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1.
Head Neck ; 45(8): 1979-1985, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233770

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on disease extent in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) using 18 fuorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included biopsy-proven, newly diagnosed NPC patients using whole-body FDG PET/MR staging in two selected intervals: 1 May 2017 to 31 January 2020 (Group A, the pre-COVID-19 period), and 1 February 2020 to 30 June 2021 (Group B, the COVID-19 period). RESULTS: Three-hundred and ninety patients were included. No significant difference was observed in terms of T classification, N classification, overall stage, N stations, and M stations between the two groups (p > 0.05). For the involved neck node levels, more patients had developed level Vc metastasis in the group B (p = 0.044). CONCLUSION: Although the overall stage was not affected, more patients with NPC had developed level Vc metastasis in the era of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Humans , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/pathology , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Neoplasm Staging , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Radiopharmaceuticals
2.
J Immunother Cancer ; 11(5)2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized the treatment of cancer. However, only a portion of patients respond to such treatments. Therefore, it remains a prevailing clinical need to identify factors associated with acquired resistance or lack of response to ICIs. We hypothesized that the immunosuppressive CD71+ erythroid cells (CECs) within the tumor and/or distant 'out-of-field' may impair antitumor response. METHODS: We studied 38 patients with cancer through a phase II clinical trial investigating the effects of oral valproate combined with avelumab (anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)) in virus-associated solid tumors (VASTs). We quantified the frequency/functionality of CECs in blood and biopsies of patients. Also, we established an animal model of melanoma (B16-F10) to investigate the possible effects of erythropoietin (EPO) treatment on anti-PD-L1 therapy. RESULTS: We found a substantial expansion of CECs in the blood of patients with VAST compared with healthy controls. We noted that the frequency of CECs in circulation was significantly higher at the baseline and throughout the study in non-responders versus responders to PD-L1 therapy. Moreover, we observed that CECs in a dose-dependent manner suppress effector functions of autologous T cells in vitro. The subpopulation of CD45+CECs appears to have a more robust immunosuppressive property compared with their CD45- counterparts. This was illustrated by a stronger expression of reactive oxygen species, PD-L1/PD-L2, and V-domain Ig suppressor of T-cell activation in this subpopulation. Lastly, we found a higher frequency of CECs in the blood circulation at the later cancer stage and their abundance was associated with anemia, and a poor response to immunotherapy. Finally, we report the expansion of CECs in the spleen and tumor microenvironment of mice with melanoma. We found that although CECs in tumor-bearing mice secret artemin, this was not the case for VAST-derived CECs in humans. Notably, our results imply that EPO, a frequently used drug for anemia treatment in patients with cancer, may promote the generation of CECs and subsequently abrogates the therapeutic effects of ICIs (eg, anti-PD-L1). CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that anemia by the expansion of CECs may enhance cancer progression. Notably, measuring the frequency of CECs may serve as a valuable biomarker to predict immunotherapy outcomes.


Subject(s)
Melanoma , T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Animals , Mice , T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Immunotherapy/methods , Erythroid Cells/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Tumor Microenvironment
3.
Curr Oncol ; 30(5): 4402-4411, 2023 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237961

ABSTRACT

Background: Early-phase neoadjuvant trials have demonstrated promising results in the utility of upfront immunotherapy in locally advanced stage III melanoma and unresected nodal disease. Secondary to these results and the COVID-19 pandemic, this patient population, traditionally managed through surgical resection and adjuvant immunotherapy, received a novel treatment strategy of neoadjuvant therapy (NAT). Methods: Patients with node-positive disease, who faced surgical delays secondary to COVID-19, were treated with NAT, followed by surgery. Demographic, tumour, treatment and response data were collected through a retrospective chart review. Biopsy specimens were analysed prior to the initiation of NAT, and therapy response was analysed following surgical resection. NAT tolerability was recorded. Results: Six patients were included in this case series; four were treated with nivolumab alone, one with ipilimumab and nivolumab and one with dabrafenib and trametinib. Twenty-two incidents of adverse events were reported, with the majority (90.9%) being classified as grade one or two. All patients underwent surgical resection: three out of six patients following two NAT cycles, two following three cycles and one following six cycles. Surgically resected samples were histopathologically evaluated for the presence of disease. Five out of six patients (83%) had ≤1 positive lymph node. One patient showed extracapsular extension. Four patients demonstrated complete pathological response; two had persisting viable tumour cells. Conclusions: In this case series, we outlined how in response to surgical delays secondary to the COVID-19 pandemic, NAT was successfully applied to achieve promising treatment response in patients with locally advanced stage III melanoma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melanoma , Humans , Nivolumab/therapeutic use , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Neoplasm Staging , COVID-19/etiology , Melanoma/drug therapy
4.
CMAJ Open ; 11(3): E475-E484, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has created major disruptions in cancer care, with reductions in diagnostic tests and treatments. We evaluated the impact of these health care-related changes on cancer staging by comparing cancers staged before and during the pandemic. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study at London Health Sciences Centre and St. Joseph's Health Care London, London, Ontario, Canada. We evaluated all pathologically staged breast, colorectal, prostate, endometrial and lung cancers (the 5 most common cancers by site, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) over a 3-year period (Mar. 15, 2018-Mar. 14, 2021). The pre-COVID-19 group included procedures performed between Mar. 15, 2018, and Mar. 14, 2020, and the COVID-19 group included procedures performed between Mar. 15, 2020, and Mar. 14, 2021. The primary outcome was cancer stage group, based on the pathologic tumour, lymph node, metastasis system. We performed univariate analyses to compare demographic characteristics, pathologic features and cancer stage between the 2 groups. We performed multivariable ordinal regression analyses using the proportional odds model to evaluate the association between stage and timing of staging (before v. during the pandemic). RESULTS: There were 4055 cases across the 5 cancer sites. The average number of breast cancer staging procedures per 30 days increased during the pandemic compared to the yearly average in the pre-COVID-19 period (41.3 v. 39.6), whereas decreases were observed for endometrial cancer (15.9 v. 16.4), colorectal cancer (21.8 v. 24.3), prostate cancer (13.6 v. 18.5) and lung cancer (11.5 v. 15.9). For all cancer sites, there were no statistically significant differences in demographic characteristics, pathologic features or cancer stage between the 2 groups (p > 0.05). In multivariable regression analysis, for all cancer sites, cases staged during the pandemic were not associated with higher stage (breast: odds ratio [OR] 1.071, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.826-1.388; colorectal: OR 1.201, 95% CI 0.869-1.661; endometrium: OR 0.792, 95% CI 0.495-1.252; prostate: OR 1.171, 95% CI 0.765-1.794; and lung: OR 0.826, 95% CI 0.535-1.262). INTERPRETATION: Cancer cases staged during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic were not associated with higher stage; this likely reflects the prioritization of cancer procedures during times of reduced capacity. The impact of the pandemic period on staging procedures varied between cancer sites, which may reflect differences in clinical presentation, detection and treatment.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Lung Neoplasms , Male , Female , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Neoplasm Staging , Retrospective Studies , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Delivery of Health Care , Ontario/epidemiology
5.
Ann Ital Chir ; 94: 203-208, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326150

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of the study was to analyze whether COVID-19 cause a delay in the diagnosis of gastric cancer patients particularly in the TNM staging of the tumor, or not. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective single-center study included the patients diagnosed with gastric cancer from March, 2019 to December 2020. The patients were divided into two groups: baseline and the pandemic groups. The following parameters were compared between the groups; demographic data, numbers of newly diagnosed patients, type of the surgery, location of the tumor, frequency of neoadjuvant treatment, ASA score, length of hospital stay, clinical staging and pathologic TNM staging. RESULTS: The mean monthly number of newly diagnosed gastric cancer patients showed a significant decline from 7.5 to 5.6 (p< .001). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with regard to the demographic factors, except CA 19-9 levels. Patients in the pandemic group had higher both clinical and pathological T-stages (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed a decline in the number of the newly diagnosed patients with gastric cancer during the pandemic and also more patients presented with advanced stage during the pandemic period. This study showed that the pandemic causes a potential delay in the diagnosis of gastric cancer patients. KEY WORDS: Cancer surgery, COVID-19, Gastric cancer, Gastric surgery SARS-COV-2, Pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stomach Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Neoplasm Staging , COVID-19 Testing
6.
Curr Oncol ; 30(4): 3817-3828, 2023 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316151

ABSTRACT

The PACIFIC trial showed a survival benefit with durvalumab through five years in stage III unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, optimal use of imaging to detect disease progression remains unclearly defined for this population. An expert working group convened to consider available evidence and clinical experience and develop recommendations for follow-up imaging after concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CRT). Voting on agreement was conducted anonymously via online survey. Follow-up imaging was recommended for all suitable patients after CRT completion regardless of whether durvalumab is received. Imaging should occur every 3 months in Year 1, at least every 6 months in Year 2, and at least every 12 months in Years 3-5. Contrast computed tomography was preferred; routine brain imaging was not recommended for asymptomatic patients. The medical oncologist should follow-up during Year 1 of durvalumab therapy, with radiation oncologist involvement if pneumonitis is suspected; medical and radiation oncologists can subsequently alternate follow-up. Some patients can transition to the family physician/community primary care team at the end of Year 2. In Years 1-5, patients should receive information regarding smoking cessation, comorbidity management, vaccinations, and general follow-up care. These recommendations provide guidance on follow-up imaging for patients with stage III unresectable NSCLC whether or not they receive durvalumab consolidation therapy.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Chemoradiotherapy/methods , Neoplasm Staging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Histopathology ; 82(7): 1021-1028, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307524

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The optimal method of measuring cancer extent in prostate cancer (PCa) biopsies is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nine hundred eighty-one men with clinically localised PCa managed conservatively were reviewed with follow up. The number of positive cores (NPC), the Maximum Cancer Length in a core (MCL), Total Cancer Length (TCL), and percentage of positive cores (%+cores) was calculated and univariate and multivariate analysis performed using prostate-specific antigen (PSA), T-stage, and Gleason score. The presence of stromal gaps (SG) was recorded. Univariate models were run where SG made a difference to the MCL. All variables showed significant association with PCa death in univariate models. In multivariate models, incorporating PSA, T-stage, and Gleason score, only %+cores was a significant predictor of outcome, with a 10% increase in %+cores resulting in a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.07 (likelihood-ratio test P > Χ2  = 0.01). There were 120 patients where SG made a difference to the MCL and a total of 20 events in this group. Including SG, on univariate analysis the median MCL was 10 mm and HR was 1.16 (P = 0.007), not including SG, the median MCL was 6 mm and HR was 1.23 (P = 6.3 × 10-4 ). Inclusion or exclusion of SG made no significant difference to TCL as a predictor of outcome. CONCLUSION: Cancer extent is a strong predictor of PCa death but only %+cores added to the multivariate model. Expressed as a fraction of NPC/total number of cores, this is the simplest method of assessment, which we favour over more complicated methods in nontargeted biopsies.


Subject(s)
Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms , Male , Humans , Pathologists , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , Neoplasm Staging , Prostatectomy/methods
8.
Cir Cir ; 91(2): 204-211, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306151

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19-induced effects of primary bladder cancer (BC) patients have not yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the pandemic on the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of primary BC patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective single-center analysis was made of all patients who underwent diagnostic and surgical procedures due to primary BC between November 2018 and July 2021. A total of 275 patients were identified and allocated to one of the groups: Pre-COVIDBC (BC diagnosed before the COVID-19 pandemic) or COVIDBC (during the pandemic). RESULTS: The BC patients diagnosed during the pandemic were mostly at higher stages (T2) (p = 0.04), the risk of non-muscle invasive BC (NMIBC) was higher (p = 0.02), and recurrence and progression scores were increased (p = 0.001) compared to patients diagnosed before the pandemic. The time to surgery from diagnosis (p = 0.001) and symptom duration (p = 0.04) were significantly prolonged during the pandemic and the rate of follow-up significantly decreased (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The study results highlight the significant increase in muscle invasive BC and the very high risk of NMIBC in patients presenting during the COVID-19 pandemic.


ANTECEDENTES: Los efectos inducidos por la COVID-19 en pacientes con cáncer de vejiga primario no están aclarados actualmente. OBJETIVO: Investigar los efectos de la pandemia en el diagnóstico, el tratamiento y el seguimiento del cáncer de vejiga primario. MÉTODO: Se realizó un análisis retrospectivo unicéntrico de todos los pacientes que se sometieron a procedimientos diagnósticos y quirúrgicos por cáncer primario de vejiga durante noviembre de 2018 y julio de 2021. Se incluyeron 275 pacientes en el estudio. Los pacientes fueron asignados a uno de dos grupos: pre-COVIDBC (antes de la pandemia) o COVIDBC (durante la pandemia). RESULTADOS: Los pacientes con cáncer de vejiga diagnosticados durante la pandemia se encontraban en su mayoría en estadios más altos (T2) (p = 0.04), el grupo de riesgo era más alto en el cáncer de vejiga no invasivo del músculo (p = 0.02), y la recurrencia y las puntuaciones de progresión aumentaron (p = 0.001) en comparación con antes del período pandémico. Además, el tiempo hasta la cirugía desde el diagnóstico (p = 0.001) y la duración de los síntomas (p = 0.04) aumentaron considerablemente durante la pandemia, y la tasa de seguimiento disminuyó significativamente (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONES: Destaca el aumento significativo del cáncer de vejiga invasivo del músculo y del cáncer de vejiga no invasivo del músculo de muy alto riesgo durante la pandemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/epidemiology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/therapy , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology
9.
Cancer ; 127(14): 2476-2488, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to provide data on the safety of head and neck cancer surgery currently being undertaken during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This international, observational cohort study comprised 1137 consecutive patients with head and neck cancer undergoing primary surgery with curative intent in 26 countries. Factors associated with severe pulmonary complications in COVID-19-positive patients and infections in the surgical team were determined by univariate analysis. RESULTS: Among the 1137 patients, the commonest sites were the oral cavity (38%) and the thyroid (21%). For oropharynx and larynx tumors, nonsurgical therapy was favored in most cases. There was evidence of surgical de-escalation of neck management and reconstruction. Overall 30-day mortality was 1.2%. Twenty-nine patients (3%) tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) within 30 days of surgery; 13 of these patients (44.8%) developed severe respiratory complications, and 3.51 (10.3%) died. There were significant correlations with an advanced tumor stage and admission to critical care. Members of the surgical team tested positive within 30 days of surgery in 40 cases (3%). There were significant associations with operations in which the patients also tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 within 30 days, with a high community incidence of SARS-CoV-2, with screened patients, with oral tumor sites, and with tracheostomy. CONCLUSIONS: Head and neck cancer surgery in the COVID-19 era appears safe even when surgery is prolonged and complex. The overlap in COVID-19 between patients and members of the surgical team raises the suspicion of failures in cross-infection measures or the use of personal protective equipment. LAY SUMMARY: Head and neck surgery is safe for patients during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic even when it is lengthy and complex. This is significant because concerns over patient safety raised in many guidelines appear not to be reflected by outcomes, even for those who have other serious illnesses or require complex reconstructions. Patients subjected to suboptimal or nonstandard treatments should be carefully followed up to optimize their cancer outcomes. The overlap between patients and surgeons testing positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is notable and emphasizes the need for fastidious cross-infection controls and effective personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Surgeons , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Care , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/virology , Humans , International Cooperation , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Young Adult
10.
N Engl J Med ; 387(17): 1557-1568, 2022 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a pilot study involving patients with cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma, a high percentage of patients had a pathological complete response with the use of two doses of neoadjuvant cemiplimab before surgery. Data from a phase 2 study are needed to confirm these findings. METHODS: We conducted a phase 2, confirmatory, multicenter, nonrandomized study to evaluate cemiplimab as neoadjuvant therapy in patients with resectable stage II, III, or IV (M0) cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma. Patients received cemiplimab, administered at a dose of 350 mg every 3 weeks for up to four doses, before undergoing surgery with curative intent. The primary end point was a pathological complete response (the absence of viable tumor cells in the surgical specimen) on independent review at a central laboratory, with a null hypothesis that a pathological complete response would be observed in 25% of patients. Key secondary end points included a pathological major response (the presence of viable tumor cells that constitute ≤10% of the surgical specimen) on independent review, a pathological complete response and a pathological major response on investigator assessment at a local laboratory, an objective response on imaging, and adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 79 patients were enrolled and received neoadjuvant cemiplimab. On independent review, a pathological complete response was observed in 40 patients (51%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 39 to 62) and a pathological major response in 10 patients (13%; 95% CI, 6 to 22). These results were consistent with the pathological responses determined on investigator assessment. An objective response on imaging was observed in 54 patients (68%; 95% CI, 57 to 78). Adverse events of any grade that occurred during the study period, regardless of whether they were attributed to the study treatment, were observed in 69 patients (87%). Grade 3 or higher adverse events that occurred during the study period were observed in 14 patients (18%). CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant therapy with cemiplimab was associated with a pathological complete response in a high percentage of patients with resectable cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma. (Funded by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and Sanofi; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04154943.).


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Skin Neoplasms , Humans , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Pilot Projects , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/surgery , Remission Induction , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use
11.
Int Braz J Urol ; 49(2): 233-242, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249577

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the possible effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the oncologic results of patients with prostate cancer regarding clinical staging, presence of adverse pathological outcomes, and perioperative complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. The time between biopsy and surgery, staging tests, final histopathological evaluation after surgery, lymphadenectomy rate, postoperative complications, and prostatic specific antigen (PSA) levels (initial and 30 days after surgery) were analyzed and compared in a group of patients before and during the pandemic period. RESULTS: We included 226 patients: 88 in the pre-pandemic period and 138 during the pandemic period. There was no statistically significant difference in mean age, body mass index, ASA, pathological locally advanced disease, the proportion of patients who underwent lymphadenectomy, and ISUP grade in the biopsy between the groups. Positive surgical margins, prostatic extracapsular extension, and PSA levels at 30 days were also similar between the groups. The mean time between medical consultation and surgery was longer in the pandemic period than in the pre-pandemic (124 vs. 107 days, p<0.001), and the mean time between biopsy and medical consultation (69.5 days vs. 114 days, p<0.001) and between biopsy and surgery (198.5 days vs. 228 days, p=0.013) was shorter during the pandemic. The incidence of severe early and late perioperative complications was similar between the periods. CONCLUSIONS: There was no delay between diagnosis and treatment at our institution during the COVID-19 pandemic period. No worsening of the prostate cancer features was observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Male , Humans , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatectomy/methods , Neoplasm Staging
12.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 4977, 2023 03 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259726

ABSTRACT

Various countries have reported a decrease in breast cancer surgeries during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic; however, inconsistent results have been reported in Japan. This study revealed changes in the number of surgeries during the pandemic using the National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan (NDB) from January 2015 to January 2021, where insurance claims data from Japan as a whole are comprehensively accumulated. The number of breast-conserving surgeries (BCS) without axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) significantly decreased in July (- 846; 95% confidence interval (CI) - 1190 to - 502) and October 2020 (- 540; 95% CI - 861 to - 218). No decrease was observed for other types of surgery, BCS with ALND, and mastectomy with or without ALND. In the age-specific subgroup analysis, significant and transient reduction in BCS without ALND was observed in all age groups (0-49, 50-69, and ≥ 70 years). The number of BCS without ALND significantly decreased for a relatively short period in the early pandemic stages, suggesting reduced surgery for patients with a relatively low stage of cancer. Some patients with breast cancer might have been left untreated during the pandemic, and an unfavorable prognosis would be a concern.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , Female , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Mastectomy , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy/methods , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Lymph Node Excision , Axilla/pathology
14.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; 6(5): e1801, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Global COVID-19 pandemic has affected cancer care systems. Recent studies show that the number of cases diagnosed with cancer has drastically decreased compared to the same period before the pandemic. Therefore, we are confronted with delayed diagnosis of critical cancers. AIM: The aim of this study is to investigate whether the stage of known cancers has been affected by delayed diagnosis and to compare the stages of head and neck cancers diagnosed during and before the pandemic. METHODS: The present study was conducted on 132 patients with malignant head and neck tumors referred to the otolaryngology, head and neck cancer department of Taleghani Hospital from 2019 to 2021. The stage of cancers was compared between two groups of patients with head and neck malignancy referred to the Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Department of the Taleghani Hospital before and during the COVID-19 outbreak. RESULTS: The results from tumor (T), nodes (N), and metastases (M) (TNM) staging (p-value = .015) and T score (value = 0.045) showed that the stage of tumor diagnosed in patients during the COVID-19 pandemic significantly increased compared to patients diagnosed with a tumor before pandemic. CONCLUSION: In the present study, it was observed that the early symptoms of malignant head and neck tumors have been neglected by patients during COVID-19 pandemic and resulted in delayed diagnosis. This result may be explained by the fear of COVID-19 infection in patients, which discouraged them from visiting a doctor at healthcare centers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnosis , Head and Neck Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasm Staging
15.
Ann Ital Chir ; 94: 203-208, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2169697

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of the study was to analyze whether COVID-19 cause a delay in the diagnosis of gastric cancer patients particularly in the TNM staging of the tumor, or not. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective single-center study included the patients diagnosed with gastric cancer from March, 2019 to December 2020. The patients were divided into two groups: baseline and the pandemic groups. The following parameters were compared between the groups; demographic data, numbers of newly diagnosed patients, type of the surgery, location of the tumor, frequency of neoadjuvant treatment, ASA score, length of hospital stay, clinical staging and pathologic TNM staging. RESULTS: The mean monthly number of newly diagnosed gastric cancer patients showed a significant decline from 7.5 to 5.6 (p< .001). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with regard to the demographic factors, except CA 19-9 levels. Patients in the pandemic group had higher both clinical and pathological T-stages (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed a decline in the number of the newly diagnosed patients with gastric cancer during the pandemic and also more patients presented with advanced stage during the pandemic period. This study showed that the pandemic causes a potential delay in the diagnosis of gastric cancer patients. KEY WORDS: Cancer surgery, COVID-19, Gastric cancer, Gastric surgery SARS-COV-2, Pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stomach Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Neoplasm Staging , COVID-19 Testing
16.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 37: 3946320231152835, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2194941

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Since being declared a global pandemic, the SARS-CoV-2 virus had a significant impact on the entire globe. The pandemic has placed a heavy burden on healthcare systems worldwide, and cancer patients are particularly prone. Despite the fact that initial international reports suggest delays in breast cancer (BC) diagnosis and screening programs, the Egyptian context requires additional research on this topic. To examine whether COVID-19 has changed the pattern of disease presentation before and after the pandemic, focusing on the tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) staging of the disease at the initial presentation. METHODS: This single-center, retrospective study of female BC patients initially diagnosed at Baheya Foundation was conducted during the following time frames: from Jan 2019 to Jan 2020 (Pre COVID-19 cohort) and from Mar 2020 to Mar 2021 (post-COVID-19 cohort). We compared the two cohorts in terms of clinical characteristics, tumor characteristics, and the number of days from presentation to treatment. Our primary endpoint was the difference in the TNM stage of BC at the initial presentation. RESULTS: This analysis included 710 BC patients, 350 from the pre-COVID cohort and 360 from the post-COVID group. We detected a 27.9% increase in late-stage BC (stages III-IV) in the post-pandemic cohort compared to the pre-pandemic (60.1% vs. 47%, p < 0.001). The time from diagnosis to commencement of treatment was significantly longer (28.34 ± 18.845 vs 36.04 ± 23.641 days, p < 0.001) in the post-COVID cohort (mean difference = 7.702, 95% CI 4.54-10.85, p < 0.001). A higher percentage of patients in the post-pandemic cohort received systemic neoadjuvant therapy (p-value for Exact's test for all treatment options = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The number of patients requiring systemic neoadjuvant chemotherapy increased dramatically in the post-pandemic group with advanced stages of BC at presentation. This study highlights the need for proper management of cancer patients during any future pandemic.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Neoplasm Staging , Egypt/epidemiology
17.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 34: 100678, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Durvalumab following chemoradiation in unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has led to improved outcomes. The schedule of administration has been determined by pharmacokinetic studies. This study evaluates real-world efficacy and safety outcomes of extended dosing (ED) vs. standard dosing (SD) of durvalumab. METHODS: Stage III NSCLC patients treated at the Cancer center of Southeastern Ontario with consolidative durvalumab from March 2017-December 2020 were included. Patient characteristics and outcomes were evaluated through retrospective review. Comparisons were made using chi-square and t-tests. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to analyze overall survival (OS). RESULTS: A total of 35 patients were included; 15 (43%) switched to ED. Distant recurrence rates were higher in the ED group (53% vs. 20%, p = 0.07), with no differences in the sites of disease recurrence. A similar proportion of patients were alive in the ED vs. SD group (93% vs. 80%, p = 0.3), with no significant difference in OS. There were less grade 3 or greater immune-related adverse events in the ED group (0% vs. 20%). Treatment discontinuation occurred in 47% vs. 50% in the ED vs. SD groups, respectively, owing to toxicity in 20% of patients in the ED group vs. 40% in the SD group. CONCLUSIONS: Extended dosing has similar efficacy and toxicity to standard dosing; however, there was a higher rate of toxicity necessitating discontinuation in the SD group, which may have impacted the clinical decision-making to switch to ED. Our data is limited by a small sample size and should be further validated in larger cohorts.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Pandemics , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/adverse effects , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy
18.
Breast ; 67: 78-88, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer care has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This systematic review aims to describe the observed pandemic-related changes in clinical and health services outcomes for breast screening and diagnosis. METHODS: Seven databases (January 2020-March 2021) were searched to identify studies of breast cancer screening or diagnosis that reported observed outcomes before and related to the pandemic. Findings were presented using a descriptive and narrative approach. RESULTS: Seventy-four studies were included in this systematic review; all compared periods before and after (or fluctuations during) the pandemic. None were assessed as being at low risk of bias. A reduction in screening volumes during the pandemic was found with over half of studies reporting reductions of ≥49%. A majority (66%) of studies reported reductions of ≥25% in the number of breast cancer diagnoses, and there was a higher proportion of symptomatic than screen-detected cancers. The distribution of cancer stage at diagnosis during the pandemic showed lower proportions of early-stage (stage 0-1/I-II, or Tis and T1) and higher proportions of relatively more advanced cases than that in the pre-pandemic period, however population rates were generally not reported. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of substantial reductions in screening volume and number of diagnosed breast cancers, and higher proportions of advanced stage cancer at diagnosis were found during the pandemic. However, these findings reflect short term outcomes, and higher-quality research examining the long-term impact of the pandemic is needed.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Early Detection of Cancer , Neoplasm Staging , COVID-19 Testing
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(24)2022 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163374

ABSTRACT

Early melanoma diagnosis plays a key role in ensuring best prognosis with good survival rates. The ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic has greatly impacted global and national healthcare systems, thus making it a real challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the pandemic on diagnostic delay in melanoma patients in Serbia. In this retrospective study, we included patients treated at the university hospital in Serbia's capitol over a period of five years and three months. We compared the prepandemic (01/JAN/17-14/MAR/20) and pandemic periods (15/MAR/20-31/MAR/22) by evaluating patient demographic data, melanoma subtype, Breslow thickness, Clark level, ulceration status, mitotic index rate and pT staging. We observed a significant reduction in the number of diagnosed patients (86.3 vs. 13.7%; p = 0.036), with melanomas having an increased median Breslow thickness (1.80 vs. 3.00; p = 0.010), a higher percentage of Clark IV-V level lesions (44.0% vs. 63.0%; p = 0.009), an increase in median mitotic index rate (2 vs. 5; p < 0.001) and a trend of increase in lesions thicker than 2 mm (37.8% vs. 53.7%; p = 0.026). We believe that this study can be a useful scenario guide for future similar events, highlighting the importance of preventive measures and timely diagnosis for the best patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melanoma , Skin Neoplasms , Humans , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Delayed Diagnosis , Neoplasm Staging , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Melanoma/diagnosis , Melanoma/epidemiology
20.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 8: e2200289, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109211

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A nationwide lockdown was enforced in Brazil starting in March 2020 because of the COVID-19 pandemic when cancer screening activities were reduced. In this study, we evaluated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on breast cancer (BC) diagnosis. METHODS: We extracted data from the medical records of patients age older than 18 years who were diagnosed with BC and started treatment or follow-up in private oncology institutions in Brazil between 2018 and 2021. The primary objective was to compare the stage distribution during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020-2021) with a historical prepandemic control cohort (2018-2019). Early BC was defined as stage I-II and advanced disease as stage IV. RESULTS: We collected data for 11,753 patients with an initial diagnosis of BC, with 6,493 patients in the pandemic (2020-2021) and 5,260 patients in the prepandemic period (2018-2019). We observed a lower prevalence of early-stage BC (63.6% v 68.4%) and a higher prevalence of advanced-stage BC (16.9 v 12.7%), after the onset of the pandemic (both P < .01). This pattern was similar for both estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive tumors: significantly decreased in the early stage from 69% to 67% and 68% to 58%, respectively, and a considerable increase in advanced-stage disease from 13% to 15% and 13% to 20%, respectively. For triple-negative BC, there was a significantly higher percentage of patients with advanced-stage disease during the pandemic (17% v 11%). Overall, age 50 years or older and postmenopausal status were associated with a greater risk of advanced stage at diagnosis during the pandemic period. CONCLUSION: We observed a substantial increase in the number of cases of advanced-stage BC in Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Humans , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Female , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasm Staging , Pandemics/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control
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