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2.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248009, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575841

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the start of the pandemic, millions of people have been infected, with thousands of deaths. Many foci worldwide have been identified in retirement nursing homes, with a high number of deaths. Our study aims were to evaluate the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the retirement nursing homes, the predictors to develop symptoms, and death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective study enrolling all people living in retirement nursing homes (PLRNH), where at least one SARS-CoV-2 infected person was present. Medical and clinical data were collected. Variables were compared with Student's t-test or Pearson chi-square test as appropriate. Uni- and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate variables' influence on infection and symptoms development. Cox proportional-hazards model was used to evaluate 30 days mortality predictors, considering death as the dependent variable. We enrolled 382 subjects. The mean age was 81.15±10.97 years, and males were 140(36.7%). At the multivariate analysis, mental disorders, malignancies, and angiotensin II receptor blockers were predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection while having a neurological syndrome was associated with a lower risk. Only half of the people with SARS-CoV-2 infection developed symptoms. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and neurological syndrome were correlated with an increased risk of developing SARS-CoV-2 related symptoms. Fifty-six (21.2%) people with SARS-CoV-2 infection died; of these, 53 died in the first 30 days after the swab's positivity. Significant factors associated with 30-days mortality were male gender, hypokinetic disease, and the presence of fever and dyspnea. Patients' autonomy and early heparin treatment were related to lower mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: We evidenced factors associated with infection's risk and death in a setting with high mortality such as retirement nursing homes, that should be carefully considered in the management of PLRNH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/pathology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/pathology , Nursing Homes , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors , Survival Rate
3.
Int J Cancer ; 150(3): 431-439, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561555

ABSTRACT

We retrospectively analyzed the epidemiological characteristics of cancer patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and their correlations with publicly available mobility data. Between 19 October 2020 and 28 February 2021, 4754 patient visits were carried out, and 1454 treatments have been applied at the Haemato-Oncology Day Hospital Merano. Additional measures to prevent local SARS-CoV-2 transmission included a specific questionnaire for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms as well as a SARS-CoV-2 real-time polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) 2 days prior to any intravenous or subcutaneous therapy. Community mobility was assessed through publicly available mobile phone tracking data from Google; 106/719 (14.7%) cancer patients have been tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR during the second wave compared to 5/640 (0.8%) within the first wave (P < .001); 66/106 (62%) had solid tumors, and 40/106 (38%) had hematological malignancies; 90/106 (85%) patients received ongoing antitumor therapies. Mortality rate of COVID-19 positive cancer patients (7/106; 6.6%) was higher compared to the overall population (731/46 421; 1.6%; P < .001). Strict control measures at our department led to a significantly lower test positivity rate compared to the general population, resulting in a reduction of 58.5% of new SARS-CoV-2 cases. Over time, infection rates and community mobility correlated in the first and second wave after initiating and lifting restrictions. Our findings underscore the importance of strict preventive control measures including testing and contact tracing in vulnerable subpopulations such as cancer patients, particularly if social restriction policies are being lifted. Smartphone-based mobility data may help to guide policy makers to prevent a vulnerable population like cancer patients from virus transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Mandatory Programs , Neoplasms/complications , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Travel
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6660-6670, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544317

ABSTRACT

With the wide spread of Coronavirus, most people who infected with the COVID-19, will recover without requiring special treatment. Whereas, elders and those with underlying medical problems are more likely to have serious illnesses, even be threatened with death. Many more disciplines try to find solutions and drive master plan to this global trouble. Consequently, by taking one particular population, Hungary, this study aims to explore a pattern of COVID-19 victims, who suffered from some underlying conditions. Age, gender, and underlying medical problems form the structure of the clustering. K-Means and two step clustering methods were applied for age-based and age-independent analysis. Grouping of the deaths in the form of two different scenarios may highlight some concepts of this deadly disease for public health professionals. Our result for clustering can forecast similar cases which are assigned to any cluster that it will be a serious cautious for the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asthma/complications , COVID-19/etiology , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Obesity/complications , Risk Factors , Schizophrenia/complications , Sex Factors , Young Adult
6.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(6): 765-778, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety profiles of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with cancer is unknown. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine in patients with cancer. METHODS: For this prospective observational study, we recruited patients with cancer and healthy controls (mostly health-care workers) from three London hospitals between Dec 8, 2020, and Feb 18, 2021. Participants who were vaccinated between Dec 8 and Dec 29, 2020, received two 30 µg doses of BNT162b2 administered intramuscularly 21 days apart; patients vaccinated after this date received only one 30 µg dose with a planned follow-up boost at 12 weeks. Blood samples were taken before vaccination and at 3 weeks and 5 weeks after the first vaccination. Where possible, serial nasopharyngeal real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) swab tests were done every 10 days or in cases of symptomatic COVID-19. The coprimary endpoints were seroconversion to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein in patients with cancer following the first vaccination with the BNT162b2 vaccine and the effect of vaccine boosting after 21 days on seroconversion. All participants with available data were included in the safety and immunogenicity analyses. Ongoing follow-up is underway for further blood sampling after the delayed (12-week) vaccine boost. This study is registered with the NHS Health Research Authority and Health and Care Research Wales (REC ID 20/HRA/2031). FINDINGS: 151 patients with cancer (95 patients with solid cancer and 56 patients with haematological cancer) and 54 healthy controls were enrolled. For this interim data analysis of the safety and immunogenicity of vaccinated patients with cancer, samples and data obtained up to March 19, 2021, were analysed. After exclusion of 17 patients who had been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 (detected by either antibody seroconversion or a positive rRT-PCR COVID-19 swab test) from the immunogenicity analysis, the proportion of positive anti-S IgG titres at approximately 21 days following a single vaccine inoculum across the three cohorts were 32 (94%; 95% CI 81-98) of 34 healthy controls; 21 (38%; 26-51) of 56 patients with solid cancer, and eight (18%; 10-32) of 44 patients with haematological cancer. 16 healthy controls, 25 patients with solid cancer, and six patients with haematological cancer received a second dose on day 21. Of the patients with available blood samples 2 weeks following a 21-day vaccine boost, and excluding 17 participants with evidence of previous natural SARS-CoV-2 exposure, 18 (95%; 95% CI 75-99) of 19 patients with solid cancer, 12 (100%; 76-100) of 12 healthy controls, and three (60%; 23-88) of five patients with haematological cancers were seropositive, compared with ten (30%; 17-47) of 33, 18 (86%; 65-95) of 21, and four (11%; 4-25) of 36, respectively, who did not receive a boost. The vaccine was well tolerated; no toxicities were reported in 75 (54%) of 140 patients with cancer following the first dose of BNT162b2, and in 22 (71%) of 31 patients with cancer following the second dose. Similarly, no toxicities were reported in 15 (38%) of 40 healthy controls after the first dose and in five (31%) of 16 after the second dose. Injection-site pain within 7 days following the first dose was the most commonly reported local reaction (23 [35%] of 65 patients with cancer; 12 [48%] of 25 healthy controls). No vaccine-related deaths were reported. INTERPRETATION: In patients with cancer, one dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine yields poor efficacy. Immunogenicity increased significantly in patients with solid cancer within 2 weeks of a vaccine boost at day 21 after the first dose. These data support prioritisation of patients with cancer for an early (day 21) second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. FUNDING: King's College London, Cancer Research UK, Wellcome Trust, Rosetrees Trust, and Francis Crick Institute.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Wales
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(21): 6797-6812, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524867

ABSTRACT

Cytokines in cardiac tissue plays a key role in progression of cardiometabolic diseases and cardiotoxicity induced by several anticancer drugs. Interleukin-1ß is one on the most studied regulator of cancer progression, survival and resistance to anticancer treatments. Recent findings indicate that interleukin1-ß exacerbates myocardial damages in cancer patients treated with chemotherapies and immune check-point inhibitors. Interleukin1-ß blocking agent canakinumab reduces major adverse cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death in recent cardiovascular trials. We focalized on the main biological functions of interleukin1-ß in cancer and cardiovascular diseases, summarizing the main clinical evidence available to date in literature. Especially in the era of SARS-CoV-2 infection, associated to coagulopathies, myocarditis and heart failure, cancer patients have an increased risk of cardiovascular complications compared to general population, therefore, the pharmacological inhibition of interleukin1-ß should be discussed and considered.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Cardiotoxicity/prevention & control , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Anthracyclines/adverse effects , Anthracyclines/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Cardiotoxicity/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Neoplasms/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20864, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479817

ABSTRACT

Following SARS-CoV-2 infection, some COVID-19 patients experience severe host driven adverse events. To treat these complications, their underlying etiology and drug treatments must be identified. Thus, a novel AI methodology MOATAI-VIR, which predicts disease-protein-pathway relationships and repurposed FDA-approved drugs to treat COVID-19's clinical manifestations was developed. SARS-CoV-2 interacting human proteins and GWAS identified respiratory failure genes provide the input from which the mode-of-action (MOA) proteins/pathways of the resulting disease comorbidities are predicted. These comorbidities are then mapped to their clinical manifestations. To assess each manifestation's molecular basis, their prioritized shared proteins were subject to global pathway analysis. Next, the molecular features associated with hallmark COVID-19 phenotypes, e.g. unusual neurological symptoms, cytokine storms, and blood clots were explored. In practice, 24/26 of the major clinical manifestations are successfully predicted. Three major uncharacterized manifestation categories including neoplasms are also found. The prevalence of neoplasms suggests that SARS-CoV-2 might be an oncovirus due to shared molecular mechanisms between oncogenesis and viral replication. Then, repurposed FDA-approved drugs that might treat COVID-19's clinical manifestations are predicted by virtual ligand screening of the most frequent comorbid protein targets. These drugs might help treat both COVID-19's severe adverse events and lesser ones such as loss of taste/smell.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computational Biology/methods , Neoplasms/complications , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Thrombosis/complications , Virus Replication , Benchmarking , Comorbidity , Computer Simulation , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Drug Discovery , Humans , Machine Learning , Molecular Medicine , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
9.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(9): 1286-1292, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478147

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The outbreak of COVID-19 has had an impact on global healthcare as well as on radiotherapy practice in many countries. This study aimed to identify clinical characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infected cancer inpatients, as well as what impact this infection had on radiation treatment of the patients. METHODOLOGY: In this retrospective study, we included cancer inpatients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 infection during the radiotherapy or chemoradiation in April 2020 in National Cancer Research Center in Serbia. Data were obtained from the medical records between 1 April and 1 July 2020. RESULTS: A total of 49 COVID-19 infected cancer inpatients were included. The most frequently reported cancers were head and neck cancers, in twenty-three patients (46.8%). Lymphopenia was present in 77.5% of the patients. Red blood cells, haemoglobin and platelets were significantly lower during incubation or diagnosis of COVID-19. Twenty-seven (55.1%) patients did not finish radiotherapy. The age of patients who finished radiotherapy after COVID-19 infection was significantly lower compared to the patients who did not finish radiotherapy (60.5 ± 7.8 vs. 68.6 ± 11.2; p < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 infected cancer patients in radiotherapy practice show similar symptoms and demographic characteristics as the general population infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus. Patients with head and neck cancers may be susceptible to infection with COVID-19. Old age and male gender may be risk factors for discontinuation of radiotherapy in COVID-19 infected cancer patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Neoplasms/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Serbia
10.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 367, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475287

ABSTRACT

Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) embodies a mixture of clinical manifestations, including elevated circulating cytokine levels, acute systemic inflammatory symptoms and secondary organ dysfunction, which was first described in the context of acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation and was later observed in pandemics of influenza, SARS-CoV and COVID-19, immunotherapy of tumor, after chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) therapy, and in monogenic disorders and autoimmune diseases. Particularly, severe CRS is a very significant and life-threatening complication, which is clinically characterized by persistent high fever, hyperinflammation, and severe organ dysfunction. However, CRS is a double-edged sword, which may be both helpful in controlling tumors/viruses/infections and harmful to the host. Although a high incidence and high levels of cytokines are features of CRS, the detailed kinetics and specific mechanisms of CRS in human diseases and intervention therapy remain unclear. In the present review, we have summarized the most recent advances related to the clinical features and management of CRS as well as cutting-edge technologies to elucidate the mechanisms of CRS. Considering that CRS is the major adverse event in human diseases and intervention therapy, our review delineates the characteristics, kinetics, signaling pathways, and potential mechanisms of CRS, which shows its clinical relevance for achieving both favorable efficacy and low toxicity.


Subject(s)
Cytokine Release Syndrome , Signal Transduction/immunology , Acute Disease , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Graft vs Host Disease/complications , Graft vs Host Disease/immunology , Graft vs Host Disease/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/immunology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy
11.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(14): 3954-3967, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449161

ABSTRACT

Furin is a proprotein convertase that activates different kinds of regulatory proteins, including SARS-CoV-2 spike protein which contains an additional furin-specific cleavage site. It is essential in predicting cancer patients' susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 and the disease outcomes due to varying furin expressions in tumor tissues. In this study, we analyzed furin's expression, methylation, mutation rate, functional enrichment, survival rate and COVID-19 outcomes in normal and cancer tissues using online databases, and our IHC. As a result, furin presented with biased expression profiles in normal tissues, showing 12.25-fold higher than ACE2 in the lungs. The furin expression in tumors were significantly increased in ESCA and TGCT, and decreased in DLBC and THYM, indicating furin may play critical mechanistic functions in COVID-19 viral entry into cells in these cancer patients. Line with furin over/downexpression, furin promoter hypo-/hyper-methylation may be the regulatory cause of disease and lead to pathogenesis of ESCA and THYM. Furthermore, presence of FURIN-201 isoform with functional domains (P_proprotein, Peptidase_S8 and S8_pro-domain) is highest in all cancer types in comparison to other isoforms, demonstrating its use in tumorigenesis and SARS-Cov-2 entry into tumor tissues. Furin mutation frequency was highest in UCES, and its mutation might elevate ACE2 expression in LUAD and UCEC, reduce ACE2 expression in COAD, elevate HSPA5 expression in PAAD, and elevate TMPRSS2 expression in BRCA. These results showed that furin mutations mostly increased expression of ACE2, HSPA5, and TMPRSS2 in certain cancers, indicating furin mutations might facilitate COVID-19 cell entry in cancer patients. In addition, high expression of furin was significantly inversely correlated with long overall survival (OS) in LGG and correlated with long OS in COAD and KIRC, indicating that it could be used as a favorable prognostic marker for cancer patients' survival. GO and KEGG demonstrated that furin was mostly enriched in genes for metabolic and biosynthetic processes, retinal dehydrogenase activity, tRNA methyltransferase activity, and genes involving COVID-19, further supporting its role in COVID-19 and cancer metabolism. Moreover, Cordycepin (CD) inhibited furin expression in a dosage dependent manner. Altogether, furin's high expression might not only implies increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 and higher severity of COVID-19 symptoms in cancer patients, but also it highlights the need for cancer treatment and therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic. CD might have a potential to develop an anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug through inhibiting furin expression.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Deoxyadenosines/therapeutic use , Furin/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , Cell Line, Tumor , Deoxyadenosines/pharmacology , Disease Susceptibility , Furin/antagonists & inhibitors , Furin/genetics , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
12.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 705214, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448725

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is a global health crisis affecting millions of people worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 enters the host cells by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) after being cleaved by the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). In addition to the lung, gastrointestinal tract and kidney, ACE2 is also extensively expressed in endocrine tissues, including the pituitary and adrenal glands. Although glucocorticoids could play a central role as immunosuppressants during the cytokine storm, they can have both stimulating and inhibitory effects on immune response, depending on the timing of their administration and their circulating levels. Patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) or Cushing's syndrome (CS) are therefore vulnerable groups in relation to COVID-19. Additionally, patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) could also be more vulnerable to COVID-19 due to the immunosuppressive state caused by the cancer itself, by secreted glucocorticoids, and by anticancer treatments. This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature on susceptibility to and outcome of COVID-19 in AI, CS and ACC patients and emphasizes potential pathophysiological mechanisms of susceptibility to COVID-19 as well as the management of these patients in case of SARS-CoV-2. Finally, by performing an in silico analysis, we describe the mRNA expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and the genes encoding their co-receptors CTSB, CTSL and FURIN in normal adrenal and adrenocortical tumors (both adenomas and carcinomas).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Adrenal Insufficiency/complications , Adrenal Insufficiency/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Cushing Syndrome/complications , Cushing Syndrome/immunology , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
13.
Cancer Control ; 28: 10732748211044361, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440880

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has presented newfound challenges to the oncology community regarding management of disease progression in immunocompromised and cancer patients. Further, the large influx of COVID-19 patients has overwhelmed healthcare facilities, limited access to intensive care unit beds and ventilators, and canceled elective surgeries causing disruptions to the cancer care continuum and re-organization of oncological care. While it is known that the potential threat of infection is greatest in elderly patients (>60 years of age) and patients with underlying comorbidities, there is still insufficient data to determine the risk of COVID-19 in cancer patients. Given the immunosuppressive status in cancer patients arising from chemotherapy and other comorbidities, management of COVID-19 in this patient population carries a unique set of challenges. We report three cases of COVID-19 in immunocompromised cancer patients and discuss the challenges in preventing, diagnosing, and treating this vulnerable group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Immunocompromised Host , Neoplasms/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Neoplasms/immunology
17.
Curr Treat Options Oncol ; 22(10): 95, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404665

ABSTRACT

OPINION STATEMENT: While emergency use is authorized for numerous COVID-19 vaccines and the high-risk population including cancer patients or those with immunosuppression due to disease or therapy is prioritized, data on this group's specific safety and efficacy of these vaccines remains limited. Safety data from clinical trials and population data may be extrapolated, and these vaccines may be used for cancer patients. However, concerns of efficacy due to the variable immune response in patients with active cancers undergoing active therapy and cancer survivors with chronic immunosuppression remain. The authors aim to discuss the current recommendations for use of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Neoplasms/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Immune System , Immunization , Immunocompromised Host , Medical Oncology/standards , Neoplasms/complications , Patient Safety , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
18.
Cancer Res Treat ; 53(3): 650-656, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403959

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread worldwide rapidly and patients with cancer have been considered as a vulnerable group for this infection. This study aimed to examine the expressions of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) in tumor tissues of six common cancer types. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in tumors and control samples were obtained from online databases. Survival prognosis and biological functions of these genes were investigated for each tumor type. RESULTS: There was the overexpression of ACE2 in colon and stomach adenocarcinomas compared to controls, meanwhile colon and prostate adenocarcinomas showed a significantly higher expression of TMPRSS2. Additionally, survival prognosis analysis has demonstrated that upregulation of ACE2 in liver hepatocellular carcinoma was associated with higher overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.65; p=0.016) and disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.66; p=0.007), while overexpression of TMPRSS2 was associated with a 26% reduced risk of death in lung adenocarcinoma (p=0.047) but 50% increased risk of death in breast invasive carcinoma (p=0.015). CONCLUSION: There is a need to take extra precautions for COVID-19 in patients with colorectal cancer, stomach cancer, and lung cancer. Further information on other types of cancer at different stages should be investigated.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/complications , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiology , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Databases as Topic , Female , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/complications , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Male , Mutation , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Survival Analysis
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 760, 2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread around the world. This retrospective study aims to analyze the clinical features of COVID-19 patients with cancer and identify death outcome related risk factors. METHODS: From February 10th to April 15th, 2020, 103 COVID-19 patients with cancer were enrolled. Difference analyses were performed between severe and non-severe patients. A propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was performed, including 103 COVID-19 patients with cancer and 206 matched non-cancer COVID-19 patients. Next, we identified death related risk factors and developed a nomogram for predicting the probability. RESULTS: In 103 COVID-19 patients with cancer, the main cancer categories were breast cancer, lung cancer and bladder cancer. Compared to non-severe patients, severe patients had a higher median age, and a higher proportion of smokers, diabetes, heart disease and dyspnea. In addition, most of the laboratory results between two groups were significantly different. PSM analysis found that the proportion of dyspnea was much higher in COVID-19 patients with cancer. The severity incidence in two groups were similar, while a much higher mortality was found in COVID-19 patients with cancer compared to that in COVID-19 patients without cancer (11.7% vs. 4.4%, P = 0.028). Furthermore, we found that neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were related to death outcome. And a nomogram based on the factors was developed. CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 patients with cancer, the clinical features and laboratory results between severe group and non-severe group were significantly different. NLR and CRP were the risk factors that could predict death outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Lymphocytes/cytology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/mortality , Neutrophils/cytology , Nomograms , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
20.
Future Oncol ; 17(35): 4871-4882, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394695

ABSTRACT

Objective: Our study goal was to evaluate the behavioral response and practices of cancer patients to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the Middle East and north Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a validated anonymous 45-question survey administered via SurveyMonkey® to cancer patients in 13 centers in Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco and Saudi Arabia. Results: During the study period (from 21 April to 30 May 2020), 3642 patients participated in the study. The majority of patients (84.81%) were worried about contracting the infection. The reported strict adherence to precautions included avoiding the following actions: hand-shaking (77.40%), hugging and kissing (82.89%), social gathering (90.09%), meeting friends (84.68%) and visiting markets (75.65%). In a multivariate analysis, patients with poor precautionary practices were about twice as likely to cancel their medical appointment or a treatment session. Conclusion: Improving cancer patients' knowledge of and adherence to precautionary measures is needed not just to reduce the risk of acquiring infection but also to minimize the interruption of their medical care.


Lay abstract COVID-19 poses a higher risk for patients with cancer than other patients; therefore, it is prudent that they adhere to precautionary measures to protect themselves from the infection. We conducted a study to evaluate the behaviors and practices of these patients in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the Middle, East and North Africa. We developed a survey of 45 questions that was distributed in 13 centers in Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco and Saudi Arabia between 21 April and 30 May 2020. About 85% of the 3642 patients who participated in the study were worried about contracting the infection. A substantial percentage of them (10­30%) were not adhering to various precautions and social distancing rules. On the other hand, 16% of them canceled medical appointments and 12% canceled treatment sessions. Our study showed the need for better adherence of patients with cancer to the infection precautions and most importantly, the need to have a better compliance with their treatment plans, such as keeping their scheduled appointments, to avoid harms from treatment delays.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Morocco/epidemiology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/psychology , Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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