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1.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(657): eabo7604, 2022 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114205

ABSTRACT

Upon chronic antigen exposure, CD8+ T cells become exhausted, acquiring a dysfunctional state correlated with the inability to control infection or tumor progression. In contrast, stem-like CD8+ T progenitors maintain the ability to promote and sustain effective immunity. Adenovirus (Ad)-vectored vaccines encoding tumor neoantigens have been shown to eradicate large tumors when combined with anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (αPD-1) in murine models; however, the mechanisms and translational potential have not yet been elucidated. Here, we show that gorilla Ad vaccine targeting tumor neoepitopes enhances responses to αPD-1 therapy by improving immunogenicity and antitumor efficacy. Single-cell RNA sequencing demonstrated that the combination of Ad vaccine and αPD-1 increased the number of murine polyfunctional neoantigen-specific CD8+ T cells over αPD-1 monotherapy, with an accumulation of Tcf1+ stem-like progenitors in draining lymph nodes and effector CD8+ T cells in tumors. Combined T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing analysis highlighted a broader spectrum of neoantigen-specific CD8+ T cells upon vaccination compared to αPD-1 monotherapy. The translational relevance of these data is supported by results obtained in the first 12 patients with metastatic deficient mismatch repair (dMMR) tumors vaccinated with an Ad vaccine encoding shared neoantigens. Expansion and diversification of TCRs were observed in post-treatment biopsies of patients with clinical response, as well as an increase in tumor-infiltrating T cells with an effector memory signature. These findings indicate a promising mechanism to overcome resistance to PD-1 blockade by promoting immunogenicity and broadening the spectrum and magnitude of neoantigen-specific T cells infiltrating tumors.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Neoplasms , Adenoviridae , Animals , Antigens, Neoplasm/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Neoplasms/metabolism , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism
2.
Viral Immunol ; 35(7): 491-502, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037389

ABSTRACT

Lymphocytes are the main orchestrators that regulate the immune response in SARS-COV-2 infection. The exhaustion of T lymphocytes is a contributing factor to lymphopenia, which is responsible for the COVID-19 adverse outcome. However, it is still not demonstrated on a large scale, including cancer patients. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 83 SARS-CoV2 infected cancer patients, and 29 COVID-19 infected noncancer patients compared to 28 age-matched healthy controls. Lymphocyte subsets were assessed for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD56, PD-1, and CD95 using flow cytometry. The data were correlated to the patients' clinical features, COVID-19 severity and outcomes. Lymphopenia, and decreased CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells were significantly observed in COVID-19 cancer and noncancer patients compared to the control group (p < 0.001, for all). There was a significantly increased expression of CD95 and PD-1 on the NK cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells in COVID-19 cancer and noncancer patients in comparison to the control group. The increased expression of CD95 on CD8+ T cells, as well as the increased expression of PD-1 on CD8+ T cells and NK cells are significantly associated with the severity of COVID-19 infection in cancer patients. The increased expression of CD95 and PD-1 on the CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and NK cells was observed significantly in nonsurviving patients and those who were admitted to the intensive care unit in COVID-19 cancer and noncancer patients. The increased expression of PD-1 and CD95 could be possible prognostic factors for COVID-19 severity and adverse outcomes in COVID-19 cancer and noncancer patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphopenia , Neoplasms , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Lymphocyte Subsets , Lymphopenia/metabolism , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/metabolism , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocyte Subsets
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994080

ABSTRACT

Landmark discoveries in molecular oncology have provided a wide-angle overview of the heterogenous and therapeutically challenging nature of cancer. The power of modern 'omics' technologies has enabled researchers to deeply and comprehensively characterize molecular mechanisms underlying cellular functions. Interestingly, high-throughput technologies have opened new horizons for the design and scientific fool-proof evaluation of the pharmacological properties of targeted chemical compounds to tactfully control the activities of the oncogenic protein networks. Groundbreaking discoveries have galvanized the expansion of the repertoire of available pharmacopoeia to therapeutically target a myriad of deregulated oncogenic pathways. Natural product research has undergone substantial broadening, and many of the drugs which constitute the backbone of modern pharmaceuticals have been derived from the natural cornucopia. Baicalein has gradually gained attention because of its unique ability to target different oncogenic signal transduction cascades in various cancers. We have partitioned this review into different sub-sections to provide a broader snapshot of the oncogenic pathways regulated by baicalein. In this review, we summarize baicalein-mediated targeting of WNT/ß-catenin, AKT/mTOR, JAK/STAT, MAPK, and NOTCH pathways. We also critically analyze how baicalein regulates non-coding RNAs (microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs) in different cancers. Finally, we conceptually interpret baicalein-mediated inhibition of primary and secondary growths in xenografted mice.


Subject(s)
Flavanones , MicroRNAs , Neoplasms , Animals , Carcinogenesis , Flavanones/pharmacology , Flavanones/therapeutic use , Mice , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/metabolism , Signal Transduction
4.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 11(7): e2101349, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381824

ABSTRACT

White blood cells (WBCs) are immune cells that play essential roles in critical diseases including cancers, infections, and inflammatory disorders. Their dynamic and diverse functions have inspired the development of WBC membrane-coated nanoparticles (denoted "WBC-NPs"), which are formed by fusing the plasma membranes of WBCs, such as macrophages, neutrophils, T cells, and natural killer cells, onto synthetic nanoparticle cores. Inheriting the entire source cell antigens, WBC-NPs act as source cell decoys and simulate their broad biointerfacing properties with intriguing therapeutic potentials. Herein, the recent development and medical applications of WBC-NPs focusing on four areas, including WBC-NPs as carriers for drug delivery, as countermeasures for biological neutralization, as nanovaccines for immune modulation, and as tools for the isolation of circulating tumor cells and fundamental research is reviewed. Overall, the recent development and studies of WBC-NPs have established the platform as versatile nanotherapeutics and tools with broad medical application potentials.


Subject(s)
Nanoparticles , Neoplasms , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Leukocytes , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/metabolism
5.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(6): 316, 2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1941440

ABSTRACT

AXL, a TAM receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), and its ligand growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6) are implicated in cancer metastasis and drug resistance, and cellular entry of viruses. Given this, AXL is an attractive therapeutic target, and its inhibitors are being tested in cancer and COVID-19 clinical trials. Still, astonishingly little is known about intracellular mechanisms that control its function. Here, we characterized endocytosis of AXL, a process known to regulate intracellular functions of RTKs. Consistent with the notion that AXL is a primary receptor for GAS6, its depletion was sufficient to block GAS6 internalization. We discovered that upon receptor ligation, GAS6-AXL complexes were rapidly internalized via several endocytic pathways including both clathrin-mediated and clathrin-independent routes, among the latter the CLIC/GEEC pathway and macropinocytosis. The internalization of AXL was strictly dependent on its kinase activity. In comparison to other RTKs, AXL was endocytosed faster and the majority of the internalized receptor was not degraded but rather recycled via SNX1-positive endosomes. This trafficking pattern coincided with sustained AKT activation upon GAS6 stimulation. Specifically, reduced internalization of GAS6-AXL upon the CLIC/GEEC downregulation intensified, whereas impaired recycling due to depletion of SNX1 and SNX2 attenuated AKT signaling. Altogether, our data uncover the coupling between AXL endocytic trafficking and AKT signaling upon GAS6 stimulation. Moreover, our study provides a rationale for pharmacological inhibition of AXL in antiviral therapy as viruses utilize GAS6-AXL-triggered endocytosis to enter cells.


Subject(s)
Endocytosis , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Proto-Oncogene Proteins , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Clathrin/metabolism , Clathrin/physiology , Endocytosis/drug effects , Endocytosis/genetics , Endocytosis/physiology , Humans , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/physiology , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasms/therapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/physiology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/physiology , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/physiology
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785727

ABSTRACT

The field of immunometabolism seeks to decipher the complex interplay between the immune system and the associated metabolic pathways. The role of small molecules that can target specific metabolic pathways and subsequently alter the immune landscape provides a desirable platform for new therapeutic interventions. Immunotherapeutic targeting of suppressive cell populations, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), by small molecules has shown promise in pathologies such as cancer and support testing of similar host-directed therapeutic approaches in MDSC-inducing conditions such as tuberculosis (TB). MDSC exhibit a remarkable ability to suppress T-cell responses in those with TB disease. In tumors, MDSC exhibit considerable plasticity and can undergo metabolic reprogramming from glycolysis to fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to facilitate their immunosuppressive functions. In this review we look at the role of MDSC during M. tb infection and how their metabolic reprogramming aids in the exacerbation of active disease and highlight the possible MDSC-targeted metabolic pathways utilized during M. tb infection, suggesting ways to manipulate these cells in search of novel insights for anti-TB therapies.


Subject(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells , Neoplasms , Tuberculosis , Biology , Humans , Neoplasms/metabolism , Tuberculosis/microbiology
9.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763118

ABSTRACT

Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer and has proven to be critical in viral infections. Metabolic reprogramming provides the cell with energy and biomass for large-scale biosynthesis. Based on studies of the cellular changes that contribute to metabolic reprogramming, seven main hallmarks can be identified: (1) increased glycolysis and lactic acid, (2) increased glutaminolysis, (3) increased pentose phosphate pathway, (4) mitochondrial changes, (5) increased lipid metabolism, (6) changes in amino acid metabolism, and (7) changes in other biosynthetic and bioenergetic pathways. Viruses depend on metabolic reprogramming to increase biomass to fuel viral genome replication and production of new virions. Viruses take advantage of the non-metabolic effects of metabolic reprogramming, creating an anti-apoptotic environment and evading the immune system. Other non-metabolic effects can negatively affect cellular function. Understanding the role metabolic reprogramming plays in viral pathogenesis may provide better therapeutic targets for antivirals.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Viruses , Energy Metabolism , Glycolysis , Humans , Mitochondria/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , Virus Replication , Viruses/genetics
10.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264025, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714775

ABSTRACT

Experimental breakthroughs have provided unprecedented insights into the genes involved in cancer. The identification of such cancer driver genes is a major step in gaining a fuller understanding of oncogenesis and provides novel lists of potential therapeutic targets. A key area that requires additional study is the posttranscriptional control mechanisms at work in cancer driver genes. This is important not only for basic insights into the biology of cancer, but also to advance new therapeutic modalities that target RNA-an emerging field with great promise toward the treatment of various cancers. In the current study we performed an in silico analysis on the transcripts associated with 800 cancer driver genes (10,390 unique transcripts) that identified 179,190 secondary structural motifs with evidence of evolutionarily ordered structures with unusual thermodynamic stability. Narrowing to one transcript per gene, 35,426 predicted structures were subjected to phylogenetic comparisons of sequence and structural conservation. This identified 7,001 RNA secondary structures embedded in transcripts with evidence of covariation between paired sites, supporting structure models and suggesting functional significance. A select set of seven structures were tested in vitro for their ability to regulate gene expression; all were found to have significant effects. These results indicate potentially widespread roles for RNA structure in posttranscriptional control of human cancer driver genes.


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , Neoplasms , Nucleic Acid Conformation , Phylogeny , RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional , RNA Stability , RNA, Neoplasm , Humans , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/metabolism , RNA, Neoplasm/genetics , RNA, Neoplasm/metabolism
11.
Cell Metab ; 34(3): 378-395, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712531

ABSTRACT

Productive T cell responses to infection and cancer rely on coordinated metabolic reprogramming and epigenetic remodeling among the immune cells. In particular, T cell effector and memory differentiation, exhaustion, and senescence/aging are tightly regulated by the metabolism-epigenetics axis. In this review, we summarize recent advances of how metabolic circuits combined with epigenetic changes dictate T cell fate decisions and shape their functional states. We also discuss how the metabolic-epigenetic axis orchestrates T cell exhaustion and explore how physiological factors, such as diet, gut microbiota, and the circadian clock, are integrated in shaping T cell epigenetic modifications and functionality. Furthermore, we summarize key features of the senescent/aged T cells and discuss how to ameliorate vaccination- and COVID-induced T cell dysfunctions by metabolic modulations. An in-depth understanding of the unexplored links between cellular metabolism and epigenetic modifications in various physiological or pathological contexts has the potential to uncover novel therapeutic strategies for fine-tuning T cell immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Virus Diseases , Aged , Aging , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Cell Differentiation , Epigenesis, Genetic , Humans , Neoplasms/metabolism , Virus Diseases/metabolism
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674661

ABSTRACT

Breast cancers and cancers of the genitourinary tract are the most common malignancies among men and women and are still characterized by high mortality rates. In order to improve the outcomes, early diagnosis is crucial, ideally by applying non-invasive and specific biomarkers. A key role in this field is played by extracellular vesicles (EVs), lipid bilayer-delimited structures shed from the surface of almost all cell types, including cancer cells. Subcellular structures contained in EVs such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids can be isolated and exploited as biomarkers, since they directly stem from parental cells. Furthermore, it is becoming even more evident that different body fluids can also serve as sources of EVs for diagnostic purposes. In this review, EV isolation and characterization methods are described. Moreover, the potential contribution of EV cargo for diagnostic discovery purposes is described for each tumor.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Urogenital Neoplasms/diagnosis , Animals , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Female , Humans , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/metabolism , Nucleic Acids/metabolism , Urogenital Neoplasms/metabolism
13.
J Nucl Med ; 63(2): 274-279, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674255

ABSTRACT

Although the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can present as nonspecific clinical forms, subclinical cases represent an important route of transmission and a significant source of mortality, mainly in high-risk subpopulations such as cancer patients. A deeper knowledge of the metabolic shift in cells infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 could provide new insights about its pathogenic and host response and help to diagnose pulmonary involvement. We explored the potential added diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET/CT scans in asymptomatic cancer patients with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia by investigating the association between metabolic and structural changes in the lung parenchyma. Methods: 18F-FDG PET/CT studies acquired between February 19 and May 29, 2020, were reviewed to identify those cancer patients with incidental findings suggestive of COVID-19 pneumonia. PET studies were interpreted through qualitative (visual) and semiquantitative (measurement of SUVmax) analysis evaluating lung findings. Several characteristic signs of COVID-19 pneumonia on CT were described as COVID-19 Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS) categories (1-6). After comparing the SUVmax of pulmonary infiltrates among different CO-RADS categories, we explored the best potential cutoffs for pulmonary SUVmax against CO-RADS categories as the gold standard result to eliminate the possibility that the diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia exists. Results: On multimodal PET/CT imaging, CT signs classified as CO-RADS category 5 or 6 were found in 16 of 41 (39%) oncologic patients. SUVmax was higher in patients with categories 5 and 6 than in patients with category 4 (6.17 ± 0.82 vs. 3.78 ± 0.50, P = 0.04) or categories 2 and 3 (3.59 ± 0.41, P = 0.01). A specificity of 93.8% (95% CI, 71.7%-99.7%) and an accuracy of 92.9% were obtained when combining a CO-RADS score of 5 or 6 with an SUVmax of 2.45 in pulmonary infiltrates. Conclusion: In asymptomatic cancer patients, the metabolic activity in lung infiltrates is closely associated with several combined tomographic changes characteristic of COVID-19 pneumonia. Multimodal 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging could provide additional information during early diagnosis in selected predisposed patients during the pandemic. The prognostic implications of simultaneous radiologic and molecular findings in cancer patients and other subpopulations at high risk for COVID-19 pneumonia deserve further evaluation in prospective research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Radiopharmaceuticals , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasms/pathology
14.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674519

ABSTRACT

Cancer cachexia remains a serious public health concern worldwide, particularly as cancer rates rise. Treatment is endangered, and survival is reduced, because this illness is commonly misdiagnosed and undertreated. Although weight loss is the most evident sign of cachexia, there are other early metabolic and inflammatory changes that occur before the most obvious symptoms appear. Cachexia-related inflammation is induced by a combination of factors, one of which is the release of inflammation-promoting chemicals by the tumor. Today, more scientists are beginning to believe that the development of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) related cachexia is similar to cancer-related cachexia. It is worth noting that patients infected with COVID-19 have a significant inflammatory response and can develop cachexia. These correlations provide feasible reasons for the variance in the occurrence and severity of cachexia in human malignancies, therefore, specific therapeutic options for these individuals must be addressed based on disease types. In this review, we highlighted the role of key chemokines, cytokines, and clinical management in relation to cancer cachexia and its long-term impact on COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cachexia/metabolism , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cachexia/etiology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Neoplasms/complications , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
15.
Cancer Metastasis Rev ; 41(1): 147-172, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635411

ABSTRACT

We have established considerable expertise in studying the role of platelets in cancer biology. From this expertise, we were keen to recognize the numerous venous-, arterial-, microvascular-, and macrovascular thrombotic events and immunologic disorders are caused by severe, acute-respiratory-syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. With this offering, we explore the evolutionary connections that place platelets at the center of hemostasis, immunity, and adaptive phylogeny. Coevolutionary changes have also occurred in vertebrate viruses and their vertebrate hosts that reflect their respective evolutionary interactions. As mammals adapted from aquatic to terrestrial life and the heavy blood loss associated with placentalization-based live birth, platelets evolved phylogenetically from thrombocytes toward higher megakaryocyte-blebbing-based production rates and the lack of nuclei. With no nuclei and robust RNA synthesis, this adaptation may have influenced viral replication to become less efficient after virus particles are engulfed. Human platelets express numerous receptors that bind viral particles, which developed from archetypal origins to initiate aggregation and exocytic-release of thrombo-, immuno-, angiogenic-, growth-, and repair-stimulatory granule contents. Whether by direct, evolutionary, selective pressure, or not, these responses may help to contain virus spread, attract immune cells for eradication, and stimulate angiogenesis, growth, and wound repair after viral damage. Because mammalian and marsupial platelets became smaller and more plate-like their biophysical properties improved in function, which facilitated distribution near vessel walls in fluid-shear fields. This adaptation increased the probability that platelets could then interact with and engulf shedding virus particles. Platelets also generate circulating microvesicles that increase membrane surface-area encounters and mark viral targets. In order to match virus-production rates, billions of platelets are generated and turned over per day to continually provide active defenses and adaptation to suppress the spectrum of evolving threats like SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Animals , Biology , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Hemostasis , Humans , Mammals , Neoplasms/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(12): 1156, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585874

ABSTRACT

Lots of cell death initiator and effector molecules, signalling pathways and subcellular sites have been identified as key mediators in both cell death processes in cancer. The XDeathDB visualization platform provides a comprehensive cell death and their crosstalk resource for deciphering the signaling network organization of interactions among different cell death modes associated with 1461 cancer types and COVID-19, with an aim to understand the molecular mechanisms of physiological cell death in disease and facilitate systems-oriented novel drug discovery in inducing cell deaths properly. Apoptosis, autosis, efferocytosis, ferroptosis, immunogenic cell death, intrinsic apoptosis, lysosomal cell death, mitotic cell death, mitochondrial permeability transition, necroptosis, parthanatos, and pyroptosis related to 12 cell deaths and their crosstalk can be observed systematically by the platform. Big data for cell death gene-disease associations, gene-cell death pathway associations, pathway-cell death mode associations, and cell death-cell death associations is collected by literature review articles and public database from iRefIndex, STRING, BioGRID, Reactom, Pathway's commons, DisGeNET, DrugBank, and Therapeutic Target Database (TTD). An interactive webtool, XDeathDB, is built by web applications with R-Shiny, JavaScript (JS) and Shiny Server Iso. With this platform, users can search specific interactions from vast interdependent networks that occur in the realm of cell death. A multilayer spectral graph clustering method that performs convex layer aggregation to identify crosstalk function among cell death modes for a specific cancer. 147 hallmark genes of cell death could be observed in detail in these networks. These potential druggable targets are displayed systematically and tailoring networks to visualize specified relations is available to fulfil user-specific needs. Users can access XDeathDB for free at https://pcm2019.shinyapps.io/XDeathDB/ .


Subject(s)
Cell Death/physiology , Regulated Cell Death/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cluster Analysis , Databases, Factual , Humans , Necroptosis , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasms/physiopathology , Phagocytosis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Software
18.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(3): 709-724, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583514

ABSTRACT

Growing evidence has shown that Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2) not only contributes to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, but is also closely associated with the incidence and progression of tumours. However, the correlation of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and cancers, and the prognostic value and molecular function of TMPRSS2 in various cancers have not been fully understood. In this study, the expression, genetic variations, correlated genes, immune infiltration and prognostic value of TMPRSS2 were analysed in many cancers using different bioinformatics platforms. The observed findings revealed that the expression of TMPRSS2 was considerably decreased in many tumour tissues. In the prognostic analysis, the expression of TMPRSS2 was considerably linked with the clinical consequences of the brain, blood, colorectal, breast, ovarian, lung and soft tissue cancer. In protein network analysis, we determined 27 proteins as protein partners of TMPRSS2, which can regulate the progression and prognosis of cancer mediated by TMPRSS2. Besides, a high level of TMPRSS2 was linked with immune cell infiltration in various cancers. Furthermore, according to the pathway analysis of differently expressed genes (DEGs) with TMPRSS2 in lung, breast, ovarian and colorectal cancer, 160 DEGs genes were found and were significantly enriched in respiratory system infection and tumour progression pathways. In conclusion, the findings of this study demonstrate that TMPRSS2 may be an effective biomarker and therapeutic target in various cancers in humans, and may also provide new directions for specific tumour patients to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics , Humans , Prognosis
19.
Molecules ; 26(23)2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559466

ABSTRACT

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) represented, in the past ten years, an important target for the development of new therapeutic agents that could be useful for cancer and autoimmune disorders. To date, five compounds, able to block BTK in an irreversible manner, have been launched in the market, whereas many reversible BTK inhibitors (BTKIs), with reduced side effects that are more useful for long-term administration in autoimmune disorders, are under clinical investigation. Despite the presence in the literature of many articles and reviews, studies on BTK function and BTKIs are of great interest for pharmaceutical companies as well as academia. This review is focused on compounds that have appeared in the literature from 2017 that are able to block BTK in an irreversible or reversible manner; also, new promising tunable irreversible inhibitors, as well as PROTAC molecules, have been reported. This summary could improve the knowledge of the chemical diversity of BTKIs and provide information for future studies, particularly from the medicinal chemistry point of view. Data reported here are collected from different databases (Scifinder, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Pubmed) using "BTK" and "BTK inhibitors" as keywords.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/metabolism , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/metabolism , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/chemistry , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/classification , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Treatment Outcome
20.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(4): 1079-1087, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524445

ABSTRACT

Fibrinogen-associated protein (FREP) family is a family of proteins with a fibrin domain at the carboxyl terminus. Recent investigations illustrated that two members of FREP family, fibrinogen-like protein-1 (FGL1) and fibrinogen-like protein-2 (FGL2), play crucial roles in cancer by regulating the proliferation, invasion, and migration of tumor cells, or regulating the functions of immune cells in tumor microenvironment. Meanwhile, they are potential targets for medical intervention of tumor development. In this review, we discussed the structure, and the roles of FGL1 and FGL2 in tumors, especially the roles in regulating immune cell functions.


Subject(s)
Fibrinogen/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment/immunology , Animals , Humans , Immunotherapy , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , Signal Transduction
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