Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 138
Filter
1.
Orv Hetil ; 163(43): 1704-1712, 2022 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140898

ABSTRACT

An increasing proportion of cancer patients remains permanently tumor-free after primary care due to modern curative treatments. However, the life expectancy and quality of life deteriorate significantly in most relapsed cases in spite of different palliative therapies. To detect the early relapse in asymptomatic stage, patients undergo a pre-planned care process, targeting primarily their improved survival. Several studies and reviews have been conducted in recent decades to determine the optimal and rational frequency and methods of control examinations. The data of different follow-up strategies were analyzed from several perspectives. Recommended follow-up protocols differ significantly based on the origin, histological characteristics, stage, prognostic factors and typical sites of recurrences, such as local, "oligometastatic" or systemic relapse of tumors. In addition to the detection of recurrence, the importance of quality of life, monitoring of psychological status and psychosomatic complaints as well as the cost-effectiveness of protocols also came to the focus. Involving family doctors or qualified nurses in routine oncology follow-up may function as an alternative option to reducing the workload of specialists. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the use of telemedicine methods in the evaluation of examinations and follow-up strategies coming to the fore, while at the same time this made the re-evaluation of control care algorithms even more important. In this paper, we review the results of studies comparing the different follow-up strategies, highlighting which protocols help to optimize the use of health care capacity while preserving the survival chance of cancer patients in relapse. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(43): 1704-1712.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cost-Benefit Analysis
2.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 445, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139400

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the current climate of the pandemic, lung cancer patients are especially vulnerable to complications from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. As a high-risk population group, these patients are strongly advised to receive coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination in accordance with Center for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines to minimize morbidity and mortality. In recent years, immunotherapy has taken a preeminent role in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with dramatic improvement in overall survival. Reactive lymphadenopathy following the administration of a coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination can confound the radiographic interpretation of positron emission tomography-computed tomography or computed tomography scans from lung cancer patients receiving immunotherapy. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present a case of a 61-year-old Caucasian female and former smoker who developed cervical, hilar, supraclavicular, mediastinal, and left retroauricular lymphadenopathy following her coronavirus disease 2019 booster vaccination. At the time, she had been receiving long-term immunotherapy for the treatment of advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Biopsy was pursued owing to concerns of treatment failure and confirmed recurrent malignancy. CONCLUSION: This case report highlights the importance of lymph node biopsies in lung cancer patients who present with contralateral lymphadenopathy following coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination to rule out tumor recurrence in this deserving patient population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Lymphadenopathy , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
3.
Acta Med Okayama ; 76(5): 593-596, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117475

ABSTRACT

We encountered a woman with re-enlarged axillary lymph nodes during a computed tomography (CT) scan for surveillance of lung adenocarcinoma with axillary lymph node metastasis at the initial diagnosis that had shrunk with standard chemotherapy. We first suspected cancer recurrence and considered a change in the chemotherapeutic regimen. However, after careful history taking regarding the timing of her Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination, and subsequent careful, close follow-up, radiological shrinkage suggested a strictly benign cause. Especially in lung cancer with a medical history of axillary lymph node involvement, cliniciansshould be aware that vaccine-associated lymphadenopathy can mimic cancer recurrence and sometimesprompt serious misjudgment regarding a current treatment course and strategy.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma of Lung , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Lymphadenopathy , Female , Humans , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Lymphadenopathy/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology
4.
Health Technol Assess ; 26(41): 1-118, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are a mainstay of the treatment of moderately severe relapses of ulcerative colitis, yet almost 50% of patients do not respond fully to these and risk prolonged steroid use and side effects. There is a lack of clarity about the definitions of steroid resistance, the optimum choice of treatment, and patient and health-care professional treatment preferences. OBJECTIVES: The overall aim of this research was to understand how steroid-resistant ulcerative colitis is managed in adult secondary care and how current practice compares with patient and health-care professional preferences. DESIGN: A mixed-methods study, including an online survey, qualitative interviews and discrete choice experiments. SETTING: NHS inflammatory bowel disease services in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with ulcerative colitis and health-care professionals treating inflammatory bowel disease. RESULTS: We carried out a survey of health-care professionals (n = 168), qualitative interviews with health-care professionals (n = 20) and patients (n = 33), discrete choice experiments with health-care professionals (n = 116) and patients (n = 115), and a multistakeholder workshop (n = 9). The interviews with and survey of health-care professionals showed that most health-care professionals define steroid resistance as an incomplete response to 40 mg per day of prednisolone after 2 weeks. The survey also found that anti-tumour necrosis factor drugs (particularly infliximab) are the most frequently offered drugs across most steroid-resistant (and steroid-dependent) patient scenarios, but they are less frequently offered to thiopurine-naive patients. Patient interviews identified several factors influencing their treatment choices, including effectiveness of treatment, recommendations from health-care professionals, route of administration and side effects. Over time, depending on the severity and duration of symptoms and, crucially, as medical treatment options become exhausted, patients are willing to try alternative treatments and, eventually, to undergo surgery. The discrete choice experiments found that the probability of remission and of side effects strongly influences the treatment choices of both patients and health-care professionals. Patients are less likely to choose a treatment that takes longer to improve symptoms. Health-care professionals are willing to make difficult compromises by tolerating greater safety risks in exchange for therapeutic benefits. The treatments ranked most positively by patients were infliximab and tofacitinib (each preferred by 38% of patients), and the predicted probability of uptake by health-care professionals was greatest for infliximab (62%). LIMITATIONS: The survey and the discrete choice experiments with patients and health-care professionals are limited by their relatively small sample sizes. The qualitative studies are subject to selection bias. The timing of the different substudies, both before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, is a potential limitation. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified factors influencing treatment decisions for steroid-resistant ulcerative colitis and the characteristics to consider when choosing treatments to evaluate in future randomised controlled trials. The findings may be used to improve discussions between patients and health-care professionals when they review treatment options for steroid-resistant ulcerative colitis. FUTURE WORK: This research highlights the need for consensus work to establish an agreed definition of steroid resistance in ulcerative colitis and a greater understanding of the optimal use of tofacitinib and surgery for this patient group. A randomised controlled trial comparing infliximab with tofacitinib is also recommended. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 26, No. 41. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Steroids are one of the main treatments for ulcerative colitis; however, steroids work well for only about 50% of people who take them. There are many other treatments that can be given when steroids do not work, but evidence is limited about how these treatments are best used. To carry out better research about the best treatment options and to improve clinical practice in the future, this study aimed to find out how adults with steroid-resistant ulcerative colitis are managed in hospital and why patients and health-care professionals prefer different treatments. The study combined various methods of research, including an online survey of health-care professionals (n = 168), interviews with health-care professionals (n = 20) and patients (n = 33), a survey of health-care professionals (n = 116) and patients (n = 115) to ask them about treatment preferences, and a multistakeholder workshop (n = 9). The interviews with and survey of health-care professionals found that most health-care professionals define steroid resistance as an incomplete response to 40 mg per day of prednisolone after 2 weeks. The survey also found that the most frequently offered drugs are anti-tumour necrosis factor drugs (particularly infliximab). Patient interviews found that several factors influenced treatment choices, including effectiveness of treament, guidance from health-care professionals, route of administration and side effects. Patients were willing to try alternative treatments and surgery over time. The survey found that a higher level of remission and a lower chance of side effects strongly influenced treatment choices. Patients are less likely to choose a treatment that takes longer to improve symptoms. Health-care professionals are willing to make difficult compromises by tolerating greater safety risks in exchange for therapeutic benefits. Infliximab and tofacitinib were ranked most positively by patients, and the predicted uptake by health-care professionals was greatest for infliximab. The results of this study help improve understanding of why people choose certain treatments, improve decision-making in partnership and inform the design of future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Adult , Humans , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Colitis, Ulcerative/surgery , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Patient Preference , Pandemics , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
5.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 49: 101688, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity has been a great public health concern among breast cancer survivors (BCS), especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, as it is closely related to a higher risk of cancer recurrence and mortality. The positive impacts of psychosocial beliefs in promoting physical activity (PA) have been well acknowledged. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the effects of psychosocial beliefs on PA in BCS to prevent physical inactivity. Furthermore, we examined the relationships between daily activities, trip behaviors, and associated subjective well-being. METHODS: This study used a cross-sectional, descriptive study design. Female BCS who were able to exercise regularly completed the battery of assessments in March 2021. Specifically, the international PA questionnaires and the adapted PA-related psychosocial beliefs questionnaires were used to assess BCS's PA and psychosocial beliefs, respectively. In addition, the smartphone-based Day Reconstruction Method was utilized to measure subjective well-being. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-squared test, analyses of variance, and correlation analysis. RESULTS: In the context of investigations during the COVID-19 pandemic, our study showed that 77.8% of BCS reported meeting PA guidelines. As the components of psychosocial beliefs, the change strategies, social support, and confidence were significantly associated with higher PA levels. Additionally, the protective effect of leisure/recreation activities among BCS on their emotional well-being was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study demonstrated the importance of understanding the relationship between BCS's psychosocial beliefs and PA during the pandemic. Notably, this study is unique because it used an application-based method to assess BCS' subjective well-being objectively.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Cancer Survivors , Female , Humans , Cancer Survivors/psychology , Breast Neoplasms/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Exercise/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2238961, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094120

ABSTRACT

This case series describes the kinetics of humoral deficiency in patients with relapsed refractory multiple myeloma treated with bispecific antibodies, the infectious complications, and response to COVID-19 immunization.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific , Multiple Myeloma , Humans , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Kinetics , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Antibodies, Bispecific/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(11)2022 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082036

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, the European Association of Urology (EAU) Guidelines Office Rapid Reaction Group (GORRG) recommended that patients with clinical stage I (CSI) seminoma be offered active surveillance (AS). This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy of AS versus adjuvant treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy for improving the overall survival (OS) of CSI seminoma patients. Materials and Methods: A systematic review was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. The primary outcome was 5-year OS, and the secondary outcome was the 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS). The outcomes were analyzed as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: A total of 14 studies were included. Overall, the quality scores were relatively high, and little publication bias was noted. In terms of the 5-year OS, 7 studies were analyzed; there was no significant difference between AS and adjuvant treatment (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.41-2.39; p = 0.97). In terms of 5-year RFS, 12 studies were analyzed. Adjuvant treatment reduced the risk of 5-year recurrence by 85% compared with AS (OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.08-0.26; p < 0.001). Conclusions: In terms of the OS in CSI seminoma patients, no intergroup difference was noted, so it is reasonable to offer AS, as recommended by the EAU GORRG until the end of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, since there is a large intergroup difference in the recurrence rate, further research on the long-term (>5 years) outcomes is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Seminoma , Testicular Neoplasms , Urology , Male , Humans , Seminoma/drug therapy , Seminoma/radiotherapy , Testicular Neoplasms/drug therapy , Testicular Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Pandemics , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/epidemiology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant
8.
Eur Urol ; 82(6): 602-610, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intravenous immune checkpoint inhibition is an effective anticancer strategy for bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-unresponsive non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) but may be associated with greater systemic toxicity compared with localized therapies. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the safety and antitumor activity of intravesical pembrolizumab combined with BCG. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A 3 + 3 phase 1 trial of pembrolizumab + BCG was conducted in patients with BCG-unresponsive NMIBC (NCT02808143). INTERVENTION: Pembrolizumab was given intravesically (1-5 mg/kg for 2 h) beginning 2 weeks prior to BCG induction until recurrence. Urine profiling during treatment and spatial transcriptomic profiling of pre- and post-treatment tumors were conducted to identify biomarkers that correlated with response. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Safety and tolerability of immune checkpoint inhibition were assessed, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Nine patients completed therapy. Median follow-up was 35 months for five patients still alive at the end of the trial. The trial was closed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Grade 1-2 urinary symptoms were common. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached; however, one dose-limiting toxicity was reported (grade 2 diarrhea) in the only patient who reached 52 weeks without recurrence. One death occurred from myasthenia gravis that was deemed potentially related to treatment. The 6-mo and 1-yr recurrence-free rates were 67% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 42-100%) and 22% (95% CI: 6.5-75%), respectively. Pembrolizumab was detected in the urine and not in blood. CD4+ T cells were significantly increased in the urine after treatment, and a transcriptomic analysis identified decreased expression of T-cell exhaustion markers in late recurrences. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that intravesical pembrolizumab is safe, feasible, and capable of eliciting strong immune responses in a clinical setting and should be investigated further. PATIENT SUMMARY: Direct application of pembrolizumab to the bladder is a promising alternative for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer unresponsive to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin and should be investigated further.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Humans , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Administration, Intravesical , BCG Vaccine/adverse effects , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Pandemics , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , Adjuvants, Immunologic
9.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 135(12): 1394-1403, 2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037562

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a highly effective and unique medical procedure for the treatment of most hematological malignancies. The first allogeneic transplantation was performed by E. Donnall Thomas in 1957. Since then, the field has evolved and expanded worldwide. The first successful allogenic HSCT (allo-HSCT) in China was conducted in 1981. Although the development of allo-HSCT in China lagged, China has since made considerable contributions to the process of HSCT worldwide, with more than 10,000 HSCTs performed annually. In particular, haploid HSCT (haplo-HSCT) technology represented in the Beijing Protocol has demonstrated similar efficacy to human leukocyte antigen-matched HSCT and has gradually become the pre-dominant choice for allo-HSCT in China. Currently, the number of haplo-HSCT procedures exceeds 5000 per year, and the Beijing Protocol has been greatly improved by implementing updated individualized strategies for controlling complications, relapse, and infection management. In addition, innovative haplo-HSCT technologies developed by different medical transplantation centers, such as Soochow, Zhejiang, Fujian, Chongqing, and Anhui, have emerged, providing inspiration for the refinement of global practice. This review will focus on the current activity in this field and highlight important trends that are vital in China's allo-HSCT process, examining the current viewpoint and future directions.


Subject(s)
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , China , HLA Antigens , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Transplantation, Homologous
10.
N Engl J Med ; 387(6): 495-505, 2022 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031919

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Teclistamab is a T-cell-redirecting bispecific antibody that targets both CD3 expressed on the surface of T cells and B-cell maturation antigen expressed on the surface of myeloma cells. In the phase 1 dose-defining portion of the study, teclistamab showed promising efficacy in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. METHODS: In this phase 1-2 study, we enrolled patients who had relapsed or refractory myeloma after at least three therapy lines, including triple-class exposure to an immunomodulatory drug, a proteasome inhibitor, and an anti-CD38 antibody. Patients received a weekly subcutaneous injection of teclistamab (at a dose of 1.5 mg per kilogram of body weight) after receiving step-up doses of 0.06 mg and 0.3 mg per kilogram. The primary end point was the overall response (partial response or better). RESULTS: Among 165 patients who received teclistamab, 77.6% had triple-class refractory disease (median, five previous therapy lines). With a median follow-up of 14.1 months, the overall response rate was 63.0%, with 65 patients (39.4%) having a complete response or better. A total of 44 patients (26.7%) were found to have no minimal residual disease (MRD); the MRD-negativity rate among the patients with a complete response or better was 46%. The median duration of response was 18.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.9 to not estimable). The median duration of progression-free survival was 11.3 months (95% CI, 8.8 to 17.1). Common adverse events included cytokine release syndrome (in 72.1% of the patients; grade 3, 0.6%; no grade 4), neutropenia (in 70.9%; grade 3 or 4, 64.2%), anemia (in 52.1%; grade 3 or 4, 37.0%), and thrombocytopenia (in 40.0%; grade 3 or 4, 21.2%). Infections were frequent (in 76.4%; grade 3 or 4, 44.8%). Neurotoxic events occurred in 24 patients (14.5%), including immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome in 5 patients (3.0%; all grade 1 or 2). CONCLUSIONS: Teclistamab resulted in a high rate of deep and durable response in patients with triple-class-exposed relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Cytopenias and infections were common; toxic effects that were consistent with T-cell redirection were mostly grade 1 or 2. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; MajesTEC-1 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT03145181 and NCT04557098.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , B-Cell Maturation Antigen , CD3 Complex , Multiple Myeloma , Antibodies, Bispecific/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Bispecific/adverse effects , Antibodies, Bispecific/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , B-Cell Maturation Antigen/antagonists & inhibitors , CD3 Complex/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Multiple Myeloma/immunology , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Recurrence , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
11.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273733, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009706

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the European Association of Urology (EAU) recommended that courses of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy lasting more than 1 year could be safely terminated for patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Thus, we conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis according to EAU's COVID-19 recommendations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review was performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines. We conducted a network meta-analysis of recurrence rate in patients with NMIBC receiving induction therapy (M0) and those receiving maintenance therapy lasting 1 year (M1) and more than 1 year (M2). RESULTS: Nineteen studies of 3,957 patients were included for the network meta-analysis. In a node-split forest plot using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) modeling, there were no differences between the M1 and M2 groups in recurrence rate [odds ratio (OR) 0.95 (0.73-1.2)]. However, recurrence rate in the M0 group was higher than that in the M1 [OR 1.9 (1.5-2.5)] and M2 [OR 2.0 (1.7-2.4)] groups. P-score tests using frequentist inference to rank the treatments in the network demonstrated that the therapy used in the M2 group (P-score 0.8701) was superior to that used in the M1 (P-score 0.6299) and M0 groups (P-score 0). In rank-probability tests using MCMC modeling, the M2 group showed the highest rank, followed by the M1 and M0 groups. CONCLUSION: In the network meta-analysis, there were no differences between those receiving BCG maintenance therapies in terms of recurrence rate. In the rank tests, therapy lasting more than 1-year appears to be most effective. During the COVID-19 pandemic, 1-year maintenance therapy can be used, but after the COVID-19 pandemic, therapy lasting more than 1-year could be beneficial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium bovis , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Urology , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Administration, Intravesical , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , Bayes Theorem , Duration of Therapy , Humans , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Network Meta-Analysis , Pandemics , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/drug therapy
12.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 83(7): 1-10, 2022 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988543

ABSTRACT

Mast cells are innate immune cells found in connective tissues throughout the body, most prevalent at tissue-environment interfaces. They possess multiple cell-surface receptors which react to various stimuli and, after activation, release many mediators including histamine, heparin, cytokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes and proteases. In mast cell activation syndrome, excessive amounts of inflammatory mediators are released in response to triggers such as foods, fragrances, stress, exercise, medications or temperature changes. Diagnostic markers may be difficult to assess because of their rapid degradation; these include urinary N-methyl histamine, urinary prostaglandins D2, DM and F2α and serum tryptase (which is stable) in the UK. Self-management techniques, medications and avoiding triggers may improve quality of life. Treatments include mast cell mediator blockers, mast cell stabilisers and anti-inflammatory agents. 'Long COVID' describes post-COVID-19 syndrome when symptoms persist for more than 12 weeks after initial infection with no alternative diagnosis. Both mast cell activation syndrome and long COVID cause multiple symptoms. It is theorised that COVID-19 infection could lead to exaggeration of existing undiagnosed mast cell activation syndrome, or could activate normal mast cells owing to the persistence of viral particles. Other similarities include the relapse-remission cycle and improvements with similar treatments. Importantly, however, aside from mast cell disorders, long COVID could potentially be attributed to several other conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mast Cell Activation Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Histamine/metabolism , Humans , Mast Cells/metabolism , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Quality of Life
13.
Curr Radiopharm ; 15(3): 228-235, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This work aims to present a nuclear medicine imaging service's data regarding applying positron emission-computing tomography (PET/CT) scans with the radiopharmaceutical 68Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC (68Ga-PSMA-11) to diagnose prostate cancer clinical relapse. METHODS: Eighty patients with a mean age of 68.26 years and an average prostatic-specific antigen blood level of 7.49 ng/ml (lower concentration = 0.17 ng/ml) received 68Ga-PSMA-11 intravenously, and full-body images of PET-CT scan were obtained. Of the total of patients admitted to the imaging service, 87.5% were examined for disease's biochemical recurrence and clinical relapse, and 70.0% had a previous radical prostatectomy (RP). RESULTS: Of the patients without RP, 95.8% were detected with intra-glandular disease. The 68Ga- PSMA-11 PET/CT imaging results revealed small lesions, even in patients with low blood levels of prostatic-specific antigen, mainly in metastatic cancer cases in lymph nodes and bones. CONCLUSION: The 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT imaging was essential in detecting prostate cancer, with significantly high sensitivity in detecting recurrent cases. Due to its inherent reliability and sensitivity, PET/CT scanning with 68Ga-PSMA-11 received an increasing number of medical requests throughout the present follow-up study, confirming the augmented demand for this clinical imaging procedure in the regional medical community.


Subject(s)
Gallium Radioisotopes , Prostatic Neoplasms , Aged , Follow-Up Studies , Gallium Isotopes , Humans , Male , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Radiopharmaceuticals , Reproducibility of Results
14.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 726, 2022 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer patients require monitoring for relapse. Innovative follow-up methods are increasingly being explored. An electronic patient-reported outcome (ePRO) follow-up pathway was developed for women treated for ovarian cancer. This feasibility study explored patient acceptability and compliance. METHODS: A single-arm non-blinded prospective feasibility study was undertaken at two hospitals. Participants were women who had completed treatment for ovarian cancer whose clinician was happy for them to be monitored remotely. Automated 3-monthly reminders were sent to participants to complete an ePRO questionnaire and obtain blood tests. Participants were reviewed over the phone by their clinical nurse specialist instead of attending clinic-based follow-up. The primary outcome was compliance (expected ePRO completions/blood tests) across the 12-month study period. Secondary outcomes were recruitment, attrition, resource use, symptom severity/alerts and patient acceptability. RESULTS: Twenty-four women consented (50% consent rate), and 13 remained on study at 12 months. Seven women relapsed, 3 chose to withdraw, and 1 withdrew for other clinical reasons. ePRO compliance was high and consistent at 75-82%, although the two hospitals differed. Adherence to the clinical protocol was evident for blood tests and contacts with staff (fewer visits, more phonecalls compared to an earlier audit). End-of-study feedback indicated high patient satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Remote ePRO follow-up for ovarian cancer is feasible and acceptable to patients who are able and willing to participate. However, the low recruitment rate (ineligible + declined) indicate it is not suitable/acceptable to all patients immediately post-treatment. Further large-scale research and implementation work is required, especially in a post-COVID era. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02847715 (first registered 19/05/2016).


Subject(s)
Ovarian Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Ovarian Epithelial , Electronics , Feasibility Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Ovarian Neoplasms/diagnosis , Ovarian Neoplasms/therapy , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Prospective Studies
15.
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(30): e29281, 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967934

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Germ cell tumors in the head and neck are very rare. In cases of germ cell tumors, it is uncommon for lymph node metastasis to be the only and initial symptom, and this can easily lead to a misdiagnosis. Herein, we report about a 28-year-old woman with lymph node metastasis, in whom a primary tumor appeared in the nasal cavity. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 28-year-old woman presented with enlarged left submandibular lymph nodes. No other mass was found on whole-body screening using positron emission tomography-computed tomography. DIAGNOSIS: After partial submandibular lymphadenectomy was performed, histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations revealed a metastatic germ cell tumor. However, it was difficult to further classify and affirm the origin. INTERVENTIONS: As the patient was receiving four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy, a primary tumor emerged in the nasal cavity, which was finally confirmed as an immature teratoma of a high World Health Organization histological grade and Norris grade 3. This tumor was found to contain similar components to lymph nodes with respect to histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics, especially the immature neural tubes or nervous tissue in the nasal cavity. Fortunately, the patient recovered well with no signs of relapse, and the size of residual lymph nodes remained unchanged after she received another four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy and two cycles of doxorubicin and ifosfamide (AI) chemotherapy. OUTCOMES: Unfortunately, 11 months later, during the coronavirus disease pandemic, the patient died owing to respiratory failure and pulmonary infection. CONCLUSIONS: In cases of malignant tumor in the submandibular lymph nodes of adults, the metastasis of a germ cell tumor should be considered an important differential diagnosis even if a primary tumor does not emerge. In this case, adequate postoperative chemotherapy is necessary.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Testicular Neoplasms , Adult , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Bleomycin/therapeutic use , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Etoposide/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Lymphatic Metastasis , Male , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/drug therapy , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/therapy , Testicular Neoplasms/pathology
17.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 67: 104086, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) are a group of primary immunodeficiencies characterized by impaired immunoglobulin production and dysregulated immune response. Neurological manifestations have been described in a few patients, and little is known about its clinic and therapeutic approach. Thus, this work aimed to review the literature on it and to help differentiate CVID from its mimics, especially sarcoidosis. METHODS: We described a case report and included a literature review of inflammatory neurological involvement in CVID. RESULTS: A 32-year-old female patient with a medical history of recurrent bacterial infections, temporal focal epilepsy and granulomatous lung disease under study, and cervix squamous cell carcinoma, was initially admitted to the emergency department due to intracranial hypertension. After excluding infectious and neoplastic etiologies, the most likely hypothesis was that granulomatous pulmonary, cerebral, and leptomeningeal inflammatory involvement were associated with sarcoidosis. Two years later, a diagnosis of CVID was made, and the patient was secondarily diagnosed with Granulomatous and Lymphocytic Interstitial Lung Disease (GLILD) and related inflammatory brain disease - both complications of CVID. After starting targeted treatment with immunoglobulin replacement and pulse glucocorticoids followed by a chronic taper, the patient became stable. However, three consecutive failures in immunoglobulin intake during the COVID-19 pandemic led to disease recurrence with relapse of neurological manifestations. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the complex multiple organ manifestations of CVID. When granulomatous conditions arise in these patients, a rare lung disease arising in the context of CVID, the GLILD disease with multisystem involvement, should be taken into consideration. Early treatment with combined steroids and immunotherapy seems to be effective in controlling CVID's neurological manifestations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Common Variable Immunodeficiency , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Sarcoidosis , Female , Humans , Adult , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/complications , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Pandemics , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Sarcoidosis/complications , Sarcoidosis/diagnosis , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD008766, 2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1958662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the seventh most frequent cancer diagnosis worldwide, and the eighth leading cause of cancer mortality. Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most common kind, accounting for 90% of cases. First-line therapy for women with epithelial ovarian cancer consists of a combination of cytoreductive surgery and platinum and taxane-based chemotherapy. However, more than 50% of women with epithelial ovarian cancer will experience a relapse and require further chemotherapy and at some point develop resistance to platinum-based drugs. Currently, guidance on the use of most chemotherapy drugs, including taxanes, is unclear for women whose epithelial ovarian cancer has recurred. Paclitaxel, topotecan, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride, trabectedin and gemcitabine are all licensed for use in the UK at the discretion of clinicians, following discussion with the women as to potential adverse effects. Taxanes can be given in once-weekly regimens (at a lower dose) or three-weekly regimens (at a higher dose), which may have differences in the severity of side effects and effectiveness. As relapsed disease suggests incurable disease, it is all the more important to consider side effects and the impact of treatment schedules, as well as quality of life, and not only the life-prolonging effects of treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and toxicity of different taxane monotherapy regimens for women with recurrent epithelial ovarian, tubal or primary peritoneal cancer. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase, up to 22 March 2022. Other related databases and trial registries were searched as well as grey literature and no additional studies were identified. A total of 1500 records were identified. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials of taxane monotherapy for adult women diagnosed with recurrent epithelial ovarian, tubal or primary peritoneal cancer, previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. We included trials comparing two or more taxane monotherapy regimens. Participants could be experiencing their first recurrence of disease or any line of recurrence. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors screened, independently assessed studies, and extracted data from the included studies. The clinical outcomes we examined were overall survival, response rate, progression-free survival, neurotoxicity, neutropenia, alopecia, and quality of life. We performed statistical analyses using fixed-effect and random-effects models following standard Cochrane methodology. We rated the certainty of evidence according to the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: Our literature search yielded 1500 records of 1466 studies; no additional studies were identified by searching grey literature or handsearching. We uploaded the search results into Covidence. After the exclusion of 92 duplicates, we screened titles and abstracts of 1374 records. Of these, we identified 24 studies for full-text screening. We included four parallel-group randomised controlled trials (RCTs). All trials were multicentred and conducted in a hospital setting. The studies included 981 eligible participants with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer, tubal or primary peritoneal cancer with a median age ranging between 56 to 62 years of age. All participants had a WHO (World Health Organization) performance status of between 0 to 2. The proportion of participants with serous histology ranged between 56% to 85%. Participants included women who had platinum-sensitive (71%) and platinum-resistant (29%) relapse. Some participants were taxane pre-treated (5.6%), whilst the majority were taxane-naive (94.4%). No studies were classified as having a high risk of bias for any of the domains in the Cochrane risk of bias tool. We found that there may be little or no difference in overall survival (OS) between weekly paclitaxel and three-weekly paclitaxel, but the evidence is very uncertain (risk ratio (RR) of 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66 to 1.33, two studies, 263 participants, very low-certainty evidence). Similarly, there may be little or no difference in response rate (RR of 1.07, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.48, two studies, 263 participants, very low-certainty evidence) and progression-free survival (PFS) (RR of 0.83, 95% CI 0.46 to 1.52, two studies, 263 participants, very low-certainty evidence) between weekly and three-weekly paclitaxel, but the evidence is very uncertain. We found differences in the chemotherapy-associated adverse events between the weekly and three-weekly paclitaxel regimens. The weekly paclitaxel regimen may result in a reduction in neutropenia (RR 0.51, 95% 0.27 to 0.95, two studies, 260 participants, low-certainty evidence) and alopecia (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.73, one study, 205 participants, low-certainty evidence). There may be little or no difference in neurotoxicity, but the evidence was very low-certainty and we cannot exclude an effect (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.45, two studies, 260 participants). When examining the effect of paclitaxel dosage in the three-weekly regimen, the 250 mg/m2 paclitaxel regimen probably causes more neurotoxicity compared to the 175 mg/m2 regimen (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.80, one study, 330 participants, moderate-certainty evidence). Quality-of-life data were not extractable from any of the included studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Fewer people may experience neutropenia when given weekly rather than three-weekly paclitaxel (low-certainty evidence), although it may make little or no difference to the risk of developing neurotoxicity (very low-certainty evidence). This is based on the participants receiving lower doses of drug more often. However, our confidence in this result is low and the true effect may be substantially different from the estimate of the effect. Weekly paclitaxel probably reduces the risk of alopecia, although the rates in both arms were high (46% versus 79%) (low-certainty evidence). A change to weekly from three-weekly chemotherapy could be considered to reduce the likelihood of toxicity, as it may have little or no negative impact on response rate (very low-certainty evidence), PFS (very low-certainty evidence) or OS (very low-certainty evidence). Three-weekly paclitaxel, given at a dose of 175 mg/m2 compared to a higher dose,probably reduces the risk of neurotoxicity.We are moderately confident in this result; the true effect is likely to be close to the estimate of the effect, but there is a possibility that it is substantially different. A change to 175 mg/m2 paclitaxel (from a higher dose), if a three-weekly regimen is used, probably has little or no negative impact on PFS or OS (very low-certainty evidence).


Subject(s)
Neutropenia , Ovarian Neoplasms , Adult , Alopecia/drug therapy , Bridged-Ring Compounds , Carcinoma, Ovarian Epithelial/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Ovarian Neoplasms/drug therapy , Paclitaxel/adverse effects , Taxoids/adverse effects
19.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 65: 103960, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1946100

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically impacted our lives. We conducted this systematic review to investigate the safety of the COVID-19 vaccines in NMOSD patients. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase from the beginning of the COVID-19 vaccination to March 1, 2022. Except for the letters, posters, and reviews, we included all related articles to answer two main questions. Our first question examined the occurrence of NMOSD onset as an adverse effect of the COVID-19 vaccine. Our second question investigated the safety of the COVID-19 vaccines in NMOSD patients. RESULTS: Out of 262 records, nine studies, including five studies for the first question and four studies for the second question, met the inclusion criteria. Out of the six patients with NMOSD onset after COVID-19 vaccination, five (83.3%) were female. The median time to NMOSD onset was 6.5 days, and the frequency of the COVID-19 vaccine type was identical in all patients. The most common presentation was longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, significantly improved by pulse methylprednisolone with or without plasma exchange. The maintenance therapy was described only in three patients: rituximab (n=2) and azathioprine (n=1). Regarding the second question, out of 67 patients, 77.61% were female, with a mean age of 54.75 years old, a mean EDSS of 2.83, and a mean disease duration of 9.5 years. 77% reported at least one preexisting comorbidity. 88.05% were under treatment, most of which were rituximab and azathioprine. 98.50% received two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine. mRNA vaccines were the most commonly used vaccine(86.56%), which were well tolerated. No significant adverse event was reported, and local pain was the most frequently reported. 4.67% of the patients experienced a clinical relapse after a mean interval of 49.75 days, which was mainly mild to moderate in severity. Unfortunately, the data on the COVID-19 vaccines were missing. CONCLUSION: The analysis suggests the safety profile of the COVID-19 vaccines. All NMOSD patients are strongly recommended to vaccinate for COVID-19. To maximize the effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccines, further studies are needed to draw the best practice for vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Neuromyelitis Optica , Aquaporin 4 , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Neurologists , Neuromyelitis Optica/drug therapy , Neuromyelitis Optica/etiology , Pandemics , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Vaccination/adverse effects
20.
Syst Rev ; 11(1): 134, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and degenerative disease of the central nervous system with an increasing worldwide prevalence. Since 1993, more than 15 disease-modifying immunotherapies (DMTs) have been licenced and have shown moderate efficacy in clinical trials. Based on the heterogeneity of the disease and the partial effectiveness of therapies, a personalised medicine approach would be valuable taking individual prognosis and suitability of a chosen therapy into account to gain the best possible treatment effect. The primary objective of this review is to assess the differential treatment effects of all approved DMTs in subgroups of adults with clinically isolated syndrome or relapsing forms of MS. We will analyse possible treatment effect modifiers (TEM) defined by baseline demographic characteristics (gender, age), and diagnostic (i.e. MRI measures) and clinical (i.e. relapses, disability level) measures of MS disease activity. METHODS: We will include all published and accessible unpublished primary and secondary analyses of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with a follow-up of at least 12 months investigating the efficacy of at least one approved DMT, with placebo or other approved DMTs as control intervention(s) in subgroups of trial participants. As the primary outcome, we will address disability as defined by the Expanded Disability Status Scale or multiple sclerosis functional composite scores followed by relapse frequency, quality of life measures, and side effects. MRI data will be analysed as secondary outcomes. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, CENTRAL and major trial registers will be searched for suitable studies. Titles and abstracts and full texts will be screened by two persons independently using Covidence. The risk of bias will be analysed based on the Cochrane "Risk of Bias 2" tool, and the certainty of evidence will be assessed using GRADE. Treatment effects will be reported as rate ratio or odds ratio. Primary analyses will follow the intention-to-treat principle. Meta-analyses will be carried out using random-effects models. DISCUSSION: Given that individual patient data from clinical studies are often not available, the review will allow to analyse the evidence on TEM in MS immunotherapy and thus support clinical decision making in individual cases. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021279665 .


Subject(s)
Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Adult , Biomarkers , Demography , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Review Literature as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL