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1.
In Vivo ; 36(6): 2780-2789, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: To prospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of the BNT162b2 vaccine in solid cancer patients undergoing systemic chemotherapy (n=63). PATIENTS AND METHODS: COVID-19 anti-spike protein antibody levels were measured before the first BNT162b2 vaccination, just before the second BNT162b2 vaccination, one month after the second BNT162b2 vaccination, and 3 months after the second BNT162b2 vaccination. Anti-spike protein antibody seropositivity was set at ≥0.8 U/ml. RESULTS: Colorectal cancer was the most commonly observed primary disease (36.5%). ECOG-PS 0 was observed in the majority (52.4%) of patients. The overall response rate and the median (range) anti-spike protein antibody levels in the whole cohort at 3 months after the second BNT162b2 vaccination were 98.4% (62/63) and 206 (0.4-3,813) U/ml. None of the patients required postponement or discontinuation of systemic chemotherapy because of an adverse reaction. CONCLUSION: The BNT162b vaccine in solid cancer patients undergoing systemic chemotherapy is effective and safe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Vaccines , Humans , Prospective Studies , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral
2.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 20(10): 1134-1138, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether COVID-19 vaccination and the associated immune response increases susceptibility to immune-related adverse events (irAEs) among patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) remains unknown. Short-term follow-up can assess the safety of concurrent administration of the vaccine and ICI treatment. METHODS: We conducted an electronic health record analysis of a cohort of 408 patients with cancer receiving ICI therapy and who were vaccinated for COVID-19 between January 16 and March 27, 2021. Patients were seen in follow-up for 90 days from the day of the first dose in this single-institution tertiary care center. We evaluated the incidence of irAEs and the frequency of each event type and grade among patients who experienced an irAE. We also evaluated the incidence of irAEs in patients who began a new immunotherapy agent after vaccination. RESULTS: Among 408 patients with cancer receiving ICI therapy (median age, 71 years; 217 [53%] male), administration of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine within 90 days of ICI treatment was not associated with an increased incidence of irAEs. A total of 27 (7%) patients experienced a new irAE within the observation period. Among patients with previous irAEs from ICIs (n=54), 3 (6%) experienced a recurrent irAE, and of those initiating a new immunotherapy (n=52), 9 (17%) experienced an irAE. No excess risk of COVID-19 diagnosis was seen in this subset of patients receiving ICI therapy, and no breakthrough COVID-19 cases were seen after full COVID-19 vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: These findings should reassure providers that COVID-19 vaccination during ICI therapy is safe and efficacious.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Male , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
3.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275620, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054389

ABSTRACT

Although non-prescription anthelmintics are used by many patients as cancer treatment in South Korea, data regarding the experiences or perceptions of these drugs are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the repercussions of non-prescription anthelmintics for cancer treatment and evaluate their perceived effectiveness and adverse effects. This survey included 86 cancer patients, aged 19 years and older, who underwent anthelmintic therapy for cancer. They were recruited from two online communities in South Korea through a structured questionnaire that was provided online. Cancer patients under non-prescription anthelmintic therapy for cancer in South Korea were mostly in their advanced stages and had started the treatment in 2019. About half of the cancer patients had taken non-prescription anthelmintics during their chemotherapy, and 96.5% of them did not inform the clinicians. These participants had a positive perception (79.1%) toward the effectiveness of anthelmintics, as they felt it improved their physical condition. Data on the adverse effects of anthelmintics showed that more than two-third of the participants did not report experiencing any adverse effects. Communication between the clinicians and cancer patients regarding the use of non-prescription anthelmintics should be enhanced to prevent adverse effects.


Subject(s)
Anthelmintics , Neoplasms , Anthelmintics/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Republic of Korea , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
ESMO Open ; 7(5): 100574, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role and the durability of the immunogenicity of the third dose of vaccine against COVID-19 variants of concern in cancer patients have to be elucidated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We have prospectively evaluated the immunogenicity of the third dose of the SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine in triggering both humoral and cell-mediated immune response in patients with solid tumors undergoing active treatment 6 months after the booster. Neutralizing antibody (NT Ab) titers and total anti-spike immunoglobulin G concentrations were measured in serum. Heparinized whole blood samples were used for the SARS-CoV-2 interferon-γ release assay (IGRA). RESULTS: Six months after the third dose only two patients (2.4%) showed negative spike-specific immunoglobulin G antibody levels (<33.8 BAU/ml). The median level of SARS-CoV-2 NT Abs decreased and only 39/83 (47%) subjects showed maximum levels of NT Abs. T-cellular positive response was observed in 38/61 (62.3%) patients; the highest median level of response was observed 21 days after the third dose (354 mIU/ml, interquartile range 83.3-846.3 mIU/ml). The lowest median level of NT Ab response was observed against the Omicron variant (1 : 10, interquartile range 1 : 10-1 : 40) with a significant reduced rate of responder subjects with respect to the wild-type strain (77.5% versus 95%; P = 0.0022) and Delta variant (77.5% versus 93.7%; P = 0.0053). During the follow-up period, seven patients (8%) had a confirmed post-vaccination infection, but none of them required hospitalization or oxygen therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our work highlights a significant humoral and cellular immune response among patients with solid tumors 6 months after the third BNT162b2 vaccine dose, although a reduction in neutralizing activity against Omicron was observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Viral Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , BNT162 Vaccine , Longitudinal Studies , Antibodies, Viral , Viral Vaccines/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunoglobulin G , Immunity, Cellular , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Oxygen
5.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(4): 305-311, 2020 Apr 23.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033195

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the principles of differential diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates in cancer patients during the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by analyzing one case of lymphoma who presented pulmonary ground-glass opacities (GGO) after courses of chemotherapy. Methods: Baseline demographics and clinicopathological data of eligible patients were retrieved from medical records. Information of clinical manifestations, history of epidemiology, lab tests and chest CT scan images of visiting patients from February 13 to February 28 were collected. Literatures about pulmonary infiltrates in cancer patients were searched from databases including PUBMED, EMBASE and CNKI. Results: Among the 139 cancer patients who underwent chest CT scans before chemotherapy, pulmonary infiltrates were identified in eight patients (5.8%), five of whom were characterized with GGOs in lungs. 2019-nCoV nuclear acid testing was performed in three patients and the results were negative. One case was a 66-year-old man who was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and underwent CHOP chemotherapy regimen. His chest CT scan image displayed multiple GGOs in lungs and the complete blood count showed decreased lymphocytes. This patient denied any contact with confirmed/suspected cases of 2019-nCoV infection, fever or other respiratory symptoms. Considering the negative result of nuclear acid testing, this patient was presumptively diagnosed with viral pneumonia and an experiential anti-infection treatment had been prescribed for him. Conclusions: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) complicates the clinical scenario of pulmonary infiltrates in cancer patients. The epidemic history, clinical manifestation, CT scan image and lab test should be taken into combined consideration. The 2019-nCoV nuclear acid testing might be applied in more selected patients. Active anti-infection treatment and surveillance of patient condition should be initiated if infectious disease is considered.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Neoplasms/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023948

ABSTRACT

The advancements in nanotechnology and nanomedicine are projected to solve many glitches in medicine, especially in the fields of cancer and infectious diseases, which are ranked in the top five most dangerous deadly diseases worldwide by the WHO. There is great concern to eradicate these problems with accurate diagnosis and therapies. Among many developed therapeutic models, near infra-red mediated phototherapy is a non-invasive technique used to invade many persistent tumors and bacterial infections with less inflammation compared with traditional therapeutic models such as radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgeries. Herein, we firstly summarize the up-to-date research on graphene phototheranostics for a better understanding of this field of research. We discuss the preparation and functionalization of graphene nanomaterials with various biocompatible components, such as metals, metal oxides, polymers, photosensitizers, and drugs, through covalent and noncovalent approaches. The multifunctional nanographene is used to diagnose the disease with confocal laser scanning microscopy, magnetic resonance imaging computed tomography, positron emission tomography, photoacoustic imaging, Raman, and ToF-SMIS to visualize inside the biological system for imaging-guided therapy are discussed. Further, treatment of disease by photothermal and photodynamic therapies against different cancers and bacterial infections are carefully conferred herein along with challenges and future perspectives.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Graphite , Nanocomposites , Neoplasms , Bacterial Infections/diagnostic imaging , Bacterial Infections/therapy , Cell Line, Tumor , Graphite/therapeutic use , Humans , Multimodal Imaging , Nanocomposites/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/therapy , Phototherapy , Theranostic Nanomedicine/methods
7.
Molecules ; 27(16)2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023937

ABSTRACT

The G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor, Gpbar1 or TGR5, is characterized as a membrane receptor specifically activated by bile acids. A series of evidence shows that TGR5 induces protein kinase B (AKT), nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), Ras homolog family member A (RhoA), exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac), and transient receptor potential ankyrin subtype 1 protein (TRPA1) signaling pathways, thereby regulating proliferation, inflammation, adhesion, migration, insulin release, muscle relaxation, and cancer development. TGR5 is widely distributed in the brain, lung, heart, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, stomach, jejunum, ileum, colon, brown adipose tissue (BAT), white adipose tissue (WAT), and skeletal muscle. Several recent studies have demonstrated that TGR5 exerts inconsistent effects in different cancer cells upon activating via TGR5 agonists, such as INT-777, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), and taurolithocholic acid (TLCA). In this review, we discuss both the 'friend' and 'foe' features of TGR5 by summarizing its tumor-suppressing and oncogenic functions and mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled , Bile Acids and Salts , Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism
8.
Mar Drugs ; 20(8)2022 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023893

ABSTRACT

The increased interest in nanomedicine and its applicability for a wide range of biological functions demands the search for raw materials to create nanomaterials. Recent trends have focused on the use of green chemistry to synthesize metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles. Bioactive chemicals have been found in a variety of marine organisms, including invertebrates, marine mammals, fish, algae, plankton, fungi, and bacteria. These marine-derived active chemicals have been widely used for various biological properties. Marine-derived materials, either whole extracts or pure components, are employed in the synthesis of nanoparticles due to their ease of availability, low cost of production, biocompatibility, and low cytotoxicity toward eukaryotic cells. These marine-derived nanomaterials have been employed to treat infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses as well as treat non-infectious diseases, such as tumors, cancer, inflammatory responses, and diabetes, and support wound healing. Furthermore, several polymeric materials derived from the marine, such as chitosan and alginate, are exploited as nanocarriers in drug delivery. Moreover, a variety of pure bioactive compounds have been loaded onto polymeric nanocarriers and employed to treat infectious and non-infectious diseases. The current review is focused on a thorough overview of nanoparticle synthesis and its biological applications made from their entire extracts or pure chemicals derived from marine sources.


Subject(s)
Chitosan , Metal Nanoparticles , Nanoparticles , Neoplasms , Noncommunicable Diseases , Animals , Bacteria , Chitosan/chemistry , Drug Delivery Systems , Fungi , Mammals , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Noncommunicable Diseases/drug therapy , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Polymers/therapeutic use
9.
Cancer Control ; 29: 10732748221106266, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020962

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Adults with cancer are immunocompromised due to several causes including cancer itself and immunosuppressive therapy. Thus, cancer patients are more susceptible to develop COVID-19 infection. As COVID-19 vaccines became available, patients with cancer would benefit from receiving the vaccine. This article aims to review the recent evidences and recommendations about COVID-19 vaccination in cancer patients.Current guidelines recommend that patients with cancer should have the priority to receive the vaccine given their immunocompromised state. The timing of administration varies depending on cancer type and treatment. Generally, the vaccine should be given before starting the chemotherapy if possible or in between chemotherapy cycles and away from nadir phase. For other cancer treatments, it is recommended to give the vaccine when there is evidence of blood count recovery. In general, induction therapy and treatment for newly diagnosed patients should not be delayed for the vaccination purpose. It is noteworthy to mention that cancer patients especially those with hematologic malignancies might have absented or attenuated response to the vaccine due to their pathophysiological status.On the other hand, the current vaccine guidelines have been criticized for lacking evidence on some important topics that need to be addressed. Firstly, some vaccines have been granted an emergency use authorization, prior to the usual comprehensive safety and efficacy evaluation process. Secondly, specific populations including cancer patients were excluded from the approval trials for safety reasons. Finally, some recommendations regarding the COVID-19 vaccines are extrapolated from other vaccines studies. Further studies are required to fill these gaps and observational studies that include cancer patients are warranted to have a better understanding of the safety and efficacy of the vaccines in cancer patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Immunocompromised Host , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Vaccination
10.
J Immunother ; 45(9): 389-395, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018230

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) can cause a variety of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with increased amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may affect the outcome of irAEs. Data are limited regarding the impact of COVID-19 on irAEs in ICI-treated cancer patients. Hence, in this study, we retrospectively analyzed ICI-treated adult patients with malignant solid tumors at a single institution between August 2020 and August 2021. Patients who had the most recent ICI treatment over 1-month before or after the positive COVID-19 test were excluded from the study. For the COVID-19 positive group, only the irAEs that developed after COVID-19 infection were considered as events. A total of 579 patients were included in our study, with 46 (7.9%) in the COVID-19 positive group and 533 (92.1%) in the COVID-19 negative group. The baseline characteristics of patients in the 2 groups were similar. With a median follow-up of 331 days (range: 21-2226), we noticed a nonsignificant higher incidence of all-grade irAEs in the COVID-19 positive group (30.4% vs. 19.9%, P =0.18). The incidence of grade 3 and 4 irAEs was significantly higher in the COVID-19 positive group (10.9% vs. 3.2%, P =0.02). Multivariate analysis confirmed the association between COVID-19 infection and increased risk of severe irAE development (odds ratio: 1.08, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.14, P =0.01). Our study suggested that COVID-19 may pose a risk of severe irAEs in cancer patients receiving ICIs. Close monitoring and possibly delaying ICI administration could be considered when cancer patients are infected with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Adult , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Cytokines , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
11.
Curr Oncol ; 29(8): 5616-5626, 2022 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009970

ABSTRACT

The Canadian Real-world Evidence for Value in Cancer Drugs (CanREValue) Collaboration established the Engagement Working Group (WG) to ensure that all key stakeholders had an opportunity to provide input into the development and implementation of the CanREValue Real-World Evidence (RWE) Framework. Two consultations were held in 2021 to solicit patient perspectives on key policy and data access issues identified in the interim policy and data WG reports. Over 30 individuals, representing patients, caregivers, advocacy leaders, and individuals engaged in patient research were invited to participate. The consultations provided important feedback and valuable lessons in patient engagement. Patient leaders actively shaped the process and content of the consultation. Breakout groups facilitated by patient advocacy leaders gave the opportunity for open and thoughtful contributions from all participants. Important recommendations were made: the RWE framework should not impede access to new drugs; it should be used to support conditional approvals; patient relevant endpoints should be captured in provincial datasets; access to data to conduct RWE should be improved; and privacy issues must be considered. The manuscript documents the CanREValue experience of engaging patients in a consultative process and the useful contributions that can be achieved when the processes to engage are guided by patients themselves.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Neoplasms , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Canada , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Patient Participation
12.
Cancer Invest ; 40(9): 760-766, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008390

ABSTRACT

Little data are available regarding the effects of COVID-19 vaccine in cancer patients undergoing immunotherapy. Thereby, COVID-19 vaccine-related adverse events were monitored through a short questionnaire in solid cancer patients receiving immunotherapy. A total of 95 patients were included in this study. Two doses of vaccines were administered to cancer patients which mainly received Pembrolizumab (51.1%). Respectively 78.2% and 62.2% of patients reported no adverse events after the first and the second dose regardless of the type of vaccine used. Considering the high mortality rate due to COVID-19 among cancer patients, this study demonstrated the good tolerance of COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Neoplasms , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunotherapy , Neoplasms/drug therapy
14.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 24(9): 1117-1127, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2003760

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of available data on health disparities and the interconnected social determinants of health (SDOH) in cardio-oncology. We identify the gaps in the literature and suggest areas for future research. In addition, we propose strategies to address these disparities at various levels. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been increasing recognition of health disparities and the role of SODH on an individual's access to health care, quality of care, and outcomes of the illness. There is growing evidence of sex and race-based differences in cancer therapy-related cardiotoxicity. Recent studies have shown how access and quality of health care are affected by financial stability and rurality. Our recent study utilizing the social vulnerability index (SVI) and county-level patient data found graded increase in county-level cardio-oncology mortality with greater social vulnerability. The incremental impact of social vulnerability was higher for cardio-oncology mortality than for mortality related to either cancer or CVD alone. The mortality rates in these patients were higher in rural areas compared to urban areas regardless of social vulnerability. Additionally, for those within the counties within highest social vulnerability, Black individuals had significantly higher cardio-oncology mortality compared with White individuals. Disparities in the cardio-oncology population are deep-rooted and widespread, leading to poor quality of life and increased mortality. It is crucial to integrate SDOH, not only in clinical care delivery but also in future research, and registry data to improve our understanding and the outcomes in our unique subset of cardio-oncology patients.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Quality of Life , Humans , Medical Oncology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Rural Population , Whites
15.
Inflammopharmacology ; 30(3): 775-788, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2003753

ABSTRACT

Metformin can suppress gluconeogenesis and reduce blood sugar by activating adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inducing small heterodimer partner (SHP) expression in the liver cells. The main mechanism of metformin's action is related to its activation of the AMPK enzyme and regulation of the energy balance. AMPK is a heterothermic serine/threonine kinase made of a catalytic alpha subunit and two subunits of beta and a gamma regulator. This enzyme can measure the intracellular ratio of AMP/ATP. If this ratio is high, the amino acid threonine 172 available in its alpha chain would be activated by the phosphorylated liver kinase B1 (LKB1), leading to AMPK activation. Several studies have indicated that apart from its significant role in the reduction of blood glucose level, metformin activates the AMPK enzyme that in turn has various efficient impacts on the regulation of various processes, including controlling inflammatory conditions, altering the differentiation pathway of immune and non-immune cell pathways, and the amelioration of various cancers, liver diseases, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), kidney diseases, neurological disorders, etc. Metformin's activation of AMPK enables it to control inflammatory conditions, improve oxidative status, regulate the differentiation pathways of various cells, change the pathological process in various diseases, and finally have positive therapeutic effects on them. Due to the activation of AMPK and its role in regulating several subcellular signalling pathways, metformin can be effective in altering the cells' proliferation and differentiation pathways and eventually in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases.


Subject(s)
Metformin , Neoplasms , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Hepatocytes , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/metabolism , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Metformin/pharmacology , Metformin/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/prevention & control
16.
Inflammopharmacology ; 30(5): 1533-1539, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000007

ABSTRACT

Hesperetin, an aglycone metabolite of hesperidin with high bioavailability, recently gained attention due to its anti-COVID-19 and anti-cancer properties. Multiple studies revealed that cancer patients are prone to experience a severe form of COVID-19 and higher mortality risk. In addition, studies suggested that COVID-19 can potentially lead to cancer progression through multiple mechanisms. This study proposes that hesperetin not only can be used as an anti-COVID-19 agent but also can reduce the risk of multiple cancer progression by suppressing several intracellular signaling pathways in cancer patients with COVID-19. Therefore, in this review, we attempted to provide evidence demonstrating anti-COVID-19/cancer properties of hesperetin with several mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hesperidin , Neoplasms , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hesperidin/pharmacology , Hesperidin/therapeutic use , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(16)2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997644

ABSTRACT

Cyclophilin A (CypA), which has peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity, regulates multiple functions of cells by binding to its extracellular receptor CD147. The CypA/CD147 interaction plays a crucial role in the progression of several diseases, including inflammatory diseases, coronavirus infection, and cancer, by activating CD147-mediated intracellular downstream signaling pathways. Many studies have identified CypA and CD147 as potential therapeutic targets for cancer. Their overexpression promotes growth, metastasis, therapeutic resistance, and the stem-like properties of cancer cells and is related to the poor prognosis of patients with cancer. This review aims to understand the biology and interaction of CypA and CD147 and to review the roles of the CypA/CD147 interaction in cancer pathology and the therapeutic potential of targeting the CypA/CD147 axis. To validate the clinical significance of the CypA/CD147 interaction, we analyzed the expression levels of PPIA and BSG genes encoding CypA and CD147, respectively, in a wide range of tumor types using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. We observed a significant association between PPIA/BSG overexpression and poor prognosis, such as a low survival rate and high cancer stage, in several tumor types. Furthermore, the expression of PPIA and BSG was positively correlated in many cancers. Therefore, this review supports the hypothesis that targeting the CypA/CD147 interaction may improve treatment outcomes for patients with cancer.


Subject(s)
Cyclophilin A , Neoplasms , Basigin/genetics , Basigin/metabolism , Cyclophilin A/metabolism , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/genetics , Signal Transduction
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 898298, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997447

ABSTRACT

Gasdermins (GSDMs) are a class of pore-forming proteins related to pyroptosis, a programmed cell death pathway that is induced by a range of inflammatory stimuli. Small-scale GSDM activation and pore formation allow the passive release of cytokines, such as IL-1ß and IL-18, and alarmins, but, whenever numerous GSDM pores are assembled, osmotic lysis and cell death occur. Such GSDM-mediated pyroptosis promotes pathogen clearance and can help restore homeostasis, but recent studies have revealed that dysregulated pyroptosis is at the root of many inflammation-mediated disease conditions. Moreover, new homeostatic functions for gasdermins are beginning to be revealed. Here, we review the newly discovered mechanisms of GSDM activation and their prominent roles in host defense and human diseases associated with chronic inflammation. We also highlight the potential of targeting GSDMs as a new therapeutic approach to combat chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer and how we might overcome the current obstacles to realize this potential.


Subject(s)
Inflammasomes , Neoplasms , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pyroptosis/physiology
19.
ESMO Open ; 7(5): 100587, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer are at high risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Knowledge regarding the efficacy of the messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines in actively treated cancer patients is limited as they had been excluded from the pivotal studies of these vaccines. We evaluated humoral and cellular immune responses in cancer patients after double vaccination and a booster dose and identified disease- and treatment-related factors associated with a reduced immune response. We also documented the number and outcome of breakthrough infections. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with metastatic solid malignancies undergoing active treatment were included if they had received two doses of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 mRNA vaccines BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 and a booster dose. Other causes of immunosuppression and previous COVID-19 infections (positive anti-nucleocapsid titers) were exclusion criteria. Anti-spike antibodies, neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and T-cell responses were assessed about 6 months after the two-dose vaccination and 4 weeks after the booster. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients had pre-booster and 46 post-booster measurements. Anti-spike titers after two vaccine doses were highly variable and significantly lower in older patients, during treatment with chemotherapy compared to targeted and endocrine treatments and in patients with low CD4+ or CD19+ cell counts. The booster dose led to a significant increase in anti-spike antibodies and nAbs, achieving almost uniformly high titers, irrespective of baseline and treatment factors. The cellular immune response was also significantly increased by the booster, however generally more stable and not influenced by baseline factors and treatment type. Seventeen patients (33%) experienced breakthrough infections, but none required hospital care or died from COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: An mRNA vaccine booster dose is able to increase humoral and cellular immune responses and to overcome the immunosuppressive influence of baseline and treatment factors in cancer patients. Breakthrough infections were uniformly mild in this vaccinated high-risk population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Aged , Immunization, Secondary , COVID-19/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger , BNT162 Vaccine , Vaccination , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Neoplasms/drug therapy
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994080

ABSTRACT

Landmark discoveries in molecular oncology have provided a wide-angle overview of the heterogenous and therapeutically challenging nature of cancer. The power of modern 'omics' technologies has enabled researchers to deeply and comprehensively characterize molecular mechanisms underlying cellular functions. Interestingly, high-throughput technologies have opened new horizons for the design and scientific fool-proof evaluation of the pharmacological properties of targeted chemical compounds to tactfully control the activities of the oncogenic protein networks. Groundbreaking discoveries have galvanized the expansion of the repertoire of available pharmacopoeia to therapeutically target a myriad of deregulated oncogenic pathways. Natural product research has undergone substantial broadening, and many of the drugs which constitute the backbone of modern pharmaceuticals have been derived from the natural cornucopia. Baicalein has gradually gained attention because of its unique ability to target different oncogenic signal transduction cascades in various cancers. We have partitioned this review into different sub-sections to provide a broader snapshot of the oncogenic pathways regulated by baicalein. In this review, we summarize baicalein-mediated targeting of WNT/ß-catenin, AKT/mTOR, JAK/STAT, MAPK, and NOTCH pathways. We also critically analyze how baicalein regulates non-coding RNAs (microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs) in different cancers. Finally, we conceptually interpret baicalein-mediated inhibition of primary and secondary growths in xenografted mice.


Subject(s)
Flavanones , MicroRNAs , Neoplasms , Animals , Carcinogenesis , Flavanones/pharmacology , Flavanones/therapeutic use , Mice , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/metabolism , Signal Transduction
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