHODS: We used data from a large cohort study that included male and female adolescents between the ages of 12-24 years. We considered self-collected specimens adequate for clinical use if the human synthase gene (a control target of the assay) was detected in the specimen. RESULTS: In total, 2,458 specimens were included in the analysis. The human synthase gene was detected in 99.2% (2,439/2,458) of all self-collected specimens, 99.5% (1,108/1,114) of the pharyngeal specimens, and 99.0% (1,331/1,344) of the rectal specimens. CONCLUSION: Self-collected pharyngeal and rectal specimens demonstrated a very high proportion of human gene presence, suggesting that self-collection was accurate. A limitation of this study is that the sample adequacy control detects the presence or absence of the human hydroxymethylbilane synthase gene, but it does not indicate the specific anatomic origin of the human hydroxymethylbilane synthase gene. Self-collected specimens may be an appropriate alternative to clinician-collected specimens.


Subject(s)
Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling , Adolescent , Child , Chlamydia Infections/microbiology , Female , Gonorrhea/microbiology , HIV Infections , Humans , Male , Pharynx/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rectum/microbiology , Self Care , Young Adult
11.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(9): e25801, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1396894

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Provider-collected swabs are an unappealing procedure for many transgender women and may have led to suboptimal rates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) testing. Self-collection for CT/NG testing is recommended for men who have sex with men. However, the information on acceptability and clinical performance to support a recommendation for transgender women is lacking. We aimed to determine the acceptability and satisfaction towards self-collection for CT/NG testing among Thai transgender women. METHODS: Thai transgender women who attended Tangerine Clinic (a transgender-led, integrated, gender-affirming care and sexual health services clinic in Bangkok, Thailand) between May and July 2020 and had condomless sexual intercourse within the past six months were offered to collect urine and perform self-swabs of pharyngeal, rectal, and if applicable, neovaginal compartments for pooled nucleic acid amplification testing for CT/NG infections. Participants received a diagram, video and oral instructions about how to perform self-collection procedure. Those who accepted self-collection were also offered to receive provider collection to evaluate the performance between the two methods. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess satisfaction. RESULTS: Among 216 transgender women enrolled, 142 (65.7%) accepted self-collection. All who accepted had pharyngeal, rectal and urine samples collected. Of 31 transgender women who had undergone genital surgery, 28 (90.3%) accepted neovaginal self-swab. The acceptance rate increased from 46.2% in May to 84.5% in July 2020. One participant had an invalid result. All transgender women who accepted self-collection could perform it without assistance, and 82.8% were highly satisfied with the method. None reported dissatisfaction. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, provider collection services were discontinued early, and only eight transgender women were able to perform both methods for performance evaluation. The performance agreement was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Thai transgender women had high acceptability and satisfaction towards self-collection for CT/NG testing. The performance was promising compared to provider collection. Our results support the implementation of self-collection to the sexually transmitted infection services, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic where physical distancing is the new normal. A larger study is warranted to determine the performance of self-collection for CT/NG testing in each anatomical compartment and confirm the performance between self-collection and provider collection.


Subject(s)
Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Personal Satisfaction , Specimen Handling/methods , Transgender Persons , Adult , COVID-19 , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Female , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Care , Thailand/epidemiology
12.
mBio ; 12(4): e0047321, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318003

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a challenge for ongoing efforts to combat antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacterial infections. As we learn more about COVID-19 disease and drug stewardship evolves, there is likely to be a lasting impact of increased use of antimicrobial agents and antibiotics, as well as a lack of consistent access to health care across many populations. Sexually transmitted infections have been underreported during the pandemic and are often caused by some of the most drug-resistant pathogens. In their recent article in mBio, Parzych et al. (E. M. Parzych, S. Gulati, B. Zheng, M. A. Bah, et al., mBio 12:e00242-21, 2021, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00242-21) focus on protection against Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection via in vivo delivery of an antigonococcal DNA-encoded antibody that has been modified for increased complement activation. Nucleic acid approaches are highly adaptable and could be tremendously beneficial for personalized strategies to combat AMR pathogens.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , COVID-19/pathology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/microbiology , Gonorrhea/drug therapy , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/drug effects , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genetics , Precision Medicine , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J STD AIDS ; 32(11): 998-1003, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259120

ABSTRACT

Background: During the first two waves of COVID-19, several physical restriction measurements were imposed in Belgium. Our aim was to explore the impact of these restriction measures on the number of tests and positivity rate of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT)/Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) before, during, and after the two lockdowns in Belgium. Methods: Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae molecular data of a Belgian STI clinic were extracted for 2019 and 2020, and both years were divided into four periods (pre-lockdown 1, lockdown 1, after lockdown 1, and lockdown 2). Weekly testing rates and positivity rate for both STIs were estimated, and mixed-effects logistic regression was used to explore statistical significant changes between both years, and the different periods were compared with the corresponding time period in 2019. The same analysis was done for pre-exposure prophylaxis(PrEP) users only. Results: No overall significant changes in positivity rate were found for either CT (8.0% in 2019 and 7.8% in 2020) or NG (4.5% in 2019 and 5.5% in 2020). Besides a significant drop in the number of CT/NG tests during lockdown 1 (decrease of 87%) and a subsequent increase in NG positivity rate (p > 0.05), no changes in CT/NG positivity rate were found in the other periods. The highest positivity rate for either CT or NG was found in lockdown 2 (15.1% vs 12.4% in 2019). The number of CT/NG tests in lockdown 2 was still 25% lower than 2019 levels. Subanalysis of only PrEP users revealed the same trend; however, the number of CT/NG tests in lockdown 2 was exactly the same as in 2019. Conclusion: Despite a significant decline in absolute CT or NG cases in lockdown 1, which was most likely a consequence of both physical distancing and reduced testing, CT/NG testing and positivity rates returned to pre-corona levels in lockdown 2, which may depict physical distancing fatigue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlamydia Infections , Gonorrhea , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Belgium/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/prevention & control , Chlamydia trachomatis , Communicable Disease Control , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/prevention & control , Humans , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control
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