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1.
Cancer Sci ; 113(4): 1531-1534, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779205

ABSTRACT

According to the current international guidelines, high-risk patients diagnosed with pathological T1 (pT1) colorectal cancer (CRC) who underwent complete local resection but may have risk of developing lymph node metastasis (LNM) are recommended additional intestinal resection with lymph node dissection. However, around 90% of the patients without LNM are exposed to the risk of being overtreated due to the insufficient pathological criteria for risk stratification of LNM. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a noninvasive biomarker for molecular residual disease and relapse detection after treatments including surgical and endoscopic resection of solid tumors. The CIRCULATE-Japan project includes a large-scale patient-screening registry of the GALAXY study to track ctDNA status of patients with stage II to IV or recurrent CRC that can be completely resected. Based on the CIRCULATE-Japan platform, we launched DENEB, a new prospective study, within the GALAXY study for patients with pT1 CRC who underwent complete local resection and were scheduled for additional intestinal resection with lymph node dissection based on the standard pathologic risk stratification criteria for LNM. The aim of this study is to explore the ability of predicting LNM using ctDNA analysis compared with the standard pathological criteria. The ctDNA assay will build new evidence to establish a noninvasive personalized diagnosis in patients, which will facilitate tailored/optimal treatment strategies for CRC patients.


Subject(s)
Circulating Tumor DNA , Colorectal Neoplasms , Circulating Tumor DNA/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Humans , Liquid Biopsy , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
2.
Cancer Sci ; 112(7): 2915-2920, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294969

ABSTRACT

Adjuvant chemotherapy has reduced the risk of tumor recurrence and improved survival in patients with resected colorectal cancer. Potential utility of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) prior to and post surgery has been reported across various solid tumors. We initiated a new type of adaptive platform trials to evaluate the clinical benefits of ctDNA analysis and refine precision adjuvant therapy for resectable colorectal cancer, named CIRCULATE-Japan including three clinical trials. The GALAXY study is a prospectively conducted large-scale registry designed to monitor ctDNA for patients with clinical stage II to IV or recurrent colorectal cancer who can undergo complete surgical resection. The VEGA trial is a randomized phase III study designed to test whether postoperative surgery alone is noninferior to the standard therapy with capecitabine plus oxaliplatin for 3 months in patients with high-risk stage II or low-risk stage III colon cancer if ctDNA status is negative at week 4 after curative surgery in the GALAXY study. The ALTAIR trial is a double-blind, phase III study designed to establish the superiority of trifluridine/tipiracil as compared with placebo in patients with resected colorectal cancer who show circulating tumor-positive status in the GALAXY study. Therefore, CIRCULATE-Japan encompasses both "de-escalation" and "escalation" trials for ctDNA-negative and -positive patients, respectively, and helps to answer whether measuring ctDNA postoperatively has prognostic and/or predictive value. Our ctDNA-guided adaptive platform trials will accelerate clinical development toward further precision oncology in the field of adjuvant therapy. Analysis of ctDNA status could be utilized as a predictor of risk stratification for recurrence and to monitor the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy. ctDNA is a promising, noninvasive tumor biomarker that can aid in tumor monitoring throughout disease management.


Subject(s)
Circulating Tumor DNA/blood , Colorectal Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/blood , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Capecitabine/administration & dosage , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Colonic Neoplasms/blood , Colonic Neoplasms/genetics , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Colonic Neoplasms/therapy , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Japan , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/genetics , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/therapy , Oxaliplatin/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Pyrrolidines/administration & dosage , Thymine/administration & dosage , Trifluridine/administration & dosage
3.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 47(4): 1243-1252, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175089

ABSTRACT

AIM: The scar of cesarean section (CS) is the most common site of abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE), whose tumor degeneration has been reported in an increasing number of cases; the most frequent histological type is clear cell carcinoma (CCC). METHODS: We conducted a systematic research of the literature, collecting data regarding the evidence on tumor degeneration from AWE after CS. Moreover, we reported a case of clear cell borderline tumor (CCBT) originating from AWE. RESULTS: We included data of 37 patients with diagnosis of CCC. The average time between the last CS and the diagnosis of CCC was around 15 years. Overall, 26.0% and 73.9% patients received exclusive local abdominal resection of the lesion and additional surgery, respectively. Lymph nodes involvement was detected in 26.0 % patients and adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in 52.0 % cases. During follow-up period, 15.2% patients died of disease, 32.6% had no evidence of disease, and 17.4% recurred. We diagnosed a CCBT arose in a patients with AWE and a personal history of several surgical procedures for endometriosis, a CS and a subsequent transverse laparotomy. We performed an open bilateral ovariectomy and a large excision of the endometriotic abdominal lesion. CONCLUSION: Tumor degeneration from AWE seems to be a real occurrence with an increasing number of events. Considering the lack of risk factors and diagnostic instruments for tumor degeneration, the removal of AWE localization could be advisable, even though there was long average time between the trigger surgery and the tumor finding.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Wall , Endometriosis , Abdominal Wall/surgery , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Cicatrix/pathology , Endometriosis/pathology , Endometriosis/surgery , Female , Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5282, 2021 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118819

ABSTRACT

In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of palliative breast radiation therapy (RT), with single fraction RT compared with fractionated RT. Our study showed that both RT fractionation schemas provide palliation. Single fraction RT allowed for treatment with minimal interference with systemic therapy, whereas fractionated RT provided a more durable palliative response. Due to equivalent palliative response, at our institution we have increasingly been providing single fraction RT palliation during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Electrons/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/radiotherapy , Palliative Care/methods , Photons/therapeutic use , Radiodermatitis/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Breast/pathology , Breast/radiation effects , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Dose Fractionation, Radiation , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Electrons/adverse effects , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Photons/adverse effects , Radiation Oncology/standards , Radiodermatitis/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
5.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 117, 2020 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895020

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes a hyperactivation of immune cells, resulting in lung inflammation. Recent studies showed that COVID-19 induces the production of factors previously implicated in the reawakening of dormant breast cancer cells such as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The presence of NETs and of a pro-inflammatory microenvironment may therefore promote breast cancer reactivation, increasing the risk of pulmonary metastasis. Further studies will be required to confirm the link between COVID-19 and cancer recurrence. However, an increased awareness on the potential risks for breast cancer patients with COVID-19 may lead to improved treatment strategies to prevent metastatic relapse.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/immunology , Breast Neoplasms/virology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/immunology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Female , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neutrophils/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Microenvironment/immunology
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