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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 798276, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606542

ABSTRACT

Effects of initiation of programmed-death-protein 1 (PD1) blockade during active SARS-CoV-2 infection on antiviral immunity, COVID-19 course, and underlying malignancy are unclear. We report on the management of a male in his early 40s presenting with highly symptomatic metastatic lung cancer and active COVID-19 pneumonia. After treatment initiation with pembrolizumab, carboplatin, and pemetrexed, the respiratory situation initially worsened and high-dose corticosteroids were initiated due to suspected pneumonitis. After improvement and SARS-CoV-2 clearance, anti-cancer treatment was resumed without pembrolizumab. Immunological analyses with comparison to otherwise healthy SARS-CoV-2-infected ambulatory patients revealed a strong humoral immune response with higher levels of SARS-CoV-2-reactive IgG and neutralizing serum activity. Additionally, sustained increase of Tfh as well as activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was observed. Sequential CT scans showed regression of tumor lesions and marked improvement of the pulmonary situation, with no signs of pneumonitis after pembrolizumab re-challenge as maintenance. At the latest follow-up, the patient is ambulatory and in ongoing partial remission on pembrolizumab. In conclusion, anti-PD1 initiation during active COVID-19 pneumonia was feasible and cellular and humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 appeared enhanced in our hospitalized patient. However, distinguishing COVID-19-associated changes from anti-PD1-associated immune-related pneumonitis posed a considerable clinical, radiographic, and immunologic challenge.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/complications , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/immunology , Male , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Pneumonia/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502438

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils form sticky web-like structures known as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) as part of innate immune response. NETs are decondensed extracellular chromatin filaments comprising nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. NETs have been implicated in many gastrointestinal diseases including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the regulatory mechanisms of NET formation and potential pharmacological inhibitors in the context of CRC have not been thoroughly discussed. In this review, we intend to highlight roles of NETs in CRC progression and metastasis as well as the potential of targeting NETs during colon cancer therapy.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms/immunology , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Animals , Disease Progression , Extracellular Traps/physiology , Humans , Neoplasm Metastasis/immunology
3.
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia ; 26(3): 221-226, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375665

ABSTRACT

The twelfth annual workshop of the European Network for Breast Development and Cancer focused on methods in mammary gland biology and breast cancer, was scheduled to take place on March 26-28, 2020, in Weggis, Switzerland. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the meeting was rescheduled twice and eventually happened as a virtual meeting on April 22 and 23, 2021. The main topics of the meeting were branching and development of the mammary gland, tumor microenvironment, circulating tumor cells, tumor dormancy and breast cancer metastasis. Novel and unpublished findings related to these topics were presented, with a particular focus on the methods used to obtain them. Virtual poster sessions were a success, with many constructive and fruitful interactions between researchers and covered many areas of mammary gland biology and breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/methods , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Mammary Glands, Human/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Europe , Female , Humans , Mammary Glands, Human/growth & development , Mammary Glands, Human/metabolism , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplastic Cells, Circulating , Prognosis , Tumor Microenvironment
4.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 109(3): 756-763, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318870

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Fewer attendances for radiation therapy results in increased efficiency and less foot traffic within a radiation therapy department. We investigated outcomes after single-fraction (SF) stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in patients with oligometastatic disease. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between February 2010 and June 2019, patients who received SF SBRT to 1 to 5 sites of oligometastatic disease were included in this retrospective study. The primary objective was to describe patterns of first failure after SBRT. Secondary objectives included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), high-grade treatment-related toxicity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade ≥3), and freedom from systemic therapy (FFST). RESULTS: In total, 371 patients with 494 extracranial oligometastases received SF SBRT ranging from 16 Gy to 28 Gy. The most common primary malignancies were prostate (n = 107), lung (n = 63), kidney (n = 52), gastrointestinal (n = 51), and breast cancers (n = 42). The median follow-up was 3.1 years. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS was 93%, 69%, and 55%, respectively; PFS was 48%, 19%, and 14%, respectively; and FFST was 70%, 43%, and 35%, respectively. Twelve patients (3%) developed grade 3 to 4 treatment-related toxicity, with no grade 5 toxicity. As the first site of failure, the cumulative incidence of local failure (irrespective of other failures) at 1, 3 and 5 years was 4%, 8%, and 8%, respectively; locoregional relapse at the primary was 10%, 18%, and 18%, respectively; and distant failure was 45%, 66%, and 70%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: SF SBRT is safe and effective, and a significant proportion of patients remain FFST for several years after therapy. This approach could be considered in resource-constrained or bundled-payment environments. Locoregional failure of the primary site is the second most common pattern of failure, suggesting a role for optimization of primary control during metastasis-directed therapy.


Subject(s)
Neoplasm Metastasis/radiotherapy , Radiosurgery/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Neoplasms/surgery , Pandemics , Progression-Free Survival , Radiation Injuries/pathology , Radiosurgery/adverse effects , Radiotherapy Dosage , Retrospective Studies , Salvage Therapy , Treatment Failure , Young Adult
5.
Semin Nucl Med ; 51(5): 474-484, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254012

ABSTRACT

There are a number of normal variants and pitfalls which are important to consider when evaluating F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in breast cancer patients. Although FDG-PET is not indicated for the initial diagnosis of breast cancer, focally increased glucose metabolism within breast tissue represents a high likelihood for a neoplastic process and requires further evaluation. Focally increased glucose metabolism is not unique to breast cancer. Other malignancies such as lymphoma, metastases from solid tumors as well as inflammatory changes also may demonstrate increased glucose metabolism either within the breast or at other sites throughout the body. Importantly, benign breast disease may also exhibit increased glucose metabolism, limiting the specificity of FDG-PET. Breast cancer has a wide range of metabolic activity attributed to tumor heterogeneity and breast cancer subtype. Intracellular signaling pathways regulating tumor glucose utilization contribute to these pitfalls of PET/CT in breast cancer. The evaluation of axillary lymph nodes by FDG-PET is less accurate than sentinel lymph node procedure, however is very accurate in identifying level II and III axillary lymph node metastases or retropectoral metastases. It is important to note that non-malignant inflammation in lymph nodes are often detected by modern PET/CT technology. Therefore, particular consideration should be given to recent vaccinations, particularly to COVID-19, which can commonly result in increased metabolic activity of axillary nodes. Whole body FDG-PET for staging of breast cancer requires specific attention to physiologic variants of FDG distribution and a careful comparison with co-registered anatomical imaging. The most important pitfalls are related to inflammatory changes including sarcoidosis, sarcoid like reactions, and other granulomatous diseases as well as secondary neoplastic processes.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging
6.
J Chemother ; 33(7): 499-508, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242059

ABSTRACT

The main objective is to define the mortality of patients with cancer admitted to our hospital, their clinical and demographic characteristics, investigate the risk of COVID-19 for patients with cancer, and determine factors that affect the mortality rates of patients with cancer dying of COVID-19. A total of 2401 patients were admitted to our hospital with the diagnosis of COVID-19 from March 11th, 2020, to May 31st, 2020. Ninety-two out of a total of 112 cancer patients were included in this study based on the planned inclusion/exclusion criteria. The clinical, demographic, and laboratory features and treatments provided were studied, and their effect on mortality rates was analyzed. In our study the median age of the patients was 67 years, and 55.4% were male. More than half (56.5%) of our patients had metastasis. The mortality rate was 6.2% in the overall population with COVID-19, whereas it was 23.9% in patients with cancer. The mortality rate in patients with metastasis was statistically significantly higher compared with those without metastasis (34.0% vs. 10.3% P = 0.008). The mortality rate in patients still smoking was statistically significantly higher than in non-smokers (37.5% vs. 12.5% P = 0.033). The mortality rates of patients with high average C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and D-dimer levels were statistically significantly higher than in those without, and the mortality rates of patients with lower average albumin and hemoglobin levels were statistically significantly higher than those without (P < 0.001, P = 0.006, P = 0.041, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.028, respectively). Having metastases concurrent with COVID-19 was a statistically significant factor predictive of prognosis. Also, high CRP, ferritin, LDH, and D-dimer, and low albumin and hemoglobin were related to increased mortality rates. The predictive and prognostic role of possible factors related to prognosis is still unknown and further large, multicenter prospective studies are needed to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Neoplasms/mortality , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , Comorbidity , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasms/complications , Prognosis , Smoking , Turkey
7.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(2)2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081352

ABSTRACT

By the beginning of the global pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 infection has dramatically impacted on oncology daily practice. In the current oncological landscape, where immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of several malignancies, distinguishing between COVID-19 and immune-mediated pneumonitis can be hard because of shared clinical, radiological and pathological features. Indeed, their common mechanism of aberrant inflammation could lead to a mutual and amplifying interaction.We describe the case of a 65-year-old patient affected by metastatic squamous head and neck cancer and candidate to an experimental therapy including an anti-PD-L1 agent. COVID-19 ground-glass opacities under resolution were an incidental finding during screening procedures and worsened after starting immunotherapy. The diagnostic work-up was consistent with ICIs-related pneumonia and it is conceivable that lung injury by SARS-CoV-2 has acted as an inflammatory primer for the development of the immune-related adverse event.Patients recovered from COVID-19 starting ICIs could be at greater risk of recall immune-mediated pneumonitis. Nasopharyngeal swab and chest CT scan are recommended before starting immunotherapy. The awareness of the phenomenon could allow an easier interpretation of radiological changes under treatment and a faster diagnostic work-up to resume ICIs. In the presence of clinical benefit, for asymptomatic ICIs-related pneumonia a watchful-waiting approach and immunotherapy prosecution are suggested.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/diagnosis , Aged , B7-H1 Antigen/antagonists & inhibitors , B7-H1 Antigen/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Lung Injury/diagnosis , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/pathology , Lung Injury/virology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Male , Nasopharynx/metabolism , Nasopharynx/pathology , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pandemics , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/drug therapy , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/immunology , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/virology
8.
Am Surg ; 86(11): 1473-1477, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067016

ABSTRACT

Regardless of the anatomic site of malignant bowel obstruction leading to the need for palliative intervention, decisions must consider the natural history of the disease, the availability and success of nonsurgical treatments, the individual patient's symptom severity, goals, preferences, quality, and expectancy of life. Therapy for symptoms must remain flexible and individualized because the specific needs of the patient will change as disease progresses. Because strangulation is uncommon, malignant bowel obstruction is usually not a surgical emergency. There is usually time to proceed with deliberate and thoughtful decisions on how best to meet the needs and expectations of the individual patient and family. Providers must be well versed in both surgical and nonsurgical therapeutic options, the natural history of disease, and be active and compassionate providers to foster meaningful ongoing dialogue focused on excellent care even after cure is no longer possible. The palliative triangle not only allows patient, family, and surgeon to effectively utilize the full continuum of care that can be delivered, but also it supports end-of-life decisions when continuity in care matters most. Due to social distancing requirements, the dynamics of communication between patient, family, and surgeon have changed. Zoom, Skype, and FaceTime have become tools in our communication armamentarium.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Intestinal Obstruction/etiology , Intestine, Small , Peritoneal Neoplasms/secondary , Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Intestinal Obstruction/diagnosis , Intestinal Obstruction/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pandemics , Peritoneal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Peritoneal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Radiography, Abdominal , SARS-CoV-2
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2034065, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049541

ABSTRACT

Importance: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to treatment delays for many patients with cancer. While published guidelines provide suggestions on which cases are appropriate for treatment delay, there are no good quantitative estimates on the association of delays with tumor control or risk of new metastases. Objectives: To develop a simplified mathematical model of tumor growth, control, and new metastases for cancers with varying doubling times and metastatic potential and to estimate tumor control probability (TCP) and metastases risk as a function of treatment delay interval. Design, Setting, and Participants: This decision analytical model describes a quantitative model for 3 tumors (ie, head and neck, colorectal, and non-small cell lung cancers). Using accepted ranges of tumor doubling times and metastatic development from the clinical literature from 2001 to 2020, estimates of tumor growth, TCP, and new metastases were analyzed for various treatment delay intervals. Main Outcomes and Measures: Risk estimates for potential decreases in local TCP and increases in new metastases with each interval of treatment delay. Results: For fast-growing head and neck tumors with a 2-month treatment delay, there was an estimated 4.8% (95% CI, 3.4%-6.4%) increase in local tumor control risk and a 0.49% (0.47%-0.51%) increase in new distal metastases risk. A 6-month delay was associated with an estimated 21.3% (13.4-30.4) increase in local tumor control risk and a 6.0% (5.2-6.8) increase in distal metastases risk. For intermediate-growing colorectal tumors, there was a 2.1% (0.7%-3.5%) increase in local tumor control risk and a 2.7% (2.6%-2.8%) increase in distal metastases risk at 2 months and a 7.6% (2.2%-14.2%) increase in local tumor control risk and a 24.7% (21.9%-27.8%) increase in distal metastases risk at 6 months. For slower-growing lung tumors, there was a 1.2% (0.0%-2.8%) increase in local tumor control risk and a 0.19% (0.18%-0.20%) increase in distal metastases risk at 2 months, and a 4.3% (0.0%-10.6%) increase in local tumor control risk and a 1.9% (1.6%-2.2%) increase in distal metastases risk at 6 months. Conclusions and Relevance: This study proposed a model to quantify the association of treatment delays with local tumor control and risk of new metastases. The detrimental associations were greatest for tumors with faster rates of proliferation and metastasis. The associations were smaller, but still substantial, for slower-growing tumors.


Subject(s)
Decision Support Techniques , Models, Theoretical , Neoplasm Metastasis/diagnosis , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/therapy , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnosis , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Neoplasms/therapy , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
10.
N Engl J Med ; 383(24): 2345-2357, 2020 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We previously reported that olaparib led to significantly longer imaging-based progression-free survival than the physician's choice of enzalutamide or abiraterone among men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who had qualifying alterations in homologous recombination repair genes and whose disease had progressed during previous treatment with a next-generation hormonal agent. The results of the final analysis of overall survival have not yet been reported. METHODS: In an open-label, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients in a 2:1 ratio to receive olaparib (256 patients) or the physician's choice of enzalutamide or abiraterone plus prednisone as the control therapy (131 patients). Cohort A included 245 patients with at least one alteration in BRCA1, BRCA2, or ATM, and cohort B included 142 patients with at least one alteration in any of the other 12 prespecified genes. Crossover to olaparib was allowed after imaging-based disease progression for patients who met certain criteria. Overall survival in cohort A, a key secondary end point, was analyzed with the use of an alpha-controlled, stratified log-rank test at a data maturity of approximately 60%. The primary and other key secondary end points were reported previously. RESULTS: The median duration of overall survival in cohort A was 19.1 months with olaparib and 14.7 months with control therapy (hazard ratio for death, 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50 to 0.97; P = 0.02). In cohort B, the median duration of overall survival was 14.1 months with olaparib and 11.5 months with control therapy. In the overall population (cohorts A and B), the corresponding durations were 17.3 months and 14.0 months. Overall, 86 of 131 patients (66%) in the control group crossed over to receive olaparib (56 of 83 patients [67%] in cohort A). A sensitivity analysis that adjusted for crossover to olaparib showed hazard ratios for death of 0.42 (95% CI, 0.19 to 0.91) in cohort A, 0.83 (95% CI, 0.11 to 5.98) in cohort B, and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.29 to 1.06) in the overall population. CONCLUSIONS: Among men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who had tumors with at least one alteration in BRCA1, BRCA2, or ATM and whose disease had progressed during previous treatment with a next-generation hormonal agent, those who were initially assigned to receive olaparib had a significantly longer duration of overall survival than those who were assigned to receive enzalutamide or abiraterone plus prednisone as the control therapy, despite substantial crossover from control therapy to olaparib. (Funded by AstraZeneca and Merck Sharp and Dohme; PROfound ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02987543.).


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Phthalazines/therapeutic use , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins/genetics , Bridged-Ring Compounds/therapeutic use , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases/genetics , Genes, BRCA1 , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Neoplasm Metastasis/drug therapy , Phthalazines/adverse effects , Piperazines/adverse effects , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/mortality , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/pathology , Survival Analysis , Taxoids/therapeutic use
12.
J Hematol Oncol ; 13(1): 174, 2020 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971766

ABSTRACT

Immunotherapy has been a new standard for recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancers (R/M HNC). One of the prominent characteristics of cancer immunotherapy is the induction of immune memory followed by endured treatment response. However, whether and how a treatment delay would impact on the efficacy of immunotherapy has not been well determined. During the outbreak of COVID-19, a number of cancer patients in Wuhan, the epicenter of the pandemic in China, had experienced long-lasting city lockdown and delay of immunotherapies. Here, we retrospectively analyzed 24 HNC patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors in our cancer institute prior to the outbreak of COVID-19 who were re-evaluated after the restoration of regular medical care. Of these 24 patients, 10 patients had achieved complete response (CR) or partial response (PR), 12 patients had achieved stable disease (SD), and 2 patients had received just one cycle treatment without efficacy evaluation before treatment delay. The median delay was 3.75 months (range 1.73-8.17 months). Re-evaluation after treatment delay revealed that ten patients (10/10) who achieved CR or PR, two patients (2/2) who received just one cycle treatment without efficacy evaluation and seven patients (7/12) who achieved SD before outbreak of COVID-19 maintained tumor response after treatment delay. Among the rest five patients who had achieved SD, four patients were re-evaluated as progressive disease (PD) due to treatment delay and one patient died after treatment interruption without re-evaluation. Our results from a small cohort of R/M HNC patients showed that treatment delay of three to four months might have mild, if any, impact on the efficacy of immunotherapy for patients with controlled disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/therapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/methods , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/immunology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , China , Female , Head and Neck Neoplasms/immunology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
13.
Cancer Invest ; 39(1): 9-14, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894477

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemia is a major health worldwide concern. Patients with cancer might have a worse outcome, because of the immunosuppression determined by the tumor itself and anti-cancer treatments, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The impact and course of viral infection in patients receiving immunotherapy remains unknown. We report the case of a patient with metastatic melanoma, long responder to anti PD-1 blockade who got infected with Sars CoV-2, recovering without sequelae. A critical review of literature was performed. Limited data available in literature support the possibility to continue the immunotherapy in patients with cancer under control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Melanoma/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Male , Melanoma/pathology , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
14.
J Chemother ; 33(4): 263-268, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-851462

ABSTRACT

The emergency caused by COVID-19 pandemic has imposed a sudden reorganization of the healthcare structures and has created consequences in cancer patients management. General clinical recommendations for cancer patients were released, even if limited clinical cancer-specific data were available. A number of critical issues have come out during COVID-19 pandemic in the management of patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). To explore the changes in the treatment of patients with MBC during COVID-19 pandemic, we promoted a survey to the oncologists operating in the Italian breast units. The results of this survey show that Italian oncologists have tried to ensure continuity of care for patients with MBC. De-escalation of cancer treatments, especially monotherapy administration, and greater use of oral anticancer drugs are the main changes that emerge from this survey. Some subgroups of patients, especially the elderly and endocrine-responsive patients, have been undertreated during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Oncologists/organization & administration , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/organization & administration , Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Continuity of Patient Care , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis , Oncologists/standards , Pandemics , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , SARS-CoV-2
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(7)2020 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-825068

ABSTRACT

Despite the increasing incidence of metastatic melanoma in the older population, there are relatively limited data for those older than 75 years of age. Elderly patients are often under-represented in clinical trials. In addition, elderly patients in trials often have a lower Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score and fewer comorbidities and may thus not truly reflect the realities of day-to-day clinical practice. We present a case of a 95-year-old woman who had extensive and unresectable subcutaneous and dermal deposits of metastatic melanoma of her right leg, which caused oedema and reduced mobility. She was treated concurrently with pembrolizumab and radiotherapy to her leg lesions of melanoma. She has had an excellent response to treatment, with complete resolution of the subcutaneous and dermal metastatic deposits and has not developed any immune-related toxicities. Our experience demonstrates that anti-programmed-death-receptor-1 therapy can be given safely and effectively even in very elderly metastatic melanoma patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/methods , Melanoma/complications , Neoplasm Metastasis/drug therapy , Skin Neoplasms/complications , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Treatment Outcome
18.
Eur J Cancer ; 136: 69-75, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-652762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Even though Korea was known to have the highest number of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection in the early phase of the pandemic, Korea was able to successfully flatten the curve in a short period of time without extreme measures. We compared the status of cancer management before and after COVID-19 and analysed how cancer care continuity was maintained in Korea. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated the medical records on the number of cancer diagnosis, cancer surgery, radiation therapy and scheduled chemotherapy conducted in Korea University Anam Hospital from January 1 to April 30, 2019 and from the same period in 2020. We also collected the data of metastatic cancer patients who were hospitalised due to respiratory disease. RESULTS: Of all diagnoses, 1694 cancer diagnoses were made in the study period of 2019, and 1445 diagnoses in 2020 (decreased by 14.7%); the cancer surgery performed 830 and 800 cases; the set-up for radiation therapy decreased from 185 to 140 cases; the number of systemic chemotherapies for metastatic cancer patients treated in department of medical oncology increased from 2555 to 2878 cases. Among hospitalised patients, emergency centre visit, intensive care unit admission, discharge after recovery and death reveal no drastic changes. CONCLUSIONS: Routine cancer care for patients with metastatic cancer has been maintained without significant difference before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The Korean government's innovative countermeasures in the early phase of outbreak made it possible for cancer care practitioners to provide cancer patients with regular care under the standard infection control protocol.


Subject(s)
Continuity of Patient Care , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Health , Radiotherapy/statistics & numerical data , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Procedures, Operative/statistics & numerical data
20.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 89: 102066, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-626164

ABSTRACT

Metronomic chemotherapy (M-CT) is defined as dose dense administration of chemotherapy at lower doses than maximum tolerated dose but at shorter free intervals, to obtain a near continuous exposure of cancer cells to those potentially effective drugs. M-CT is a useful strategy to obtain response, overcome resistance and reduce side effects, with low costs. This review will focus on the use of M-CT in advanced breast cancer (ABC). Cytostatic and cytotoxic effect on cancer cells, the anti-angiogenic and the immunomodulatory effects are its main mechanisms of actions. Many clinical trials proved the efficacy and tolerability of different monotherapies and combinations of chemotherapeutic agents administered in metronomic doses and frequencies in ABC. M-CT is a reasonable option for second and later lines of chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer including those with prior anthracycline or taxane exposure, older patients and patients with comorbidities, and even as first-line in certain groups of patients. The acceptable efficacy and low toxicity of oral metronomic chemotherapy makes it a reasonable option during COVID-19 pandemic as well as in the post-COVID era which is projected to last for some time.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Administration, Metronomic , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
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