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1.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(6): 765-778, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety profiles of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with cancer is unknown. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine in patients with cancer. METHODS: For this prospective observational study, we recruited patients with cancer and healthy controls (mostly health-care workers) from three London hospitals between Dec 8, 2020, and Feb 18, 2021. Participants who were vaccinated between Dec 8 and Dec 29, 2020, received two 30 µg doses of BNT162b2 administered intramuscularly 21 days apart; patients vaccinated after this date received only one 30 µg dose with a planned follow-up boost at 12 weeks. Blood samples were taken before vaccination and at 3 weeks and 5 weeks after the first vaccination. Where possible, serial nasopharyngeal real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) swab tests were done every 10 days or in cases of symptomatic COVID-19. The coprimary endpoints were seroconversion to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein in patients with cancer following the first vaccination with the BNT162b2 vaccine and the effect of vaccine boosting after 21 days on seroconversion. All participants with available data were included in the safety and immunogenicity analyses. Ongoing follow-up is underway for further blood sampling after the delayed (12-week) vaccine boost. This study is registered with the NHS Health Research Authority and Health and Care Research Wales (REC ID 20/HRA/2031). FINDINGS: 151 patients with cancer (95 patients with solid cancer and 56 patients with haematological cancer) and 54 healthy controls were enrolled. For this interim data analysis of the safety and immunogenicity of vaccinated patients with cancer, samples and data obtained up to March 19, 2021, were analysed. After exclusion of 17 patients who had been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 (detected by either antibody seroconversion or a positive rRT-PCR COVID-19 swab test) from the immunogenicity analysis, the proportion of positive anti-S IgG titres at approximately 21 days following a single vaccine inoculum across the three cohorts were 32 (94%; 95% CI 81-98) of 34 healthy controls; 21 (38%; 26-51) of 56 patients with solid cancer, and eight (18%; 10-32) of 44 patients with haematological cancer. 16 healthy controls, 25 patients with solid cancer, and six patients with haematological cancer received a second dose on day 21. Of the patients with available blood samples 2 weeks following a 21-day vaccine boost, and excluding 17 participants with evidence of previous natural SARS-CoV-2 exposure, 18 (95%; 95% CI 75-99) of 19 patients with solid cancer, 12 (100%; 76-100) of 12 healthy controls, and three (60%; 23-88) of five patients with haematological cancers were seropositive, compared with ten (30%; 17-47) of 33, 18 (86%; 65-95) of 21, and four (11%; 4-25) of 36, respectively, who did not receive a boost. The vaccine was well tolerated; no toxicities were reported in 75 (54%) of 140 patients with cancer following the first dose of BNT162b2, and in 22 (71%) of 31 patients with cancer following the second dose. Similarly, no toxicities were reported in 15 (38%) of 40 healthy controls after the first dose and in five (31%) of 16 after the second dose. Injection-site pain within 7 days following the first dose was the most commonly reported local reaction (23 [35%] of 65 patients with cancer; 12 [48%] of 25 healthy controls). No vaccine-related deaths were reported. INTERPRETATION: In patients with cancer, one dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine yields poor efficacy. Immunogenicity increased significantly in patients with solid cancer within 2 weeks of a vaccine boost at day 21 after the first dose. These data support prioritisation of patients with cancer for an early (day 21) second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. FUNDING: King's College London, Cancer Research UK, Wellcome Trust, Rosetrees Trust, and Francis Crick Institute.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Wales
2.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430930

ABSTRACT

Vitamin B6 is a fascinating molecule involved in the vast majority of changes in the human body because it is a coenzyme involved in over 150 biochemical reactions. It is active in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and nucleic acids, and participates in cellular signaling. It is an antioxidant and a compound with the ability to lower the advanced glycation end products (AGE) level. In this review, we briefly summarize its involvement in biochemical pathways and consider whether its deficiency may be associated with various diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, cancer, or the prognosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Nutritional Status , Vitamin B 6 Deficiency/complications , Vitamin B 6/blood , COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Heart Diseases/blood , Humans , Neoplasms/blood , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(17): 20860-20885, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405570

ABSTRACT

Cancer patients are particularly susceptible to the development of severe Covid-19, prompting us to investigate the serum metabolome of 204 cancer patients enrolled in the ONCOVID trial. We previously described that the immunosuppressive tryptophan/kynurenine metabolite anthranilic acid correlates with poor prognosis in non-cancer patients. In cancer patients, we observed an elevation of anthranilic acid at baseline (without Covid-19 diagnosis) and no further increase with mild or severe Covid-19. We found that, in cancer patients, Covid-19 severity was associated with the depletion of two bacterial metabolites, indole-3-proprionate and 3-phenylproprionate, that both positively correlated with the levels of several inflammatory cytokines. Most importantly, we observed that the levels of acetylated polyamines (in particular N1-acetylspermidine, N1,N8-diacetylspermidine and N1,N12-diacetylspermine), alone or in aggregate, were elevated in severe Covid-19 cancer patients requiring hospitalization as compared to uninfected cancer patients or cancer patients with mild Covid-19. N1-acetylspermidine and N1,N8-diacetylspermidine were also increased in patients exhibiting prolonged viral shedding (>40 days). An abundant literature indicates that such acetylated polyamines increase in the serum from patients with cancer, cardiovascular disease or neurodegeneration, associated with poor prognosis. Our present work supports the contention that acetylated polyamines are associated with severe Covid-19, both in the general population and in patients with malignant disease. Severe Covid-19 is characterized by a specific metabolomic signature suggestive of the overactivation of spermine/spermidine N1-acetyl transferase-1 (SAT1), which catalyzes the first step of polyamine catabolism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/virology , Polyamines/blood , Acetylation , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Male , Metabolome , Middle Aged , Propionates/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult , ortho-Aminobenzoates/blood
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 716361, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399137

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pathology is associated with exuberant inflammation, vascular damage, and activation of coagulation. In addition, complement activation has been described and is linked to disease pathology. However, few studies have been conducted in cancer patients. Objective: This study examined complement activation in response to COVID-19 in the setting of cancer associated thromboinflammation. Methods: Markers of complement activation (C3a, C5a, sC5b-9) and complement inhibitors (Factor H, C1-Inhibitor) were evaluated in plasma of cancer patients with (n=43) and without (n=43) COVID-19 and stratified based on elevated plasma D-dimer levels (>1.0 µg/ml FEU). Markers of vascular endothelial cell dysfunction and platelet activation (ICAM-1, thrombomodulin, P-selectin) as well as systemic inflammation (pentraxin-3, serum amyloid A, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor) were analyzed to further evaluate the inflammatory response. Results: Increases in circulating markers of endothelial cell dysfunction, platelet activation, and systemic inflammation were noted in cancer patients with COVID-19. In contrast, complement activation increased in cancer patients with COVID-19 and elevated D-dimers. This was accompanied by decreased C1-Inhibitor levels in patients with D-dimers > 5 ug/ml FEU. Conclusion: Complement activation in cancer patients with COVID-19 is significantly increased in the setting of thromboinflammation. These findings support a link between coagulation and complement cascades in the setting of inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Complement Activation/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thrombosis/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Complement Inactivating Agents/blood , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/blood , Platelet Activation/immunology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombosis/blood , Young Adult
6.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 213: 105958, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331009

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this extension phase of the quasi-experimental GERIA-COVID study was to determine whether vitamin D3 supplementation taken prior to or during COVID-19 was associated with better 3-month survival in geriatric patients hospitalized for COVID-19. METHODS: Intervention group was defined as all participants supplemented with vitamin D3 prior to or during COVID-19 (n = 67). Supplements were either bolus vitamin D3 (ie, 50,000 IU per month, or 80,000 IU or 100,000 IU or 200,000 IU every 2-3 months), or daily supplementation with 800 IU. Comparator group involved those without vitamin D supplements (n = 28). Outcome was 3-month mortality. Covariables were age, sex, functional abilities, history of malignancies, cardiomyopathy, undernutrition, number of acute health issues, antibiotics use, systemic corticosteroids use, and 25(OH)D concentration. RESULTS: 76.1 % (n = 51) of participants survived at 3 months in Intervention group, compared to only 53.6 % (n = 15) in Comparator group (P = 0.03). The fully-adjusted hazard ratio for 3-month mortality was HR = 0.23 [95 %CI: 0.09;0.58](P = 0.002) in Intervention group compared to Comparator group. Intervention group had also longer survival time (log-rank P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D3 supplementation was associated with better 3-month survival in older COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diet therapy , Cardiomyopathies/diet therapy , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Malnutrition/diet therapy , Neoplasms/diet therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/diet therapy , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cardiomyopathies/blood , Cardiomyopathies/mortality , Cardiomyopathies/virology , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Health Services for the Aged , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/blood , Malnutrition/mortality , Malnutrition/virology , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/virology , Proportional Hazards Models , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/mortality , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology
7.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(10): 1507-1513, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300331

ABSTRACT

Importance: The efficacy and safety profile of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been acquired from phase 3 studies; however, patients with cancer were not represented in these trials. Owing to the recommendation to prioritize high-risk populations for vaccination, further data are warranted. Objective: To evaluate the use and safety of the BNT162b2 vaccine in patients undergoing treatment for cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: In January 2021, mass SARS-CoV-2 vaccination of high-risk populations, including patients with cancer, was initiated in Israel. This cohort study prospectively enrolled and followed up patients with cancer and healthy participants between January 15 and March 14, 2021. The study was conducted at the Division of Oncology of Rambam Health Care Campus, the major tertiary (referral) medical center of northern Israel. Participants included 232 patients with cancer who were receiving active treatment after the first and second doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine and 261 healthy, age-matched health care workers who served as controls. Exposures: Serum samples were collected after each vaccine dose and in cases of seronegativity. Questionnaires regarding sociodemographic characteristics and adverse reactions were administered at serum collection. A regulatory agencies-approved assay was used to assess IgG at all time points. Patients' electronic medical records were reviewed for documentation of COVID-19 infection and results of blood cell counts, liver enzyme levels, and imaging studies. Main Outcomes and Measures: Seroconversion rate after the first and second doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine and documented COVID-19 infection. Results: Of the 232 patients undergoing treatment for cancer, 132 were men (57%); mean (SD) age was 66 (12.09) years. After the first dose of BNT162b2 vaccine, 29% (n = 25) patients were seropositive compared with 84% (n = 220) of the controls (P < .001). After the second dose, the seropositive rate reached 86% (n = 187) in the patients. Testing rate ratios per 1000 person-days after the first dose were 12.5 (95% CI, 3.4-45.7) for the patients and 48.5 (95% CI, 37.2-63.2) for the controls. Patients undergoing chemotherapy showed reduced immunogenicity (odds ratio, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17-0.98). In seronegative patients, the rate of documented absolute leukopenia reached 39%. No COVID-19 cases were documented throughout the study period; however, 2 cases in the patient cohort were noted immediately after the first dose. Reported adverse events were similar to data in former trials comprising mostly healthy individuals. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, the SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 vaccine appeared to be safe and achieve satisfactory serologic status in patients with cancer. There was a pronounced lag in antibody production compared with the rate in noncancer controls; however, seroconversion occurred in most patients after the second dose. Future real-world data are warranted to determine the long-term efficacy of the vaccine with regard to type of anticancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Israel , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/immunology , Prospective Studies , Seroconversion , Tertiary Care Centers , Treatment Outcome
8.
Curr Res Transl Med ; 69(4): 103300, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294187

ABSTRACT

Heparin has served as a mainstream anticoagulant for over eight decades. Clinically heparin-derived compounds significantly contribute to prevention and treatment of thrombotic events complicated in numerous medical conditions such as venous thromboembolism, coronary artery disease and extracorporeal circulation processes. Moreover in recent years, various off-labeled efficacious potentials of heparin beyond anti-coagulation are dramatically emerging, and increasingly investigated in clinical studies. Herein this article presents a comprehensive update on the expanded applications of heparin agents, covering the pregnant clinic, respiratory inflammation, renal disease, sepsis, pancreatitis, among others. It aims to maximize the beneficial profile of a pharmaceutical product through medical re-purposing development, exemplified by heparin, to address the unmet clinical needs of severe illness including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Heparin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Abortion, Habitual/prevention & control , Burns/drug therapy , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Forecasting , Heparin/pharmacology , Humans , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/complications , Nephrotic Syndrome/drug therapy , Pancreatitis/drug therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy , Respiration Disorders/drug therapy , Sepsis/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology
9.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 86, 2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249562

ABSTRACT

Vaccination for SARS-CoV-2 provides significant protection against the infection in the general population. However, only limited data exist for patients with cancer under systemic therapy. Based on this, our site has initiated a study evaluating safety and efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with solid and hematological malignancies under several systemic therapies. The initial results of the cohort of 59 patients receiving Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors are presented here. Despite no new safety issues have been noticed, the levels of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies are significantly lower in comparison to matched healthy volunteers up to day 22 post the first dose. These results should be taken into consideration for the patients under treatment.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/immunology , Vaccination
10.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(8): 1141-1148, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245334

ABSTRACT

Importance: Patients with cancer and health care workers (HCWs) are at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Assessing the antibody status of patients with cancer and HCWs can help understand the spread of COVID-19 in cancer care. Objective: To evaluate serum SARS-CoV-2 antibody status in patients with cancer and HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. Design, Setting, and Participants: Participants were enrolled for this prospective cross-sectional study between August 3 and October 30, 2020, from 2 comprehensive cancer centers in the epidemic area around Tokyo, Japan. Patients with cancer aged 16 years or older and employees were enrolled. Participants with suspected COVID-19 infection at the time of enrollment were excluded. Exposures: Cancer of any type and cancer treatment, including chemotherapy, surgery, immune checkpoint inhibitors, radiotherapy, and targeted molecular therapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Seroprevalence and antibody levels in patients with cancer and HCWs. Seropositivity was defined as positivity to nucleocapsid IgG (N-IgG) and/or spike IgG (S-IgG). Serum levels of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies against the nucleocapsid and spike proteins were measured by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Results: A total of 500 patients with cancer (median age, 62.5 years [range, 21-88 years]; 265 men [55.4%]) and 1190 HCWs (median age, 40 years [range, 20-70 years]; 382 men [25.4%]) were enrolled. In patients with cancer, 489 (97.8%) had solid tumors, and 355 (71.0%) had received anticancer treatment within 1 month. Among HCWs, 385 (32.3%) were nurses or assistant nurses, 266 (22.4%) were administrative officers, 197 (16.6%) were researchers, 179 (15.0%) were physicians, 113 (9.5%) were technicians, and 50 (4.2%) were pharmacists. The seroprevalence was 1.0% (95% CI, 0.33%-2.32%) in patients and 0.67% (95% CI, 0.29%-1.32%) in HCWs (P = .48). However, the N-IgG and S-IgG antibody levels were significantly lower in patients than in HCWs (N-IgG: ß, -0.38; 95% CI, -0.55 to -0.21; P < .001; and S-IgG: ß, -0.39; 95% CI, -0.54 to -0.23; P < .001). Additionally, among patients, N-IgG levels were significantly lower in those who received chemotherapy than in those who did not (median N-IgG levels, 0.1 [interquartile range (IQR), 0-0.3] vs 0.1 [IQR, 0-0.4], P = .04). In contrast, N-IgG and S-IgG levels were significantly higher in patients who received immune checkpoint inhibitors than in those who did not (median N-IgG levels: 0.2 [IQR, 0.1-0.5] vs 0.1 [IQR, 0-0.3], P = .02; S-IgG levels: 0.15 [IQR, 0-0.3] vs 0.1[IQR, 0-0.2], P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of Japanese patients with cancer and HCWs, the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies did not differ between the 2 groups; however, findings suggest that comorbid cancer and treatment with systemic therapy, including chemotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors, may influence the immune response to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/blood , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
11.
Cells ; 10(5)2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223956

ABSTRACT

Macrophages comprise a phenotypically and functionally diverse group of hematopoietic cells. Versatile macrophage subsets engage to ensure maintenance of tissue integrity. To perform tissue stress surveillance, macrophages express many different stress-sensing receptors, including purinergic P2X and P2Y receptors that respond to extracellular nucleotides and their sugar derivatives. Activation of G protein-coupled P2Y receptors can be both pro- and anti-inflammatory. Current examples include the observation that P2Y14 receptor promotes STAT1-mediated inflammation in pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages as well as the demonstration that P2Y11 receptor suppresses the secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and concomitantly promotes the release of soluble TNF receptors from anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Here, we review macrophage regulation by P2Y purinergic receptors, both in physiological and disease-associated inflammation. Therapeutic targeting of anti-inflammatory P2Y receptor signaling is desirable to attenuate excessive inflammation in infectious diseases such as COVID-19. Conversely, anti-inflammatory P2Y receptor signaling must be suppressed during cancer therapy to preserve its efficacy.


Subject(s)
Inflammation/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Receptors, Purinergic P2Y/metabolism , Stress, Physiological/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Surveillance/drug effects , Immunologic Surveillance/immunology , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/drug therapy , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/immunology , Purinergic P2Y Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Purinergic P2Y Receptor Agonists/therapeutic use , Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor/metabolism , STAT1 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
12.
Anticancer Res ; 41(1): 307-316, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Knowledge of Coronavirus 19 (COVID19) pathogenetic mechanisms is necessary to provide new treatment strategies. This study aims to assess how oncological disease impacts on the clinical course of COVID-19 patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1st March to 30th April 2020, 96 COVID-19 patients were classified according to clinical outcome as severe (n=67) and moderate (n=29). Demographic data, medical history, admission lymphocytes, procalcitonin (PCT), c-reactive-protein (CRP), D-dimer, and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) were collected. RESULTS: A statistically significant association was found between hypertension (p=0.007) and three or more comorbidities with severe outcomes (p=0.034). No statistical differences were found between the severe and moderate groups with regards to the rate of patients with past oncological history. However, no patient allocated in the moderate group had received oncological treatment within 12 months. Higher values of CRP, IL-6, D-Dimer and lower values of lymphocytes were reported in the severe group (p=0.0007, p=0.00386, p=0.041, and p=0.007, respectively). Using binary logistic regression, higher values of CRP (OR=8.861; p=0.012) and PCT were associated with a higher risk of severe outcome (OR=21.075; p=0.008). Within the oncological population, D-Dimer and IL-6 did not confirm their prognostic significance as in the general population (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Specific prognostic factors for oncological patients should be designed for COVID-19 clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Interleukin-6/blood , Lymphocytes , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/complications , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms/mortality , Prognosis
13.
ESMO Open ; 6(1): 100005, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cancer patients are at increased risk of death from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Cancer and its treatment affect many haematological and biochemical parameters, therefore we analysed these prior to and during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and correlated them with outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with cancer testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 in centres throughout the United Kingdom were identified and entered into a database following local governance approval. Clinical and longitudinal laboratory data were extracted from patient records. Data were analysed using Mann-Whitney U test, Fisher's exact test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, logistic regression, or linear regression for outcomes. Hierarchical clustering of heatmaps was performed using Ward's method. RESULTS: In total, 302 patients were included in three cohorts: Manchester (n = 67), Liverpool (n = 62), and UK (n = 173). In the entire cohort (N = 302), median age was 69 (range 19-93 years), including 163 males and 139 females; of these, 216 were diagnosed with a solid tumour and 86 with a haematological cancer. Preinfection lymphopaenia, neutropaenia and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were not associated with oxygen requirement (O2) or death. Lymphocyte count (P < 0.001), platelet count (P = 0.03), LDH (P < 0.0001) and albumin (P < 0.0001) significantly changed from preinfection to during infection. High rather than low neutrophils at day 0 (P = 0.007), higher maximal neutrophils during COVID-19 (P = 0.026) and higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR; P = 0.01) were associated with death. In multivariable analysis, age (P = 0.002), haematological cancer (P = 0.034), C-reactive protein (P = 0.004), NLR (P = 0.036) and albumin (P = 0.02) at day 0 were significant predictors of death. In the Manchester/Liverpool cohort 30 patients have restarted therapy following COVID-19, with no additional complications requiring readmission. CONCLUSION: Preinfection biochemical/haematological parameters were not associated with worse outcome in cancer patients. Restarting treatment following COVID-19 was not associated with additional complications. Neutropaenia due to cancer/treatment is not associated with COVID-19 mortality. Cancer therapy, particularly in patients with solid tumours, need not be delayed or omitted due to concerns that treatment itself increases COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Neoplasms/therapy , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Platelet Count , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , United Kingdom , Young Adult
14.
Semin Oncol ; 48(2): 160-165, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003361

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 antibody development and immunity will be crucial for the further course of the pandemic. Until now, it has been assumed that patients who are infected with SARS-CoV-2 will develop antibodies as has been the case with other coronaviruses, like MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. In the present study, we analyzed the development of antibodies in 77 patients with an oncologic diagnosis 26 days after positive RT-qPCR testing for SARS-CoV2. RT-qPCR and anti-SARS-CoV2-antibody methods from BGI (MGIEasy Magnetic Beads Virus DNA/RNA Extraction Kit) and Roche (Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay) were used, respectively, according to the manufacturers' specifications. Surprisingly, antibody development was detected in only 6 of 77 individuals with a confirmed history of COVID-19. Despite multiple testing, the remaining patients did not show measurable antibody concentrations in subsequent tests. These results undermine the previous hypothesis that SARS-CoV2 infections are regularly associated with antibody development and cast doubt on the provided immunity to COVID-19. Understanding the adaptive and humoral response to SARS-CoV2 will play a key role in vaccine development and gaining further knowledge on the pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/complications , Neoplasms/immunology , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/virology , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
15.
Complement Med Res ; 28(4): 300-307, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has been shown to be associated with reduced risk and severity of COVID-19 and exerts regulating effects on all hallmarks of cancer. The goal of this study was to analyze the vitamin D status of a cancer patient cohort from our clinic in the Franconian region, Germany. METHODS: 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were available for 116 patients included in prospective trials in our clinic. Associations of vitamin D with anthropometric and blood parameters were investigated using Kendall's τ correlation coefficients and linear regression. RESULTS: A total of 57 patients (49.1%) were vitamin D deficient (<20 ng/mL), and 92.2% did not meet the recommended vitamin D level of 40 ng/mL. There was a strong negative association between vitamin D and leukocyte count (τ = -0.173, p = 0.007) and C-reactive protein concentration (τ = -0.172, p = 0.007). In linear regression, the most important variables for predicting vitamin D levels were (in order of decreasing importance) season, fat mass index, platelet, and leukocyte count. CONCLUSIONS: Despite appeals towards medical societies to target widespread vitamin D deficiency in Germany more than 10 years ago, our data indicate that these have been without avail. Low vitamin D levels in cancer patients should be corrected using reasonable sun exposure and supplements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D/blood , Adult , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/blood , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood
16.
Cancer Cell ; 38(5): 598-601, 2020 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972270

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, research on "cytokine storms" has been reinvigorated in the field of infectious disease, but it also has particular relevance to cancer research. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has emerged as a key component of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2, such that the repurposing of anti-IL-6 therapeutics for COVID-19 is now a major line of investigation, with several ongoing clinical trials. We lay a framework for understanding the role of IL-6 in the context of cancer research and COVID-19 and suggest how lessons learned from cancer research may impact SARS-CoV-2 research and vice versa.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cytokines/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Neoplasms/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Severity of Illness Index , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971586

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak caused by SARS-CoV-2 challenges the medical system by interfering with routine therapies for many patients with chronic diseases. In patients with cancer receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), difficulties also arise from the incomplete understanding of the intricate interplay between their routine treatment and pathogenesis of the novel virus. By referring to previous ICI-based investigations, we speculate that ICIs themselves are not linked to high-infection risks of respiratory diseases or inflammation-related adverse effects in patients with cancer. Moreover, ICI treatment may even enhance coronavirus clearance in some patients with malignant tumor by boosting antiviral T-cell responsiveness. However, the 'explosive' inflammation during COVID-19 in some ICI-treated patients with cancer was illustrated as exuberant immunopathological damage or even death. In case of the COVID-19 immunopathogenesis fueled by ICIs, we propose a regular monitor of pathogenic T-cell subsets and their exhaustion marker expression (eg, Th17 and interleukin (IL)-6-producing Th1 subsets with surface programmed death 1 expression) to guide the usage of ICI. Here we aimed to address these considerations, based on available literature and experience from our practice, that may assist with the decision-making of ICI administration during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Decision-Making , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Drug Monitoring , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/immunology , Pandemics , Patient Selection , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Th1 Cells/drug effects , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/metabolism , Th17 Cells/drug effects , Th17 Cells/immunology , Th17 Cells/metabolism , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
18.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939903

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk-benefit calculation for corticosteroid administration in the management of COVID-19 is complex and urgently requires data to inform the decision. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a marker of systemic inflammation associated with poor prognosis in both COVID-19 and cancer. Investigating NLR as an inflammatory marker and lymphocyte levels as a critical component of antiviral immunity may inform the dilemma of reducing toxic hyperinflammation while still maintaining effective antiviral responses. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of NLR, absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) and absolute lymphocyte counts (ALCs) in patients with cancer enrolled in immunotherapy trials who received moderate-dose to high-dose corticosteroids. We compared paired presteroid and available poststeroid initiation values daily during week 1 and again on day 14 using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Associated immune subsets by flow cytometry were included where available. RESULTS: Patients (n=48) with a variety of solid tumors received prednisone, methylprednisolone, or dexamethasone alone or in combination in doses ranging from 20 to 190 mg/24 hours (prednisone equivalent). The median NLR prior to steroid administration was elevated at 5.0 (range: 0.9-61.2). The corresponding median ANC was 5.1 K/µL (range: 2.03-22.31 K/µL) and ALC was 1.03 K/µL (0.15-2.57 K/µL). One day after steroid administration, there was a significant transient drop in median ALC to 0.54 K/µL (p=0.0243), driving an increase in NLR (median 10.8, p=0.0306). Relative lymphopenia persisted through day 14 but was no longer statistically significant. ANC increased steadily over time, becoming significant at day 4 (median: 7.31 K/µL, p=0.0171) and remaining significantly elevated through day 14. NLR was consistently elevated after steroid initiation, significantly at days 1, 7 (median: 8.2, p=0.0272), and 14 (median: 15.0, p=0.0018). Flow cytometry data from 11 patients showed significant decreases in activated CD4 cells and effector memory CD8 cells. CONCLUSIONS: The early drop in ALC with persistent lymphopenia as well as the prolonged ANC elevation seen in response to corticosteroid administration are similar to trends associated with increased mortality in several coronavirus studies to include the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The affected subsets are essential for effective antiviral immunity. This may have implications for glucocorticoid therapy for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy , Neoplasms/therapy , Neutrophils/immunology , Pandemics , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
20.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 90: 102102, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737724

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a global pandemic. Published data suggests that patients with a history of or active malignancy are at increased risk of infection and developing COVID-19 related complications. To date, the published data has analyzed the seroprevalence of COVID-19 infection in the general population, but not in cancer patients. Here we present the results of prevalence of IgG and IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in cancer patients from the University Hospital of Torrejón (Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain). METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies was assessed using a commercially available rapid test (Testsealabs® IgG/IgM Rapid Test Cassette) and collect the result from cancer outpatients who attended the medical oncology consult at University Hospital of Torrejón between June 1st and June 19th, 2020. FINDINGS: We analyzed the serological test results of 229 cancer patients. We estimated an overall seroprevalence (IgG or IgM positive) of 31.4%. The probability of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was similar between men and women, type of treatment and cancer stage. The probability of seropositivity was significantly higher in cancer patients with pneumonia compared with cancer patients without pneumonia (Odds Ratio (OR) 7.65 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1,85-31,58]). INTERPRETATION: Our results show a higher rate of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in cancer patients than in the general population. The role of those antibodies in the immune response against the virus infection is unclear.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Specificity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology
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