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1.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(27): 3083-3084, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883562
2.
CMAJ ; 194(11): E408-E414, 2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the declaration of the global pandemic, surgical slowdowns were instituted to conserve health care resources for anticipated surges in patients with COVID-19. The long-term implications on survival of these slowdowns for patients with cancer in Canada is unknown. METHODS: We constructed a microsimulation model based on real-world population data on cancer care from Ontario, Canada, from 2019 and 2020. Our model estimated wait times for cancer surgery over a 6-month period during the pandemic by simulating a slowdown in operating room capacity (60% operating room resources in month 1, 70% in month 2, 85% in months 3-6), as compared with simulated prepandemic conditions with 100% resources. We used incremental differences in simulated wait times to model survival using per-day hazard ratios for risk of death. Primary outcomes included life-years lost per patient and per cancer population. We conducted scenario analyses to evaluate alternative, hypothetical scenarios of different levels of surgical slowdowns on risk of death. RESULTS: The simulated model population comprised 22 799 patients waiting for cancer surgery before the pandemic and 20 177 patients during the pandemic. Mean wait time to surgery prepandemic was 25 days and during the pandemic was 32 days. Excess wait time led to 0.01-0.07 life-years lost per patient across cancer sites, translating to 843 (95% credible interval 646-950) life-years lost among patients with cancer in Ontario. INTERPRETATION: Pandemic-related slowdowns of cancer surgeries were projected to result in decreased long-term survival for many patients with cancer. Measures to preserve surgical resources and health care capacity for affected patients are critical to mitigate unintended consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/surgery , Pandemics , Time-to-Treatment , Delayed Diagnosis , Humans , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Ontario/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Survival Analysis , Uncertainty , Waiting Lists
3.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 241, 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was designed to investigate the impact of anti-tumor approaches (including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy) on the outcomes of cancer patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant trials. The primary endpoints were severe disease and death of cancer patients treated with anti-tumor therapy before COVID-19 diagnosis. In addition, stratified analyses were implemented towards various types of anti-tumor therapy and other prognostic factors. Furthermore, odds ratios (ORs) were hereby adopted to measure the outcomes with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: As indicated in the study consisting of 9231 individuals from 52 cohorts in total, anti-tumor therapy before COVID-19 diagnosis could elevate the risk of death in cancer patients (OR: 1.21, 95%CI: 1.07-1.36, P = 0.0026) and the incidence of severe COVID-19 (OR: 1.19, 95%CI: 1.01-1.40, P = 0.0412). Among various anti-tumor approaches, chemotherapy distinguished to increase the incidence of death (OR = 1.22, 95%CI: 1.08-1.38, P = 0.0013) and severe COVID-19 (OR = 1.10, 95%CI: 1.02-1.18, P = 0.0165) as to cancer patients with COVID-19. Moreover, for cancer patients with COVID-19, surgery and targeted therapy could add to the risk of death (OR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.00-1.61, P = 0.0472), and the incidence of severe COVID-19 (OR = 1.14, 95%CI: 1.01-1.30, P = 0.0357) respectively. In the subgroup analysis, the incidence of death (OR = 1.17, 95%CI: 1.03-1.34, P = 0.0158) raised in case of chemotherapy adopted for solid tumor with COVID-19. Besides, age, gender, hypertension, COPD, smoking and lung cancer all served as potential prognostic factors for both death and severe disease of cancer patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-tumor therapy, especially chemotherapy, augmented the risk of severe disease and death for cancer patients with COVID-19, so did surgery for the risk of death and targeted therapy for the incidence of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/mortality , Odds Ratio , Patient Outcome Assessment , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
4.
Eur J Cancer ; 160: 261-272, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719649

ABSTRACT

AIM OF THE STUDY: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic significantly impacted cancer care. In this study, clinical patient characteristics related to COVID-19 outcomes and advanced care planning, in terms of non-oncological treatment restrictions (e.g. do-not-resuscitate codes), were studied in patients with cancer and COVID-19. METHODS: The Dutch Oncology COVID-19 Consortium registry was launched in March 2020 in 45 hospitals in the Netherlands, primarily to identify risk factors of a severe COVID-19 outcome in patients with cancer. Here, an updated analysis of the registry was performed, and treatment restrictions (e.g. do-not-intubate codes) were studied in relation to COVID-19 outcomes in patients with cancer. Oncological treatment restrictions were not taken into account. RESULTS: Between 27th March 2020 and 4th February 2021, 1360 patients with cancer and COVID-19 were registered. Follow-up data of 830 patients could be validated for this analysis. Overall, 230 of 830 (27.7%) patients died of COVID-19, and 60% of the remaining 600 patients with resolved COVID-19 were admitted to the hospital. Patients with haematological malignancies or lung cancer had a higher risk of a fatal outcome than other solid tumours. No correlation between anticancer therapies and the risk of a fatal COVID-19 outcome was found. In terms of end-of-life communication, 50% of all patients had restrictions regarding life-prolonging treatment (e.g. do-not-intubate codes). Most identified patients with treatment restrictions had risk factors associated with fatal COVID-19 outcome. CONCLUSION: There was no evidence of a negative impact of anticancer therapies on COVID-19 outcomes. Timely end-of-life communication as part of advanced care planning could save patients from prolonged suffering and decrease burden in intensive care units. Early discussion of treatment restrictions should therefore be part of routine oncological care, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Life Support Care/statistics & numerical data , Mortality/trends , Neoplasms/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Withholding Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasms/virology , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
5.
Eur J Cancer ; 159: 78-86, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719646

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There are limited data on SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection in children with cancer or after haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). We describe the severity and outcomes of SARS-COV-2 in these patients and identify factors associated with severe disease. METHODS: This was a multinational, observational study of children (aged <19 years) with cancer or HSCT and SARS-CoV-2 confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. COVID-19 was classified as asymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe or critical (≥1 organ support). Exact polytomous regression was used to determine the relationship between clinical variables and disease severity. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-one patients with COVID-19 across 10 countries were identified (median age 8 years). Seventy-eight (60%) had leukaemia/lymphoma, 48 (37%) had solid tumour and five had primary immunodeficiency and HSCT. Fever (71%), cough (47%) and coryza (29%) were the most frequent symptoms. The median duration of detectable virus was 16 days (range, 1-79 days). Forty-nine patients (37%) were hospitalised for COVID-19 symptoms, and 15 (11%) required intensive care unit-level care. Chemotherapy was delayed/modified in 35% of patients. COVID-19 was asymptomatic in 32% of patients, mild in 47%, moderate in 8%, severe in 4% and critical in 9%. In 124 patients (95%), a full recovery was documented, and four (3%) died due to COVID-19. Any comorbidity (odds ratio, 2.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.81-5.21), any coinfection (1.74; 95% CI 1.03-3.03) and severe baseline neutropenia (1.82; 95% CI 1.13-3.09) were independently and significantly associated with increasing disease severity. CONCLUSION: Although most children with cancer had asymptomatic/mild disease, 13% had severe COVID-19 and 3% died. Comorbidity, coinfection and neutropenia may increase the risk of severe disease. Our data may help management decisions in this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/mortality , Neutropenia/epidemiology , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
6.
PLoS Med ; 19(2): e1003904, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686090

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Deaths in the first year of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in England and Wales were unevenly distributed socioeconomically and geographically. However, the full scale of inequalities may have been underestimated to date, as most measures of excess mortality do not adequately account for varying age profiles of deaths between social groups. We measured years of life lost (YLL) attributable to the pandemic, directly or indirectly, comparing mortality across geographic and socioeconomic groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used national mortality registers in England and Wales, from 27 December 2014 until 25 December 2020, covering 3,265,937 deaths. YLLs (main outcome) were calculated using 2019 single year sex-specific life tables for England and Wales. Interrupted time-series analyses, with panel time-series models, were used to estimate expected YLL by sex, geographical region, and deprivation quintile between 7 March 2020 and 25 December 2020 by cause: direct deaths (COVID-19 and other respiratory diseases), cardiovascular disease and diabetes, cancer, and other indirect deaths (all other causes). Excess YLL during the pandemic period were calculated by subtracting observed from expected values. Additional analyses focused on excess deaths for region and deprivation strata, by age-group. Between 7 March 2020 and 25 December 2020, there were an estimated 763,550 (95% CI: 696,826 to 830,273) excess YLL in England and Wales, equivalent to a 15% (95% CI: 14 to 16) increase in YLL compared to the equivalent time period in 2019. There was a strong deprivation gradient in all-cause excess YLL, with rates per 100,000 population ranging from 916 (95% CI: 820 to 1,012) for the least deprived quintile to 1,645 (95% CI: 1,472 to 1,819) for the most deprived. The differences in excess YLL between deprivation quintiles were greatest in younger age groups; for all-cause deaths, a mean of 9.1 years per death (95% CI: 8.2 to 10.0) were lost in the least deprived quintile, compared to 10.8 (95% CI: 10.0 to 11.6) in the most deprived; for COVID-19 and other respiratory deaths, a mean of 8.9 years per death (95% CI: 8.7 to 9.1) were lost in the least deprived quintile, compared to 11.2 (95% CI: 11.0 to 11.5) in the most deprived. For all-cause mortality, estimated deaths in the most deprived compared to the most affluent areas were much higher in younger age groups, but similar for those aged 85 or over. There was marked variability in both all-cause and direct excess YLL by region, with the highest rates in the North West. Limitations include the quasi-experimental nature of the research design and the requirement for accurate and timely recording. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed strong socioeconomic and geographical health inequalities in YLL, during the first calendar year of the COVID-19 pandemic. These were in line with long-standing existing inequalities in England and Wales, with the most deprived areas reporting the largest numbers in potential YLL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Adult , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cause of Death , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , England/epidemiology , Female , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Life Expectancy , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/mortality , Residence Characteristics , Respiratory Tract Diseases/mortality , Socioeconomic Factors , Wales/epidemiology
7.
Int J Cancer ; 150(8): 1310-1317, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623243

ABSTRACT

To describe the clinical outcomes and risk factors for 90-day mortality in patients with solid tumours (ST) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the first outbreak in Catalonia. This is a multicentre retrospective study including adults with ST and COVID-19 confirmed by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction between 13 March and 30 April 2020. Clinical and survival data were collected. Follow-up ended on 30 July 2020. Multivariate and survival analysis were performed. A hundred and fifteen patients were included. In all, 42.6% had advanced disease and were receiving anticancer treatment; 7% were admitted to the ICU and 22.6% died during hospitalisation. Thirty-day mortality was 27.8%, which increased to 33.9% at 90 days. Ninety-day mortality was associated with current smoker status (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.91, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 1.03-8.33, P = .044), baseline ECOG-PS 2 to 3 (HR: 3.88, 95% CI: 1.77-8.46, P < .001]), dyspnoea (HR: 3.02, 95% CI: 1.31-6.96, P = .009), a respiratory rate ≥ 24 (HR: 2.24, 95% CI: 1.02-4.92, P = .046) and sepsis (HR: 3.97, 95% CI: 1.78-8.88, P < .001). Of the 76 survivors, 73.6% had a follow-up visit. Of those, 33.9% had their cancer controlled and 23.2% had progressed. Thirty-five survivors were receiving anticancer treatment before COVID-19 diagnosis though 14 had to discontinue the treatment. Eight survivors without previous anticancer therapy started therapy. The median time to start anticancer therapy after COVID-19 was 45 days (interquartile range: 28-61). In conclusion, 90-day mortality in patients with ST and COVID-19 was 33.9%; current smoker status, poor ECOG-PS, dyspnoea, respiratory rate ≥24 and sepsis were independent risk factors for mortality; and survivors did not restart their anticancer treatment until 1.5 months after COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Aged , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain , Treatment Outcome
8.
J Surg Oncol ; 125(5): 813-823, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616029

ABSTRACT

We conducted this meta-analysis to address the outcomes in cancer patients after oncologic surgery during COVID-19 pandemic. The primary endpoint was the COVID-19-related mortality rate. Higher body mass index was significantly and negatively associated with higher all-cause mortality and in-hospital COVID-19 infection rates. Male sex, preoperative respiratory disease, and smoking history were positively and significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality rates. Furthermore, male sex was positively and significantly associated with the COVID-19 infection rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Male , Medical Oncology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/mortality , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Smoking/adverse effects
10.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248995, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575502

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic forced healthcare services organization to adjust to mutating healthcare needs. Not exhaustive data are available on the consequences of this on non-COVID-19 patients. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the pandemic on non-COVID-19 patients living in a one-million inhabitants' area in Northern Italy (Bologna Metropolitan Area-BMA), analyzing time trends of Emergency Department (ED) visits, hospitalizations and mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study using data extracted from BMA healthcare informative systems. Weekly trends of ED visits, hospitalizations, in- and out-of-hospital, all-cause and cause-specific mortality between December 1st, 2019 to May 31st, 2020, were compared with those of the same period of the previous year. Non-COVID-19 ED visits and hospitalizations showed a stable trend until the first Italian case of COVID-19 has been recorded, on February 19th, 2020, when they dropped simultaneously. The reduction of ED visits was observed in all age groups and across all severity and diagnosis groups. In the lockdown period a significant increase was found in overall out-of-hospital mortality (43.2%) and cause-specific out-of-hospital mortality related to neoplasms (76.7%), endocrine, nutritional and metabolic (79.5%) as well as cardiovascular (32.7%) diseases. The pandemic caused a sudden drop of ED visits and hospitalizations of non-COVID-19 patients during the lockdown period, and a concurrent increase in out-of-hospital mortality mainly driven by deaths for neoplasms, cardiovascular and endocrine diseases. As recurrencies of the COVID-19 pandemic are underway, the scenario described in this study might be useful to understand both the population reaction and the healthcare system response at the early phases of the pandemic in terms of reduced demand of care and systems capability in intercepting it.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Metabolic Diseases/mortality , Metabolic Diseases/pathology , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/pathology , Pandemics , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
CMAJ ; 193(47): E1798-E1806, 2021 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on access to health care resources. Our objective was to estimate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of childhood cancer in Canada. We also aimed to compare the proportion of patients who enrolled in clinical trials at diagnosis, presented with metastatic disease or had an early death during the first 9 months of the COVID-19 pandemic compared with previous years. METHODS: We conducted an observational study that included children younger than 15 years with a new diagnosis of cancer between March 2016 and November 2020 at 1 of 17 Canadian pediatric oncology centres. Our primary outcome was the monthly age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) of cancers. We evaluated level and trend changes using interventional autoregressive integrated moving average models. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of patients who were enrolled in a clinical trial, who had metastatic or advanced disease and who died within 30 days. We compared the baseline and pandemic periods using rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Age-standardized incidence rates during COVID-19 quarters were 157.7, 164.6, and 148.0 per million, respectively, whereas quarterly baseline ASIRs ranged between 150.3 and 175.1 per million (incidence RR 0.93 [95% CI 0.78 to 1.12] to incidence RR 1.04 [95% CI 0.87 to 1.24]). We found no statistically significant level or slope changes between the projected and observed ASIRs for all new cancers (parameter estimate [ß], level 4.98, 95% CI -15.1 to 25.04, p = 0.25), or when stratified by cancer type or by geographic area. Clinical trial enrolment rate was stable or increased during the pandemic compared with baseline (RR 1.22 [95% CI 0.70 to 2.13] to RR 1.71 [95% CI 1.01 to 2.89]). There was no difference in the proportion of patients with metastatic disease (RR 0.84 [95% CI 0.55 to 1.29] to RR 1.22 [0.84 to 1.79]), or who died within 30 days (RR 0.16 [95% CI 0.01 to 3.04] to RR 1.73 [95% CI 0.38 to 15.2]). INTERPRETATION: We did not observe a statistically significant change in the incidence of childhood cancer, or in the proportion of children enrolling in a clinical trial, presenting with metastatic disease or who died early during the first 9 months of the COVID-19 pandemic, which suggests that access to health care in pediatric oncology was not reduced substantially in Canada.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Adolescent , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Neoplasms/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
12.
Nat Hum Behav ; 6(1): 55-63, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541210

ABSTRACT

The effects of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) public health policies on non-COVID-19-related mortality are unclear. Here, using death registries based on 300 million Chinese people and a difference-in-differences design, we find that China's strict anti-contagion policies during the COVID-19 pandemic significantly reduced non-COVID-19 mortality outside Wuhan (by 4.6%). The health benefits persisted and became even greater after the measures were loosened: mortality was reduced by 12.5% in the medium term. Significant changes in people's behaviours (for example, wearing masks and practising social distancing) and reductions in air pollution and traffic accidents could have driven these results. We estimate that 54,000 lives could have been saved from non-COVID-19 causes during the 50 days of strict policies and 293,000 in the subsequent 115 days. The results suggest that virus countermeasures not only effectively controlled COVID-19 in China but also brought about unintended and substantial public health benefits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Mortality/trends , Neoplasms/mortality , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Wounds and Injuries/mortality , Accidents, Traffic/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Cause of Death , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Public Health , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
13.
Int J Cancer ; 150(8): 1244-1254, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540090

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected cancer care worldwide. This study aimed to estimate the long-term impacts of cancer care disruptions on cancer mortality in Canada using a microsimulation model. The model simulates cancer incidence and survival using cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis and survival data from the Canadian Cancer Registry. We modeled reported declines in cancer diagnoses and treatments recorded in provincial administrative datasets in March 2020 to June 2021. Based on the literature, we assumed that diagnostic and treatment delays lead to a 6% higher rate of cancer death per 4-week delay. After June 2021, we assessed scenarios where cancer treatment capacity returned to prepandemic levels, or to 10% higher or lower than prepandemic levels. Results are the median predictions of 10 stochastic simulations. The model predicts that cancer care disruptions during the COVID-19 pandemic could lead to 21 247 (2.0%) more cancer deaths in Canada in 2020 to 2030, assuming treatment capacity is recovered to 2019 prepandemic levels in 2021. This represents 355 172 life years lost expected due to pandemic-related diagnostic and treatment delays. The largest number of expected excess cancer deaths was predicted for breast, lung and colorectal cancers, and in the provinces of Ontario, Québec and British Columbia. Diagnostic and treatment capacity in 2021 onward highly influenced the number of cancer deaths over the next decade. Cancer care disruptions during the COVID-19 pandemic could lead to significant life loss; however, most of these could be mitigated by increasing diagnostic and treatment capacity in the short-term to address the service backlog.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Neoplasms/therapy , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Neoplasms/mortality , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Time-to-Treatment
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21472, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500505

ABSTRACT

Acute healthcare services are extremely important, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic, as healthcare demand has rapidly intensified, and resources have become insufficient. Studies on specific prepandemic hospitalization and emergency department visit (EDV) trends in proximity to death are limited. We examined time-trend specificities based on sex, age, and cause of death in the last 2 years of life. Datasets containing all hospitalizations and EDVs of elderly residents in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy (N = 411,812), who died between 2002 and 2014 at ≥ 65 years, have been collected. We performed subgroup change-point analysis of monthly trends in the 2 years preceding death according to sex, age at death (65-74, 75-84, 85-94, and ≥ 95 years), and main cause of death (cancer, cardiovascular, or respiratory disease). The proportion of decedents (N = 142,834) accessing acute healthcare services increased exponentially in proximity to death (hospitalizations = 4.7, EDVs = 3.9 months before death). This was inversely related to age, with changes among the youngest and eldest decedents at 6.6 and 3.5 months for hospitalizations and at 4.6 and 3.3 months for EDVs, respectively. Healthcare use among cancer patients intensified earlier in life (hospitalizations = 6.8, EDVs = 5.8 months before death). Decedents from respiratory diseases were most likely to access hospital-based services during the last month of life. No sex-based differences were found. The greater use of acute healthcare services among younger decedents and cancer patients suggests that policies potentiating primary care support targeting these at-risk groups may reduce pressure on hospital-based services.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Cause of Death , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Terminal Care
16.
Future Oncol ; 17(36): 5045-5051, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496871

ABSTRACT

Aim: To explore factors affecting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality among cancer patients based on a pharmacovigilance database. Methods: US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) quarterly data extract files were reviewed for quarters two, three and four of 2020 (i.e., April to December). Patients with an indication related to malignancy and a reported COVID-related reaction were selected. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for factors associated with a fatal outcome was conducted. Results: A total of 2708 patients were included. The following factors were associated with fatal COVID-19 infection: older age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.04), male sex (OR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.07-1.91), non-US report source (OR: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.93-3.13), hematological malignancy (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.28-2.07), potentially immunosuppressive treatment (OR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.30-2.58) and diagnosis in quarter two versus quarter four (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.27-2.07). Conclusion: Within FAERS reports, cancer patients who are older, males and receiving immunosuppressive treatment and those with hematological malignancies were at a higher risk of death because of COVID-19 infection.


Lay abstract In this study, individuals with a diagnosis of cancer who were older and males and those receiving immunosuppressive treatment seemed to be at a higher risk of a fatal outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Neoplasms/mortality , United States Food and Drug Administration/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pharmacovigilance , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
17.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(20): 2232-2246, 2021 07 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484813

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Variation in risk of adverse clinical outcomes in patients with cancer and COVID-19 has been reported from relatively small cohorts. The NCATS' National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) is a centralized data resource representing the largest multicenter cohort of COVID-19 cases and controls nationwide. We aimed to construct and characterize the cancer cohort within N3C and identify risk factors for all-cause mortality from COVID-19. METHODS: We used 4,382,085 patients from 50 US medical centers to construct a cohort of patients with cancer. We restricted analyses to adults ≥ 18 years old with a COVID-19-positive or COVID-19-negative diagnosis between January 1, 2020, and March 25, 2021. We followed N3C selection of an index encounter per patient for analyses. All analyses were performed in the N3C Data Enclave Palantir platform. RESULTS: A total of 398,579 adult patients with cancer were identified from the N3C cohort; 63,413 (15.9%) were COVID-19-positive. Most common represented cancers were skin (13.8%), breast (13.7%), prostate (10.6%), hematologic (10.5%), and GI cancers (10%). COVID-19 positivity was significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.24). Among COVID-19-positive patients, age ≥ 65 years, male gender, Southern or Western US residence, an adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index score ≥ 4, hematologic malignancy, multitumor sites, and recent cytotoxic therapy were associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality. Patients who received recent immunotherapies or targeted therapies did not have higher risk of overall mortality. CONCLUSION: Using N3C, we assembled the largest nationally representative cohort of patients with cancer and COVID-19 to date. We identified demographic and clinical factors associated with increased all-cause mortality in patients with cancer. Full characterization of the cohort will provide further insights into the effects of COVID-19 on cancer outcomes and the ability to continue specific cancer treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Neoplasms/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Cause of Death , Electronic Health Records , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/therapy , Prognosis , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , United States , Young Adult
18.
Nutr Hosp ; 38(6): 1263-1268, 2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478821

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Background: nutritional status might vary according to different underlying illnesses such as cancer or infectious diseases, including COVID-19. In this context, data from developing countries remain scarce. Objectives: the objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status and outcomes of Mexican cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19 at a tertiary care center. Methods: this was a retrospective study including 121 consecutive cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19 at the National Cancer Institute, Mexico City, during four months. Results: the most frequent oncological diagnoses were gynecological (19 %) and hematological (17 %). Most patients were overweight (35 %). In the univariate analysis, ≥ 65 years, intubation, hypoalbuminemia, high creatinine, lymphopenia, nutrition-impact symptoms, and ECOG 2-4 were statistically associated with lower survival. The median survival of the cohort was 41 days. Conclusions: to our best knowledge, this is the first study of its kind performed in Mexico, and as other studies from other regions, our results might aid in identifying cancer patients most at risk for severe COVID-19, and could be potentially useful to enhance public health messaging on self-isolation and social distancing among Mexican cancer patients.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Antecedentes: el estado nutricional puede variar según las diferentes enfermedades subyacentes, como el cáncer o las enfermedades infecciosas, por ejemplo, la COVID-19. En este contexto, los datos de los países en desarrollo siguen siendo escasos. Objetivos: el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el estado nutricional y los resultados de pacientes mexicanos con cáncer diagnosticados de COVID-19 en un centro de atención terciaria. Métodos: se trata de un estudio retrospectivo que incluyó a 121 pacientes consecutivos con cáncer diagnosticados de COVID-19 en el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer de la Ciudad de México durante cuatro meses. Resultados: los diagnósticos oncológicos más frecuentes fueron los ginecológicos (19 %) y hematológicos (17 %). La mayoría de los pacientes tenían sobrepeso (35 %) y obesidad (31 %). En el análisis univariado, ≥ 65 años, intubación, hipoalbuminemia, creatinina alta, linfopenia, síntomas de impacto nutricional y ECOG 2-4 se asociaron estadísticamente con una menor supervivencia. La mediana de supervivencia de la cohorte fue de 41 días. Conclusiones: hasta donde sabemos, este es el primer estudio de este tipo realizado en México y, al igual que otros estudios de otras regiones, nuestros resultados podrían ayudar a identificar a los pacientes con cáncer y mayor riesgo de COVID-19 grave; también podrían ser potencialmente útiles para mejorar los mensajes de salud sobre el autoaislamiento y el distanciamiento social entre los pacientes mexicanos con cáncer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Neoplasms/mortality , Nutritional Status , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Analysis of Variance , COVID-19/epidemiology , Creatinine/blood , Female , Humans , Hypoalbuminemia/epidemiology , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Overweight/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
19.
Cancer Control ; 28: 10732748211045275, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has overwhelmed the capacity of healthcare systems worldwide. Cancer patients, in particular, are vulnerable and oncology departments drastically needed to modify their care systems and established new priorities. We evaluated the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the activity of a single cancer center. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of (i) volumes of oncological activities (2020 vs 2019), (ii) patients' perception rate of the preventive measures, (iii) patients' SARS-CoV-2 infections, clinical signs thereof, and (iv) new diagnoses made during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. RESULTS: As compared with a similar time frame in 2019, the overall activity in total numbers of outpatient chemotherapy administrations and specialist visits was not statistically different (P = .961 and P = .252), while inpatient admissions decreased for both medical oncology and thoracic oncology (18% (P = .0018) and 44% (P < .0001), respectively). Cancer diagnosis plummeted (-34%), but no stage shift could be demonstrated.Acceptance and adoption of hygienic measures was high, as measured by a targeted questionnaire (>85%). However, only 46.2% of responding patients regarded telemedicine, although widely deployed, as an efficient surrogate to a consultation.Thirty-three patients developed SARS-CoV-2, 27 were hospitalized, and 11 died within this time frame. These infected patients were younger, current smokers, and suffered more comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective cohort analysis adds to the evidence that continuation of active cancer therapy and specialist visits is feasible and safe with the implementation of telemedicine. These data further confirm the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on cancer care management, cancer diagnosis, and impact of infection on cancer patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cancer Care Facilities/organization & administration , Cancer Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Age Factors , Comorbidity , Cyclopentanes , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/mortality , Organosilicon Compounds , Pandemics , Perception , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20073, 2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462039

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplantation recipients (KTR) with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at higher risk of death than general population. However, mortality risk factors in KTR are still not clearly identified. Our objective was to systematically analyze published evidence for risk factors associated with mortality in COVID-19 KTR. Electronic databases were searched for eligible studies on 1 August 2021. All prospective and retrospective studies of COVID-19 in KTR were considered eligible without language restriction. Since data in case reports and series could potentially be subsets of larger studies, only studies with ≥ 50 patients were included. Random-effects model meta-analysis was used to calculate weighted mean difference (WMD) and pooled odds ratio (OR) of factors associated with mortality. From a total 1,137 articles retrieved, 13 were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis comprising 4,440 KTR. Compared with survivors, non-survivors were significantly older (WMD 10.5 years, 95% CI 9.3-11.8). KTR of deceased donor were at higher risk of death (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.10-2.74). Comorbidities including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and active cancer significantly increased mortality risk. KTR with dyspnea (OR 5.68, 95% CI 2.11-15.33) and pneumonia (OR 10.64, 95% CI 3.37-33.55) at presentation were at higher mortality risk, while diarrhea decreased the risk (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.47-0.78). Acute kidney injury was associated with mortality (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.36-7.70). Inflammatory markers were significantly higher in the non-survivors, including C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and interleukine-6. A number of COVID-19 mortality risk factors were identified from KTR patient characteristics, presenting symptoms, and laboratory investigations. KTR with these risk factors should receive more intensive monitoring and early therapeutic interventions to optimize health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Transplant Recipients
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