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1.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 15(11): 4625-4641, 2023 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239369

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The severity of COVID-19 increases with each decade of life, a phenomenon that suggest that organismal aging contributes to the fatality of the disease. In this regard, we and others have previously shown that COVID-19 severity correlates with shorter telomeres, a molecular determinant of aging, in patient's leukocytes. Lung injury is a predominant feature of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection that can further progress to lung fibrosis in post-COVID-19 patients. Short or dysfunctional telomeres in Alveolar type II (ATII) cells are sufficient to induce pulmonary fibrosis in mouse and humans. Here, we analyze telomere length and the histopathology of lung biopsies from a cohort of alive post-COVID-19 patients and a cohort of age-matched controls with lung cancer. We found loss of ATII cellularity and shorter telomeres in ATII cells concomitant with a marked increase in fibrotic lung parenchyma remodeling in post- COVID-19 patients compared to controls. These findings reveal a link between presence of short telomeres in ATII cells and long-term lung fibrosis sequel in Post-COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Humans , Mice , Animals , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Alveolar Epithelial Cells , Lung/pathology , Neoplasms/pathology , Telomere/pathology
2.
J Med Virol ; 95(5): e28768, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234815

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New strategies are needed to improve the treatment of patients with breast cancer (BC). Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising new tool for cancer treatment but still has a limited overall durable antitumor response. A novel replicable recombinant oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 called VG161 has been developed and has demonstrated antitumor effects in several cancers. Here, we explored the efficacy and the antitumor immune response of VG161 cotreatment with paclitaxel (PTX) which as a novel oncolytic viral immunotherapy for BC. METHODS: The antitumor effect of VG161 and PTX was confirmed in a BC xenograft mouse model. The immunostimulatory pathways were tested by RNA-seq and the remodeling of tumor microenvironment was detected by Flow cytometry analysis or Immunohistochemistry. Pulmonary lesions were analyzed by the EMT6-Luc BC model. RESULTS: In this report, we demonstrate that VG161 can significantly represses BC growth and elicit a robust antitumor immune response in a mouse model. The effect is amplified when combined with PTX treatment. The antitumor effect is associated with the infiltration of lymphoid cells, including CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and NK cells (expressing TNF and IFN-γ), and myeloid cells, including macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and dendritic cell cells. Additionally, VG161 cotreatment with PTX showed a significant reduction in BC lung metastasis, which may result from the enhanced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell-mediated responses. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of PTX and VG161 is effective for repressing BC growth by inducing proinflammatory changes in the tumor microenvironment and reducing BC pulmonary metastasis. These data will provide a new strategy and valuable insight for oncolytic virus therapy applications in primary solid or metastatic BC tumors.


Subject(s)
Herpesvirus 1, Human , Neoplasms , Oncolytic Virotherapy , Oncolytic Viruses , Humans , Animals , Mice , Paclitaxel/therapeutic use , Paclitaxel/pharmacology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Oncolytic Viruses/genetics , Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Tumor Microenvironment
3.
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol ; 368: 61-108, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322260

ABSTRACT

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are one of the most abundant immune components in the tumor microenvironment and play a plethora of roles in regulating tumorigenesis. Therefore, the therapeutic targeting of TAMs has emerged as a new paradigm for immunotherapy of cancer. Herein, the review summarizes the origin, polarization, and function of TAMs in the progression of malignant diseases. The understanding of such knowledge leads to several distinct therapeutic strategies to manipulate TAMs to battle cancer, which include those to reduce TAM abundance, such as depleting TAMs or inhibiting their recruitment and differentiation, and those to harness or boost the anti-tumor activities of TAMs such as blocking phagocytosis checkpoints, inducing antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis, and reprogramming TAM polarization. In addition, modulation of TAMs may reshape the tumor microenvironment and therefore synergize with other cancer therapeutics. Therefore, the rational combination of TAM-targeting therapeutics with conventional therapies including radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and other immunotherapies is also reviewed. Overall, targeting TAMs presents itself as a promising strategy to add to the growing repertoire of treatment approaches in the fight against cancer, and it is hopeful that these approaches currently being pioneered will serve to vastly improve patient outcomes and quality of life.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Tumor-Associated Macrophages , Humans , Immunotherapy , Macrophages , Neoplasms/pathology , Quality of Life , Tumor Microenvironment
4.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 43(6): 452-455, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312310

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Severe complications have been reported to occur in 33% of patients with COVID-19 and include acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute renal failure, acute respiratory injury, septic shock, and severe pneumonia. Currently, there is no specific treatment or approved vaccine against COVID-19 and many clinical trials are currently investigating potential medications to treat COVID-19. The immunosuppressed status of some cancer patients (whether caused by the disease itself or the treatment) increases their risk of infection compared with the general population. This short review aims to focus on the impact of COVID-19 on a cancer patient and discuss management options and recommendation in addition to highlighting the currently available clinical guidelines and resources.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Health Personnel/standards , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Management , Humans , Incidence , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Vet Pathol ; 60(3): 352-359, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320504

ABSTRACT

Ocular involvement in systemic diseases is frequent in cats; however, without concurrent clinical and ophthalmic examinations with gross and/or histologic analysis of the eye, these findings can be underdiagnosed. This article aims to provide gross, histologic, and immunohistochemical characteristics of ocular lesions from cats submitted to necropsy, focusing on those caused by systemic infectious agents. Cats that died due to a systemic infectious disease were selected based on necropsy diagnosis and presence of ocular lesions. Gross, histologic, and immunohistochemical findings were recorded. From April 2018 to September 2019, 849 eyes of 428 cats were evaluated. Histologic abnormalities were seen in 29% of cases, which were classified as inflammatory (41%), neoplastic (32%), degenerative (19%), and metabolic/vascular (8%). Macroscopic changes were present in one-third of eyes with histologic lesions. Of these, 40% were attributed to inflammatory or neoplastic diseases associated with infectious agents. The most important infectious agents causing ocular disease in this study were feline leukemia virus, feline infectious peritonitis virus, and Cryptococcus sp. The most common ocular abnormalities associated with infectious agents were uveitis (anterior, posterior, or panuveitis), optic neuritis, and meningitis of the optic nerve. Ocular lesions secondary to systemic infections in cats are frequent; however, these are not always diagnosed because gross lesions are less common than histologic lesions. Therefore, both gross and histologic evaluation of the eyes of cats is recommended, mainly for cases in which the clinical suspicion or necropsy diagnosis suggests that an infectious agent might be related to the cause of death.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases , Communicable Diseases , Feline Infectious Peritonitis , Neoplasms , Sepsis , Uveitis , Cats , Animals , Eye/pathology , Uveitis/pathology , Uveitis/veterinary , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/veterinary , Sepsis/pathology , Sepsis/veterinary , Communicable Diseases/pathology , Communicable Diseases/veterinary , Cat Diseases/pathology , Feline Infectious Peritonitis/pathology
6.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(D1): D27-D38, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312875

ABSTRACT

The National Genomics Data Center (NGDC), part of the China National Center for Bioinformation (CNCB), provides a family of database resources to support global research in both academia and industry. With the explosively accumulated multi-omics data at ever-faster rates, CNCB-NGDC is constantly scaling up and updating its core database resources through big data archive, curation, integration and analysis. In the past year, efforts have been made to synthesize the growing data and knowledge, particularly in single-cell omics and precision medicine research, and a series of resources have been newly developed, updated and enhanced. Moreover, CNCB-NGDC has continued to daily update SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences, variants, haplotypes and literature. Particularly, OpenLB, an open library of bioscience, has been established by providing easy and open access to a substantial number of abstract texts from PubMed, bioRxiv and medRxiv. In addition, Database Commons is significantly updated by cataloguing a full list of global databases, and BLAST tools are newly deployed to provide online sequence search services. All these resources along with their services are publicly accessible at https://ngdc.cncb.ac.cn.


Subject(s)
Databases, Factual , Animals , China , Computational Biology , Databases, Genetic , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Dogs , Epigenome , Genome, Human , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Humans , Methylation , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/pathology , Regeneration , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Single-Cell Analysis , Software , Synthetic Biology
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313827

ABSTRACT

Some viruses are known to be associated with the onset of specific cancers. These microorganisms, oncogenic viruses or oncoviruses, can convert normal cells into cancer cells by modulating the central metabolic pathways or hampering genomic integrity mechanisms, consequently inhibiting the apoptotic machinery and/or enhancing cell proliferation. Seven oncogenic viruses are known to promote tumorigenesis in humans: human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (HTLV-1), Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Recent research indicates that SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 progression may predispose recovered patients to cancer onset and accelerate cancer development. This hypothesis is based on the growing evidence regarding the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to modulate oncogenic pathways, promoting chronic low-grade inflammation and causing tissue damage. Herein, we summarize the main relationships known to date between virus infection and cancer, providing a summary of the proposed biochemical mechanisms behind the cellular transformation. Mechanistically, DNA viruses (such as HPV, HBV, EBV, and MCPyV) encode their virus oncogenes. In contrast, RNA viruses (like HCV, HTLV-1) may encode oncogenes or trigger host oncogenes through cis-/-trans activation leading to different types of cancer. As for SARS-CoV-2, its role as an oncogenic virus seems to occur through the inhibition of oncosuppressors or controlling the metabolic and autophagy pathways in the infected cells. However, these effects could be significant in particular scenarios like those linked to severe COVID-19 or long COVID. On the other hand, looking at the SARS-CoV-2─cancer relationship from an opposite perspective, oncolytic effects and anti-tumor immune response were triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection in some cases. In summary, our work aims to recall comprehensive attention from the scientific community to elucidate the effects of SARS-CoV-2 and, more in general, ß-coronavirus infection on cancer susceptibility for cancer prevention or supporting therapeutic approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Hepatitis C , Neoplasms , Papillomavirus Infections , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Herpesvirus 4, Human , COVID-19/complications , Neoplasms/pathology , Oncogenic Viruses/genetics , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Hepatitis C/complications
8.
Cancer Metastasis Rev ; 42(1): 9-12, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266618
9.
Cell Signal ; 101: 110496, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235843

ABSTRACT

Nitric Oxide (NO) is a highly diffusible, ubiquitous signaling molecule and a free radical that is naturally synthesized by our body. The pleiotropic effects of NO in biological systems are due to its reactivity with different molecules, such as molecular oxygen (O2), superoxide anion, DNA, lipids, and proteins. There are several contradictory findings in the literature pertaining to its role in oncology. NO is a Janus-faced molecule shown to have both tumor promoting and tumoricidal effects, which depend on its concentration, duration of exposure, and location. A high concentration is shown to have cytotoxic effects by triggering apoptosis, and at a low concentration, NO promotes angiogenesis, metastasis, and tumor progression. Upregulated NO synthesis has been implicated as a causal factor in several pathophysiological conditions including cancer. This dichotomous effect makes it highly challenging to discover its true potential in cancer biology. Understanding the mechanisms by which NO acts in different cancers helps to develop NO based therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment. This review addresses the physiological role of this molecule, with a focus on its bimodal action in various types of cancers.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Nitric Oxide , Humans , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Neoplasms/pathology , Signal Transduction , Apoptosis , Superoxides/metabolism
10.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(4): 305-311, 2020 Apr 23.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033195

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the principles of differential diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates in cancer patients during the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by analyzing one case of lymphoma who presented pulmonary ground-glass opacities (GGO) after courses of chemotherapy. Methods: Baseline demographics and clinicopathological data of eligible patients were retrieved from medical records. Information of clinical manifestations, history of epidemiology, lab tests and chest CT scan images of visiting patients from February 13 to February 28 were collected. Literatures about pulmonary infiltrates in cancer patients were searched from databases including PUBMED, EMBASE and CNKI. Results: Among the 139 cancer patients who underwent chest CT scans before chemotherapy, pulmonary infiltrates were identified in eight patients (5.8%), five of whom were characterized with GGOs in lungs. 2019-nCoV nuclear acid testing was performed in three patients and the results were negative. One case was a 66-year-old man who was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and underwent CHOP chemotherapy regimen. His chest CT scan image displayed multiple GGOs in lungs and the complete blood count showed decreased lymphocytes. This patient denied any contact with confirmed/suspected cases of 2019-nCoV infection, fever or other respiratory symptoms. Considering the negative result of nuclear acid testing, this patient was presumptively diagnosed with viral pneumonia and an experiential anti-infection treatment had been prescribed for him. Conclusions: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) complicates the clinical scenario of pulmonary infiltrates in cancer patients. The epidemic history, clinical manifestation, CT scan image and lab test should be taken into combined consideration. The 2019-nCoV nuclear acid testing might be applied in more selected patients. Active anti-infection treatment and surveillance of patient condition should be initiated if infectious disease is considered.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Neoplasms/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934120

ABSTRACT

The major object of this Editorial is to briefly put into context the processes, occurring during tumor onset and progression, and the biological mechanisms mediated by cadherins described in the review and research articles included in the Special Issue entitled "Activations of Cadherin Signaling in Cancer" [...].


Subject(s)
Cadherins , Neoplasms , Humans , Neoplasms/pathology , Signal Transduction
13.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917640

ABSTRACT

Different pathological conditions, including viral infections and cancer, can have a massive impact on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), causing severe damage to the cell and exacerbating the disease. In particular, coronavirus infections, including SARS coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for COVID-19, cause ER stress as a consequence of the enormous amounts of viral glycoproteins synthesized, the perturbation of ER homeostasis and the modification of ER membranes. Therefore, ER has a central role in the viral life cycle, thus representing one of the Achilles' heels on which to focus therapeutic intervention. On the other hand, prolonged ER stress has been demonstrated to promote many pro-tumoral attributes in cancer cells, having a key role in tumor growth, metastasis and response to therapies. In this report, adopting a repurposing approach of approved drugs, we identified the antiplatelet agent ticlopidine as an interferent of the unfolded protein response (UPR) via sigma receptors (SRs) modulation. The promising results obtained suggest the potential use of ticlopidine to counteract ER stress induced by viral infections, such as COVID-19, and cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Neoplasms , Drug Repositioning , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Humans , Neoplasms/pathology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Ticlopidine/pharmacology , Unfolded Protein Response
14.
Cell ; 185(14): 2452-2468.e16, 2022 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885669

ABSTRACT

COVID survivors frequently experience lingering neurological symptoms that resemble cancer-therapy-related cognitive impairment, a syndrome for which white matter microglial reactivity and consequent neural dysregulation is central. Here, we explored the neurobiological effects of respiratory SARS-CoV-2 infection and found white-matter-selective microglial reactivity in mice and humans. Following mild respiratory COVID in mice, persistently impaired hippocampal neurogenesis, decreased oligodendrocytes, and myelin loss were evident together with elevated CSF cytokines/chemokines including CCL11. Systemic CCL11 administration specifically caused hippocampal microglial reactivity and impaired neurogenesis. Concordantly, humans with lasting cognitive symptoms post-COVID exhibit elevated CCL11 levels. Compared with SARS-CoV-2, mild respiratory influenza in mice caused similar patterns of white-matter-selective microglial reactivity, oligodendrocyte loss, impaired neurogenesis, and elevated CCL11 at early time points, but after influenza, only elevated CCL11 and hippocampal pathology persisted. These findings illustrate similar neuropathophysiology after cancer therapy and respiratory SARS-CoV-2 infection which may contribute to cognitive impairment following even mild COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Neoplasms , Animals , Humans , Influenza, Human/pathology , Mice , Microglia/pathology , Myelin Sheath , Neoplasms/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Microb Drug Resist ; 28(5): 601-610, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864944

ABSTRACT

This retrospective study aims to describe the etiology and resistance patterns of pathogens causing bacteremia in children with solid tumors in a tertiary pediatric hematology-oncology center in Jerusalem, Israel (2011-2019). Factors associated with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteremia and mortality were analyzed. A total of 228 pathogens were isolated in 126 patients; 61.0% were gram-negative rods (GNR) and 38.2% were gram-positive cocci (GPC). The most common pathogens were Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.3%), Escherichia coli (17.5%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (16.2%). The proportion of MDR-GNR was 18.2%, while the proportion of MDR-GPC was 55.2%. In logistic regression analysis, breakthrough bacteremia on a penicillin-group antibiotic (odds ratio [OR] 5.69, [95% confidence interval 1.42-22.76], p-value = 0.014) was associated and underlying diagnosis of neuroblastoma was inversely associated (OR 0.17, [0.04-0.81], p-value = 0.026) with MDR-GNR bacteremia; while the previous hospitalizations' duration (OR 1.032/day, [1.01-1.06], p-value = 0.007) and oncologic treatment intensity (OR 2.19, [1.08-4.45, p-value = 0.03) were associated with MDR-GPC bacteremia. Shock, prolonged profound neutropenia, and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission were associated with 7-day mortality; and relapsed disease, oncologic treatment intensity, prolonged profound neutropenia, and PICU admission-with 30-day mortality in the univariate analyses. Empirical antibiotic choice should be based on factors associated with MDR infections in this specific population.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Neoplasms , Neutropenia , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Child , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/pathology , Neutropenia/complications , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3775, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735272

ABSTRACT

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification is known for its high sensitivity, specificity and tolerance to inhibiting-substances. In this work, we developed a device for performing real-time colorimetric LAMP combining the accuracy of lab-based quantitative analysis with the simplicity of point-of-care testing. The device innovation lies on the use of a plastic tube anchored vertically on a hot surface while the side walls are exposed to a mini camera able to take snapshots of the colour change in real time during LAMP amplification. Competitive features are the rapid analysis (< 30 min), quantification over 9 log-units, crude sample-compatibility (saliva, tissue, swabs), low detection limit (< 5 copies/reaction), smartphone-operation, fast prototyping (3D-printing) and ability to select the dye of interest (Phenol red, HNB). The device's clinical utility is demonstrated in cancer mutations-analysis during the detection of 0.01% of BRAF-V600E-to-wild-type molecules from tissue samples and COVID-19 testing with 97% (Ct < 36.8) and 98% (Ct < 30) sensitivity when using extracted RNA and nasopharyngeal-swabs, respectively. The device high technology-readiness-level makes it a suitable platform for performing any colorimetric LAMP assay; moreover, its simple and inexpensive fabrication holds promise for fast deployment and application in global diagnostics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , Colorimetry , Humans , Limit of Detection , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nasopharynx/virology , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/pathology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Point-of-Care Testing , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Smartphone
18.
Int J Oncol ; 60(3)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726130

ABSTRACT

Biobanks constitute an integral part of precision medicine. They provide a repository of biospecimens that may be used to elucidate the pathophysiology, support diagnoses, and guide the treatment of diseases. The pilot biobank of rare malignant neoplasms has been established in the context of the Hellenic Network of Precision Medicine on Cancer and aims to enhance future clinical and/or research studies in Greece by collecting, processing, and storing rare malignant neoplasm samples with associated data. The biobank currently comprises 553 samples; 384 samples of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissue malignancies, 72 samples of pediatric brain tumors and 97 samples of malignant skin neoplasms. In this article, sample collections and their individual significance in clinical research are described in detail along with computational methods developed specifically for this project. A concise review of the Greek biobanking landscape is also delineated, in addition to recommended technologies, methodologies and protocols that were integrated during the creation of the biobank. This project is expected to re­enforce current clinical and research studies, introduce advances in clinical and genetic research and potentially aid in future targeted drug discovery. It is our belief that the future of medical research is entwined with accessible, effective, and ethical biobanking and that our project will facilitate research planning in the '­omic' era by contributing high­quality samples along with their associated data.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks/trends , Neoplasms/pathology , Precision Medicine/trends , Cell Line, Tumor , Greece , Humans , Precision Medicine/methods
19.
Vet Comp Oncol ; 20(1): 198-206, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704562

ABSTRACT

Mandatory second opinion histopathology is common practice in human surgical pathology. It is intended to confirm the original diagnosis or identify clinically significant discrepancies, which could alter the course of disease, cost of treatment, patient management or prognosis. This retrospective analysis aimed to evaluate agreement between first and second opinion histopathology cases, examine their correlation with natural history of disease and investigate the rationale for pursuing this test. Medical records from 2011 to 2019 were reviewed, identifying 109 cases where second opinion histopathology was sought. Reasons for seeking second opinion and clinical disease course were also reviewed to determine whether case progression favoured first or second opinion findings in cases of diagnostic disagreement. Diagnostic disagreement was found in 49.5% of cases. Complete diagnostic disagreement (a change in degree of malignancy or tumour type) occurred in 15.6% cases and partial disagreement (a change in tumour subtype, grade, margins and mitotic count) occurred in 33.9%. Major disagreement (a change in diagnosis resulting in alteration of treatment recommendations) occurred in 38.5% of cases. The most common reasons for seeking second opinion were an atypical/poorly differentiated tumour (31.2%; 34/109) or a discordant clinical picture (24.8%; 27/109). Among cases with any form of disagreement, natural history of disease favoured second opinion findings in 33.3%. The first opinion was favoured over the second in a single case. These findings reinforce previous literature supporting a role for second opinion histopathology in optimizing therapy and predicting outcomes in veterinary oncology, particularly in cases where diagnosis is in question based on the overall clinical picture.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Referral and Consultation , Animals , Humans , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/veterinary , Retrospective Studies
20.
J Med Chem ; 65(5): 3706-3728, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699705

ABSTRACT

Glucose, the primary substrate for ATP synthesis, is catabolized during glycolysis to generate ATP and precursors for the synthesis of other vital biomolecules. Opportunistic viruses and cancer cells often hijack this metabolic machinery to obtain energy and components needed for their replication and proliferation. One way to halt such energy-dependent processes is by interfering with the glycolytic pathway. 2-Deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) is a synthetic glucose analogue that can inhibit key enzymes in the glycolytic pathway. The efficacy of 2-DG has been reported across an array of diseases and disorders, thereby demonstrating its broad therapeutic potential. Recent approval of 2-DG in India as a therapeutic approach for the management of the COVID-19 pandemic has brought renewed attention to this molecule. The purpose of this perspective is to present updated therapeutic avenues as well as a variety of chemical synthetic strategies for this medically useful sugar derivative, 2-DG.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Deoxyglucose/chemistry , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Deoxyglucose/metabolism , Deoxyglucose/pharmacology , Deoxyglucose/therapeutic use , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Epilepsy/pathology , Glycolysis/drug effects , Humans , Isotope Labeling , Mitochondria/metabolism , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/pathology , Positron-Emission Tomography , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Virus Replication/drug effects
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