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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934096

ABSTRACT

In physiology and pathophysiology the molecules involved in blood cell-blood cell and blood cell-endothelium interactions have been identified. Platelet aggregation and adhesion to the walls belonging to vessels involve glycoproteins (GP), GP llb and GP llla and the GP Ib-IX-V complex. Red blood cells (RBCs) in normal situations have little interaction with the endothelium. Abnormal adhesion of RBCs was first observed in sickle cell anemia involving vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, α4ß1, Lu/BCAM, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-4. More recently RBC adhesion was found to be increased in retinal-vein occlusion (RVO) and in polycythemia vera (PV). The molecules which participate in this process are phosphatidylserine and annexin V in RVO, and phosphorylated Lu/BCAM and α5 laminin chain in PV. The additional adhesion in diabetes mellitus occurs due to the glycated RBC band 3 and the advanced glycation end-product receptors. The multiligand receptor binds advanced glycation end products (AGEs) or S100 calgranulins, or ß-amyloid peptide. This receptor for advanced glycation end products is known as RAGE. The binding to RAGE-activated endothelial cells leads to an inflammatory reaction and a prothrombotic state via NADPH activation and altered gene expression. RAGE blockade is a potential target for drugs preventing the deleterious consequences of RAGE activation.


Subject(s)
Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Polycythemia Vera/metabolism , Retinal Vein Occlusion/metabolism , Cell Adhesion , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Erythrocytes/pathology , Glycation End Products, Advanced/metabolism , Humans , Polycythemia Vera/pathology , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/metabolism , Retinal Vein Occlusion/pathology , Thrombosis/metabolism , Thrombosis/pathology
2.
Molecules ; 27(4)2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715565

ABSTRACT

For most researchers, discovering new anticancer drugs to avoid the adverse effects of current ones, to improve therapeutic benefits and to reduce resistance is essential. Because the COX-2 enzyme plays an important role in various types of cancer leading to malignancy enhancement, inhibition of apoptosis, and tumor-cell metastasis, an indispensable objective is to design new scaffolds or drugs that possess combined action or dual effect, such as kinase and COX-2 inhibition. The start compounds A1 to A6 were prepared through the diazo coupling of 3-aminoacetophenone with a corresponding phenol and then condensed with two new chalcone series, C7-18. The newly synthesized compounds were assessed against both COX-2 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) for their inhibitory effect. All novel compounds were screened for cytotoxicity against five cancer cell lines. Compounds C9 and G10 exhibited potent EGFR inhibition with IC50 values of 0.8 and 1.1 µM, respectively. Additionally, they also displayed great COX-2 inhibition with IC50 values of 1.27 and 1.88 µM, respectively. Furthermore, the target compounds were assessed for their cytotoxicity against pancreatic ductal cancer (Panc-1), lung cancer (H-460), human colon cancer (HT-29), human malignant melanoma (A375) and pancreatic cancer (PaCa-2) cell lines. Interestingly, compounds C10 and G12 exhibited the strongest cytotoxic effect against PaCa-2 with average IC50 values of 0.9 and 0.8 µM, respectively. To understand the possible binding modes of the compounds under investigation with the receptor cites of EGFR and COX-2, a virtual docking study was conducted.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Chalcones , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors , Neoplasm Proteins , Neoplasms , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Chalcones/chemical synthesis , Chalcones/chemistry , Chalcones/pharmacology , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/chemistry , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Molecular Structure , Neoplasm Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/enzymology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology
3.
Sci Adv ; 8(6): eabk2691, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685473

ABSTRACT

Upon virus infection, CD8+ T cell accumulation is tightly controlled by simultaneous proliferation and apoptosis. However, it remains unclear how TCR signal coordinates these events to achieve expansion and effector cell differentiation. We found that T cell-specific deletion of nuclear helicase Dhx9 led to impaired CD8+ T cell survival, effector differentiation, and viral clearance. Mechanistically, Dhx9 acts as the key regulator to ensure LCK- and CD3ε-mediated ZAP70 phosphorylation and ERK activation to protect CD8+ T cells from apoptosis before proliferative burst. Dhx9 directly regulates Id2 transcription to control effector CD8+ T cell differentiation. The DSRM and OB_Fold domains are required for LCK binding and Id2 transcription, respectively. Dhx9 expression is predominantly increased in effector CD8+ T cells of COVID-19 patients. Therefore, we revealed a previously unknown regulatory mechanism that Dhx9 protects activated CD8+ T cells from apoptosis and ensures effector differentiation to promote antiviral immunity independent of nuclear sensor function.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Arenaviridae Infections/prevention & control , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , DEAD-box RNA Helicases/metabolism , Immunity, Innate , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Arenaviridae Infections/immunology , Arenaviridae Infections/metabolism , Arenaviridae Infections/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Differentiation , DEAD-box RNA Helicases/genetics , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus/physiology , Mice , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication
4.
Xenobiotica ; 52(2): 152-164, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541325

ABSTRACT

Emvododstat was identified as a potent inhibitor of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and is now in clinical development for the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia and COVID-19. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and drug interaction potentials of emvododstat.Emvododstat showed high binding to plasma protein with minimal distribution into blood cells in mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human whole blood.O-Demethylation followed by glucuronidation appeared to be the major metabolic pathway in rat, dog, monkey, and human hepatocytes. CYP2C8, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 were involved in O-desmethyl emvododstat metabolite formation. Both emvododstat and O-desmethyl emvododstat inhibited CYP2D6 activity and induced CYP expression to different extents in vitro.Emvododstat and O-desmethyl emvododstat inhibited BCRP transporter activity but did not inhibit bile salt transporters and other efflux or uptake transporters. Neither emvododstat nor O-desmethyl emvododstat was a substrate for common efflux or uptake transporters investigated.Emvododstat is bioavailable in mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys following a single oral dose. The absorption was generally slow with the mean plasma Tmax ranging from 2 to 5 h; plasma exposure of O-desmethyl emvododstat was lower in rodents, but relatively higher in dogs and monkeys.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microsomes, Liver , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily G, Member 2/metabolism , Animals , Carbamates , Carbazoles , Dogs , Drug Interactions , Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Mice , Microsomes, Liver/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Rats
5.
J Immunol ; 208(1): 74-84, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534334

ABSTRACT

ORAI1 and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) are the critical mediators of store-operated Ca2+ entry by acting as the pore subunit and an endoplasmic reticulum-resident signaling molecule, respectively. In addition to Ca2+ signaling, STIM1 is also involved in regulation of the type I IFN (IFN-I) response. To examine their potential role in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, we generated ORAI1 and STIM1 knockout human HEK293-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 cells and checked their responses. STIM1 knockout cells showed strong resistance to SARS-CoV-2 infection as a result of enhanced IFN-I response. On the contrary, ORAI1 deletion induced high susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mechanistically, ORAI1 knockout cells showed reduced homeostatic cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration and severe impairment in tonic IFN-I signaling. Transcriptome analysis showed downregulation of multiple antiviral signaling pathways in ORAI1 knockout cells, likely because of reduced expression of the Ca2+-dependent transcription factors of the AP-1 family and MEF2C Accordingly, modulation of homeostatic Ca2+ concentration by pretreatment with ORAI1 blocker or agonist could influence baseline IFNB expression and resistance to SARS-CoV-2 infection in a human lung epithelial cell line. Our results identify a novel role of ORAI1-mediated Ca2+ signaling in regulating the tonic IFN-I levels, which determine host resistance to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Lung/immunology , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , ORAI1 Protein/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stromal Interaction Molecule 1/metabolism , A549 Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Calcium Signaling , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Disease Resistance , Disease Susceptibility , Gene Expression Profiling , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lung/virology , MEF2 Transcription Factors/genetics , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , ORAI1 Protein/genetics , Stromal Interaction Molecule 1/genetics , Transcription Factor AP-1/genetics
6.
Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol ; 56(4): 321-359, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467237

ABSTRACT

CK2 is a constitutively active protein kinase that assuring a constant level of phosphorylation to its numerous substrates supports many of the most important biological functions. Nevertheless, its activity has to be controlled and adjusted in order to cope with the varying needs of a cell, and several examples of a fine-tune regulation of its activity have been described. More importantly, aberrant regulation of this enzyme may have pathological consequences, e.g. in cancer, chronic inflammation, neurodegeneration, and viral infection. Our review aims at summarizing our current knowledge about CK2 regulation. In the first part, we have considered the most important stimuli shown to affect protein kinase CK2 activity/expression. In the second part, we focus on the molecular mechanisms by which CK2 can be regulated, discussing controversial aspects and future perspectives.


Subject(s)
Casein Kinase II/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Neoplasms/enzymology , Signal Transduction , Virus Diseases/enzymology , Animals , Humans , Inflammation/enzymology
7.
J Biol Chem ; 297(3): 101041, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397437

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 nonstructural protein 3 (Nsp3) contains a macrodomain that is essential for coronavirus pathogenesis and is thus an attractive target for drug development. This macrodomain is thought to counteract the host interferon (IFN) response, an important antiviral signalling cascade, via the reversal of protein ADP-ribosylation, a posttranslational modification catalyzed by host poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). However, the main cellular targets of the coronavirus macrodomain that mediate this effect are currently unknown. Here, we use a robust immunofluorescence-based assay to show that activation of the IFN response induces ADP-ribosylation of host proteins and that ectopic expression of the SARS-CoV-2 Nsp3 macrodomain reverses this modification in human cells. We further demonstrate that this assay can be used to screen for on-target and cell-active macrodomain inhibitors. This IFN-induced ADP-ribosylation is dependent on PARP9 and its binding partner DTX3L, but surprisingly the expression of the Nsp3 macrodomain or the deletion of either PARP9 or DTX3L does not impair IFN signaling or the induction of IFN-responsive genes. Our results suggest that PARP9/DTX3L-dependent ADP-ribosylation is a downstream effector of the host IFN response and that the cellular function of the SARS-CoV-2 Nsp3 macrodomain is to hydrolyze this end product of IFN signaling, rather than to suppress the IFN response itself.


Subject(s)
ADP-Ribosylation , COVID-19/virology , Interferons/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Humans
8.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 4054-4069, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348035

ABSTRACT

During the pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019, there exist quite a few studies on angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and SARS-CoV-2 infection, while little is known about ACE2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The detailed mechanism among ACE2 and HCC still remains unclear, which needs to be further investigated. In the current study with a total of 6,926 samples, ACE2 expression was downregulated in HCC compared with non-HCC samples (standardized mean difference = -0.41). With the area under the curve of summary receiver operating characteristic = 0.82, ACE2 expression showed a better ability to differentiate HCC from non-HCC. The mRNA expression of ACE2 was related to the age, alpha-fetoprotein levels and cirrhosis of HCC patients, and it was identified as a protected factor for HCC patients via Kaplan-Meier survival, Cox regression analyses. The potential molecular mechanism of ACE2 may be relevant to catabolic and cell division. In all, decreasing ACE2 expression can be seen in HCC, and its protective role for HCC patients and underlying mechanisms were explored in the study.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Liver Cirrhosis/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , alpha-Fetoproteins/genetics , Age Factors , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/virology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/mortality , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Databases, Genetic , Datasets as Topic , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/mortality , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/mortality , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Proteins/classification , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Protective Factors , Protein Interaction Mapping , ROC Curve , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Survival Analysis , alpha-Fetoproteins/metabolism
9.
J Virol ; 95(15): e0032721, 2021 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305507

ABSTRACT

The human protein-coding gene ILRUN (inflammation and lipid regulator with UBA-like and NBR1-like domains; previously C6orf106) was identified as a proviral factor for Hendra virus infection and was recently characterized to function as an inhibitor of type I interferon expression. Here, we have utilized transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) to define cellular pathways regulated by ILRUN in the context of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection of Caco-2 cells. We find that inhibition of ILRUN expression by RNA interference alters transcription profiles of numerous cellular pathways, including upregulation of the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2 and several other members of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system. In addition, transcripts of the SARS-CoV-2 coreceptors TMPRSS2 and CTSL were also upregulated. Inhibition of ILRUN also resulted in increased SARS-CoV-2 replication, while overexpression of ILRUN had the opposite effect, identifying ILRUN as a novel antiviral factor for SARS-CoV-2 replication. This represents, to our knowledge, the first report of ILRUN as a regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). IMPORTANCE There is no doubt that the current rapid global spread of COVID-19 has had significant and far-reaching impacts on our health and economy and will continue to do so. Research in emerging infectious diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is growing rapidly, with new breakthroughs in the understanding of host-virus interactions to assist with the development of innovative and exciting therapeutic strategies. Here, we present the first evidence that modulation of the human protein-coding gene ILRUN functions as an antiviral factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection, likely through its newly identified role in regulating the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors ACE2, TMPRSS2, and CTSL. These data improve our understanding of biological pathways that regulate host factors critical to SARS-CoV-2 infection, contributing to the development of antiviral strategies to deal with the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , COVID-19/metabolism , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Caco-2 Cells , Cathepsin L/biosynthesis , Cathepsin L/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/biosynthesis , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Vero Cells
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304669

ABSTRACT

Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) is a rare malignancy with dual pathogenesis, Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated and HPV-independent, with a poorly explored molecular landscape. We aimed to summarize the findings of the series analyzing molecular hallmarks of this neoplasm. In January 2021, we conducted a comprehensive literature search using Pubmed Medline and Scopus to identify publications focused on genomic profiling of VSCC. Observational studies, including both prospective and retrospective designs, evaluating molecular alterations in VSCC were deemed eligible. A total of 14 studies analyzing 749 VSCC were identified. The study series were heterogeneous in HPV testing and sequencing strategies, included small sets of tumors and cancer genes, and commonly lacked survival analysis. Only one extensive targeted next-generation sequencing-based study comprised a large cohort of 280 VSCC. The mutated genes, their number, and frequencies were highly variable between the series. Overall, TP53 and CDKN2A, followed by PIK3CA, HRAS, and PTEN, were the most frequently studied and mutated genes. Mutations involved in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, including TP53, HRAS, KRAS, and PIK3CA, have been consistently reported across the studies. However, the role of individual mutations or pathways in the development of VSCC remains unclear. In conclusion, heterogeneity and the small sample size of available molecular series contribute to a limited view of the molecular landscape of VSCC. Large-scale genome- or exome-wide studies with robust HPV testing are necessary to improve the molecular characterization of VSCC.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Mutation , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Vulvar Neoplasms/genetics , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/metabolism , Female , Humans , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Vulvar Neoplasms/metabolism
11.
Immunity ; 54(6): 1304-1319.e9, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246001

ABSTRACT

Despite mounting evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) engagement with immune cells, most express little, if any, of the canonical receptor of SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Here, using a myeloid cell receptor-focused ectopic expression screen, we identified several C-type lectins (DC-SIGN, L-SIGN, LSECtin, ASGR1, and CLEC10A) and Tweety family member 2 (TTYH2) as glycan-dependent binding partners of the SARS-CoV-2 spike. Except for TTYH2, these molecules primarily interacted with spike via regions outside of the receptor-binding domain. Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of pulmonary cells from individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) indicated predominant expression of these molecules on myeloid cells. Although these receptors do not support active replication of SARS-CoV-2, their engagement with the virus induced robust proinflammatory responses in myeloid cells that correlated with COVID-19 severity. We also generated a bispecific anti-spike nanobody that not only blocked ACE2-mediated infection but also the myeloid receptor-mediated proinflammatory responses. Our findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2-myeloid receptor interactions promote immune hyperactivation, which represents potential targets for COVID-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Myeloid Cells/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Line , Cytokines , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lectins, C-Type/chemistry , Membrane Proteins/chemistry , Models, Molecular , Neoplasm Proteins/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship
12.
Comput Biol Med ; 130: 104219, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032696

ABSTRACT

Comorbidities in COVID-19 patients often lead to more severe outcomes. The disease-specific molecular events, which may induce susceptibility to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, are being investigated. To assess this, we retrieved array-based gene expression datasets from patients of 30 frequently occurring acute, chronic, or infectious diseases. Comparative analyses of the datasets were performed after quantile normalization and log2 transformation. Among the 78 host genes prominently implicated in COVID-19 infection, ACE2 (receptor for SARS-CoV-2) was positively regulated in several cases, namely, leukemia, psoriasis, lung cancer, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), breast cancer, and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). FURIN was positively regulated in some cases, such as leukemia, psoriasis, NAFLD, lung cancer, and type II diabetes (T2D), while TMPRSS2 was positively regulated in only 3 cases, namely, leukemia, lung cancer, and T2D. Genes encoding various interferons, cytokines, chemokines, and mediators of JAK-STAT pathway were positively regulated in leukemia, NAFLD, and T2D cases. Among the 161 genes that are positively regulated in the lungs of COVID-19 patients, 99-111 genes in leukemia (including various studied subtypes), 77 genes in NAFLD, and 48 genes in psoriasis were also positively regulated. Because of the high similarity in gene expression patterns, the patients of leukemia, NAFLD, T2D, psoriasis, and PAH may need additional preventive care against acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infections. Further, two genes CARBONIC ANHYDRASE 11 (CA11) and CLUSTERIN (CLU) were positively regulated in the lungs of patients infected with either SARS-CoV-2, or SARS-CoV or Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV).


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Psoriasis/metabolism , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Humans , Neoplasms/mortality , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/mortality , Psoriasis/mortality , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/mortality , Signal Transduction
13.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245190, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021677

ABSTRACT

Social isolation has affected a large number of people and may lead to impairment of physical and mental health. Although stress resulting from social isolation may increase cancer progression, its interference on tumorigenesis is poorly known. In this study, we used a preclinical model to evaluate the effects of social isolation stress on chemically induced oral carcinogenesis. Sixty-two 21-day-old male Wistar rats were divided into isolated and grouped groups. After 90 days of age, the rats from both groups underwent oral carcinogenesis with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) for 20 weeks. All rats were assessed for depressive-like behavior and euthanized for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) diagnosis and measurement of inflammatory mediators in the tumor microenvironment. Social isolation stress increased the OSCC occurrence by 20.4% when compared to control. Isolated rats also showed higher tumor volume and cachexia than the grouped rats. Social isolation did not induce changes in the depressive-like behavior after carcinogenic induction. Tumors from stressed rats had increased levels of the inflammatory mediators, TNF-alpha, IL1-beta and MCP-1. The concentrations of TNF-alpha and MCP-1 were significantly increased in the large tumors from isolated animals. Higher tumor levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL1-beta and MCP-1 were positively correlated with OSCC growth. This study provides the first evidence that social isolation stress may facilitate OSCC occurrence and tumor progression, an event accompanied by increased local levels of inflammatory mediators.


Subject(s)
4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide/toxicity , Behavior, Animal , Depression , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Social Isolation , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck , Stress, Psychological , Animals , Cytokines/metabolism , Depression/metabolism , Depression/pathology , Depression/physiopathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/chemically induced , Head and Neck Neoplasms/metabolism , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/physiopathology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Male , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/chemically induced , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/metabolism , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/pathology , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/physiopathology , Stress, Psychological/metabolism , Stress, Psychological/pathology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology
14.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110009, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611692

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Novel Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) represents a global threat to the public healthcare. The viral spike (S) glycoprotein is the key molecule for viral entry through interaction with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor molecules present on the cell membranes. Moreover, it has been established that COVID-19 interacts and infects brain cells in humans via ACE2. Therefore in the light of these known facts we hypothesized that viral S protein molecule may bind to the other overexpressed receptor molecules in glioma cells and may play some role in glioma tumorogenesis. Thus we leverage docking analysis (HEX and Z-DOCK) between viral S protein and epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) and hepatocyte growth factor receptors (HGFR/c-MET) to investigate the oncogenic potential of COVID-19. Our findings suggested higher affinity of Viral S protein towards EGFR and VEGFR. Although, the data presented is preliminary and need to be validated further via molecular dynamics studies, however it paves platform to instigate further investigations on this aspect considering the aftermath of COVID-19 pandemic in oncogenic perspective.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Brain Neoplasms/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Glioma/etiology , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met/metabolism , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Brain/virology , Brain Neoplasms/genetics , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , ErbB Receptors/chemistry , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Glioma/genetics , Glioma/metabolism , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/chemistry , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met/chemistry , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Up-Regulation
15.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 109987, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592474

ABSTRACT

In 2019, a new coronavirus (SARS CoV2) infecting humans has emerged in Wuhan, China which caused an unprecedented pandemic involving at least 185 countries infecting 2.5 million people till date. This virus is transmitted directly or indirectly through the upper aerodigestive tract. As it is evident from the recent studies that SARS-CoV-2 requires host enzyme Furin to activate receptor binding domain of its S protein and host Angiotensin Convertase Enzyme 2 (ACE2) is required as binding receptor, facilitating the entry of virus into the host cell. Evidence from literature shows that oral cancer tissues as well as paracarcinoma tissue exhibit higher expression of both Furin and ACE2, giving rise to the hypothesis that patients with oral cancer have higher chances of SARS CoV2 infection. It is also hypothesised that there will be increased severity of disease due to facilitated entry of the virus into the cells. Therefore, we suggest oral cancer patients require extra attention during COVID-19 pandemic and re-evaluation of current treatment paradigms in oral oncology is also needed.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Furin/metabolism , Mouth Neoplasms/virology , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Susceptibility , Furin/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Models, Biological , Mouth Neoplasms/genetics , Mouth Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Pandemics , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/biosynthesis , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Up-Regulation
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