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3.
Rev Med Virol ; 32(6): e2364, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858914

ABSTRACT

Some viral infections lead to tumourigenesis explained by a variety of underlying molecular mechanisms. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have the potential to be added to this list due to their diverse mechanisms in biological functions and disease processes via gene alternation, transcriptional regulation, protein modification, microRNA sponging and interaction with RNA/DNA/proteins. In this review, we summarise the dysregulation and mechanism of lncRNAs in virus-related cancers focussing on Hepatitis B virus, Epstein-Barr virus, Human Papillomavirus. We will also discuss the potential implications of lncRNAs in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Hepatitis B , Neoplasms , Papillomavirus Infections , RNA, Long Noncoding , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/genetics , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/virology , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/complications
5.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262784, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793538

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Even if now we have available the weapon of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, the patients with cancer remains a very frail population in which frequently the immunologic response to vaccination may be impaired. In this setting, the SARS-CoV-2 infection screening retains a great value. However, there are still limited data on the feasibility and efficacy of combined screening procedures to assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection (including asymptomatic cases) in cancer outpatients undergoing antineoplastic therapy. PATIENTS AND RESULTS: From May 1, 2020, to June 15, 2020, during the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, 860 consecutive patients, undergoing active anticancer therapy, were evaluated and tested for SARS-CoV-2 with a combined screening procedure, including a self-report questionnaire, a molecular nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and a rapid serological immunoassay (for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM antibodies). The primary endpoint of the study was to estimate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection (including asymptomatic cases) in consecutive and unselected cancer outpatients by a combined screening modality. A total of 2955 SARS-CoV-2 NPS and 860 serological tests, in 475 patients with hematologic cancers and in 386 with solid tumors, were performed. A total of 112 (13%) patients self-reported symptoms potentially COVID-19 related. In 1/860 cases (< 1%) SARS-CoV-2 NPS was positive and in 14 cases (1.62%) the specific serological test was positive (overall prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection 1.62%). Of the 112 cases who declared symptoms potentially COVID-19-related, only 2.7% (3/112) were found SARS-CoV-2 positive. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest study reporting the feasibility of a combined screening procedure (including triage, NPS and serologic test) to evaluate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cancer patients receiving active therapy, during the first epidemic wave and under the restrictive lockdown measures, in one of the active areas of the SARS-CoV-2 circulation. Lacking specific recommendations for the detection of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 cases, a combined diagnostic screening might be more effective to detect the exact prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in neoplastic patient population. The prevalence can obviously change according to the territorial context, the entity of the restrictive measures adopted and the phase of the epidemic curve. However, its exact and real-time knowledge could be important to balance risks/benefits of oncologic treatments, avoiding (if the prevalence is low) the reduction of dose intensity or the selection of less intensive (but also less effective) anti-cancer therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Communicable Disease Control , Comorbidity , Diagnostic Screening Programs/trends , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serologic Tests
6.
Eur J Cancer ; 160: 243-260, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer are considered a priority group for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination given their high risk of contracting severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, limited data exist regarding the efficacy of immunisation in this population. In this study, we assess the immunologic response after COVID-19 vaccination of cancer versus non-cancer population. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Web of Science databases were searched from 01st March 2020 through 12th August 12 2021. Primary end-points were anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) immunoglobulin G (IgG) seroconversion rates, T-cell response, and documented SARS-CoV-2 infection after COVID-19 immunisation. Data were extracted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Overall effects were pooled using random-effects models. RESULTS: This systematic review and meta-analysis included 35 original studies. Overall, 51% (95% confidence interval [CI], 41-62) and 73% (95% CI, 64-81) of patients with cancer developed anti-S IgG above the threshold level after partial and complete immunisation, respectively. Patients with haematologic malignancies had a significantly lower seroconversion rate than those with solid tumours after complete immunisation (65% vs 94%; P < 0.0001). Compared with non-cancer controls, oncological patients were less likely to attain seroconversion after incomplete (risk ratio [RR] 0.45 [95% CI 0.35-0.58]) and complete (RR 0.69 [95% CI 0.56-0.84]) COVID-19 immunisation schemes. Patients with cancer had a higher likelihood of having a documented SARS-CoV-2 infection after partial (RR 3.21; 95% CI 0.35-29.04) and complete (RR 2.04; 95% CI 0.38-11.10) immunisation. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cancer have an impaired immune response to COVID-19 vaccination compared with controls. Strategies that endorse the completion of vaccination schemes are warranted. Future studies should aim to evaluate different approaches that enhance oncological patients' immune response.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Neoplasms/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Neoplasms/chemically induced , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroconversion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
7.
Eur J Cancer ; 160: 261-272, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719649

ABSTRACT

AIM OF THE STUDY: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic significantly impacted cancer care. In this study, clinical patient characteristics related to COVID-19 outcomes and advanced care planning, in terms of non-oncological treatment restrictions (e.g. do-not-resuscitate codes), were studied in patients with cancer and COVID-19. METHODS: The Dutch Oncology COVID-19 Consortium registry was launched in March 2020 in 45 hospitals in the Netherlands, primarily to identify risk factors of a severe COVID-19 outcome in patients with cancer. Here, an updated analysis of the registry was performed, and treatment restrictions (e.g. do-not-intubate codes) were studied in relation to COVID-19 outcomes in patients with cancer. Oncological treatment restrictions were not taken into account. RESULTS: Between 27th March 2020 and 4th February 2021, 1360 patients with cancer and COVID-19 were registered. Follow-up data of 830 patients could be validated for this analysis. Overall, 230 of 830 (27.7%) patients died of COVID-19, and 60% of the remaining 600 patients with resolved COVID-19 were admitted to the hospital. Patients with haematological malignancies or lung cancer had a higher risk of a fatal outcome than other solid tumours. No correlation between anticancer therapies and the risk of a fatal COVID-19 outcome was found. In terms of end-of-life communication, 50% of all patients had restrictions regarding life-prolonging treatment (e.g. do-not-intubate codes). Most identified patients with treatment restrictions had risk factors associated with fatal COVID-19 outcome. CONCLUSION: There was no evidence of a negative impact of anticancer therapies on COVID-19 outcomes. Timely end-of-life communication as part of advanced care planning could save patients from prolonged suffering and decrease burden in intensive care units. Early discussion of treatment restrictions should therefore be part of routine oncological care, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Life Support Care/statistics & numerical data , Mortality/trends , Neoplasms/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Withholding Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasms/virology , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
8.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 31: 100537, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693708

ABSTRACT

This overview describes the research of Nobutu Yamamoto (Philadelphia) concerning immunotherapy with GcMAF for patients with cancer and for patients infected with pathogenic envelope viruses. GcMAF (Group-specific component Macrophage-Activating Factor) is a mammalian protein with an incredible potency to directly activate macrophages. Since the late 1980s Yamamoto's investigations were published in numerous journals but in order to understand the details of his research, a minute survey of many of his patents was required. But even then, regrettably, a precise description of his experiments was sometimes lacking. This overview tries to summarize all of Yamamoto's research on GcMAF, as well as some selected more recent papers from other investigators, who tried to verify and/or reproduce Yamamoto's reports. In my opinion the most important result of the GcMAF research deserves widespread renewed attention: human GcMAF injections (100 ng per week, intramuscular or intravenous) can help to cure patients with a great variety of cancers as well as patients infected with pathogenic envelope viruses like the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), influenza, measles and rubella (and maybe also SARS-CoV-2). From Yamamoto's data it can be calculated that GcMAF is a near-stoichiometric activator of macrophages. Yamamoto monitored the progress of his immunotherapy via the serum level of an enzyme called nagalase (α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity at pH 6). I have extensively discussed the properties and potential catalytic site of this enzyme activity in an Appendix entitled: "Search for the potential active site of the latent α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity in the glycoproteins of some envelope viruses".


Subject(s)
Immunotherapy , Macrophage-Activating Factors , Neoplasms , Vitamin D-Binding Protein , Animals , Humans , Macrophage-Activating Factors/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasms/virology , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology , Vitamin D-Binding Protein/therapeutic use , alpha-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase/immunology
9.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(34): 3778-3788, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690843

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Pediatric Oncology COVID-19 Case Report registry supplies pediatric oncologists with data surrounding the clinical course and outcomes in children with cancer and SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: This observational study captured clinical and sociodemographic characteristics for children (≤ 21 years) receiving cancer therapy and infected with SARS-CoV-2 from the pandemic onset through February 19, 2021. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the cohort were compared with population-level pediatric oncology data (SEER). Multivariable binomial regression models evaluated patient characteristics associated with hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and changes in cancer therapy. RESULTS: Ninety-four institutions contributed details on 917 children with cancer and SARS-CoV-2. Median age at SARS-CoV-2 infection was 11 years (range, 0-21 years). Compared with SEER, there was an over-representation of Hispanics (43.6% v 29.7%, P < .01), publicly insured (59.3% v 33.5%, P < .01), and patients with hematologic malignancies (65.8% v 38.3%, P < .01) in our cohort. The majority (64.1%) were symptomatic; 31.2% were hospitalized, 10.9% required respiratory support, 9.2% were admitted to the ICU, and 1.6% died because of SARS-CoV-2. Cancer therapy was modified in 44.9%. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with changes in cancer-directed therapy (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.6]). Presence of comorbidities was associated with hospitalization (aRR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.6) and ICU admission (aRR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.6). Hematologic malignancies were associated with hospitalization (aRR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.1). CONCLUSION: These findings provide critical information for decision making among pediatric oncologists, including inpatient versus outpatient management, cancer therapy modifications, consideration of monoclonal antibody therapy, and counseling families on infection risks in the setting of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The over-representation of Hispanic and publicly insured patients in this national cohort suggests disparities that require attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Health Status Disparities , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasms/virology , Registries/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667339

ABSTRACT

In 2014 and 2021, two nucleic-acid vaccine candidates named MAV E2 and VGX-3100 completed phase III clinical trials in Mexico and U.S., respectively, for patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). These well-tolerated but still unlicensed vaccines encode distinct HPV antigens (E2 versus E6+E7) to elicit cell-mediated immune responses; their clinical efficacy, as measured by HSIL regression or cure, was modest when compared with placebo or surgery (conization), but both proved highly effective in clearing HPV infection, which should help further optimize strategies for enhancing vaccine immunogenicity, toward an ultimate goal of preventing malignancies in millions of patients who are living with persistent, oncogenic HPV infection but are not expected to benefit from current, prophylactic vaccines. The major roadblocks to a highly efficacious and practical product remain challenging and can be classified into five categories: (i) getting the vaccines into the right cells for efficient expression and presentation of HPV antigens (fusion proteins or epitopes); (ii) having adequate coverage of oncogenic HPV types, beyond the current focus on HPV-16 and -18; (iii) directing immune protection to various epithelial niches, especially anogenital mucosa and upper aerodigestive tract where HPV-transformed cells wreak havoc; (iv) establishing the time window and vaccination regimen, including dosage, interval and even combination therapy, for achieving maximum efficacy; and (v) validating therapeutic efficacy in patients with poor prognosis because of advanced, recurrent or non-resectable malignancies. Overall, the room for improvements is still large enough that continuing efforts for research and development will very likely extend into the next decade.


Subject(s)
Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/therapy , Neoplasms/therapy , Papillomavirus Infections/therapy , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/therapy , Vaccines, DNA/therapeutic use , Animals , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/virology , Papillomavirus Infections/immunology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/immunology , Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Cervix/therapy , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , /therapeutic use
11.
J Hematol Oncol ; 15(1): 15, 2022 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666665

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients with cancer have an increased risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and an attenuated responses to various vaccines. This meta-analysis aims to assess the serologic response to COVID-19 vaccination in patients with cancer. METHODS: Electronic databases were systematically searched on August 1, 2021 for studies that reported the serologic response to COVID-19 vaccine in cancer patients. Random effects models were used to achieve pooled serologic response rates and odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: We analyzed 16 observational studies with a total of 1453 patients with cancer. A majority of studies used mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273). The proportion of patients achieving a serologic response after a single and two doses of COVID-19 vaccine were 54.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 41.0-66.9) and 87.7% (95% CI 82.5-91.5), respectively. Patients with hematologic cancers had a lower response rate after the second dose of vaccine compared to those with solid organ cancers (63.7% vs. 94.9%), which was attributable to the low response rates associated with certain conditions (chronic lymphocytic leukemia, lymphoma) and therapies (anti-CD20, kinase inhibitors). A lower proportion of patients with cancer achieved a serologic response compared to control patients after one and two doses of vaccine (OR0.073 [95% CI 0.026-0.20] and 0.10 [95% CI 0.039-0.26], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cancer, especially those with hematologic B-cell malignancies, have a lower serologic response to COVID-19 vaccines. The results suggest that cancer patients should continue to follow safety measures including mask-wearing after vaccination and suggest the need for additional strategies for prophylaxis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Neoplasms/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasms/virology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Rate
12.
Cancer Discov ; 12(1): 7, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622122

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer who had a SARS-CoV-2 infection show enhanced antibody responses following vaccination, including against the highly transmissible Delta variant. The finding that three antigen exposures are beneficial supports the idea of prioritizing booster vaccines for them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Humans , Vaccination/methods
13.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 15(1): 1-2, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613126

ABSTRACT

The First Lady of the United States, Dr. Jill Biden, visited the Hollings Cancer Center at the Medical University of South Carolina on October 25, 2021. This Commentary remarks on the administration's goal of directing public attention to cancer screening and prevention as part of an overall effort to recover ground lost in the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in underserved communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/standards , Famous Persons , Neoplasms/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Neoplasms/virology , United States
14.
Mol Cells ; 44(12): 861-878, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592997

ABSTRACT

The human genome contains many retroviral elements called human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), resulting from the integration of retroviruses throughout evolution. HERVs once were considered inactive junk because they are not replication-competent, primarily localized in the heterochromatin, and silenced by methylation. But HERVs are now clearly shown to actively regulate gene expression in various physiological and pathological conditions such as developmental processes, immune regulation, cancers, autoimmune diseases, and neurological disorders. Recent studies report that HERVs are activated in patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection. In this review, we describe internal and external factors that influence HERV activities. We also present evidence showing the gene regulatory activity of HERV LTRs (long terminal repeats) in model organisms such as mice, rats, zebrafish, and invertebrate models of worms and flies. Finally, we discuss several molecular and cellular pathways involving various transcription factors and receptors, through which HERVs affect downstream cellular and physiological events such as epigenetic modifications, calcium influx, protein phosphorylation, and cytokine release. Understanding how HERVs participate in various physiological and pathological processes will help develop a strategy to generate effective therapeutic approaches targeting HERVs.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , Endogenous Retroviruses/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Models, Animal , Neoplasms/genetics , Terminal Repeat Sequences/genetics , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/virology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
15.
Eur J Cancer ; 157: 441-449, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573973

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with cancer are presumed a frail group at high risk of contracting coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and vaccination represents a cornerstone in addressing the COVID-19 pandemic. However, data on COVID-19 vaccination in cancer patients are fragmentary and poor. METHODS: An observational study was conducted to evaluate the seropositivity rate and safety of a two-dose regimen of the BNT162b2 or messenger RNA-1273 vaccine in adult patients with solid cancer undergoing active anticancer treatment or whose treatment had been terminated within 6 months of the start of the study. The control group was composed of healthy volunteers. Serum samples were evaluated for SARS-COV-2 antibodies before vaccinations and 2-6 weeks after the administration of the second vaccine dose. Primary end-point: seropositivity rate. Secondary end-points: safety, factors influencing seroconversion, IgG titers of patients versus healthy volunteers, COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Between 20th March 2021 and 12th June 2021, 293 consecutive patients with cancer-solid tumours underwent a program of COVID-19 vaccinations; of these, 2 patients refused vaccination, 13 patients did not receive the second dose of the vaccine because of cancer progression, and 21 patients had COVID-19 antibodies at baseline and were excluded. The 257 evaluable patients had a median age of 65 years (range 28-86), 66.15% with metastatic disease. Primary end-point: seropositivity rate in patients was 75.88% versus 100% in the control group. Secondary end-points: no Grade 3-4 side-effects, no COVID-19 infections were reported. Patients median IgG titer was significantly lower than in the control group; male sex and active anticancer therapy influenced negative seroconversion. BNT162b2 or messenger RNA-1273 vaccines were immunogenic in cancer patients, showing good safety profile.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods
16.
Int J Cancer ; 150(3): 431-439, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561555

ABSTRACT

We retrospectively analyzed the epidemiological characteristics of cancer patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and their correlations with publicly available mobility data. Between 19 October 2020 and 28 February 2021, 4754 patient visits were carried out, and 1454 treatments have been applied at the Haemato-Oncology Day Hospital Merano. Additional measures to prevent local SARS-CoV-2 transmission included a specific questionnaire for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms as well as a SARS-CoV-2 real-time polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) 2 days prior to any intravenous or subcutaneous therapy. Community mobility was assessed through publicly available mobile phone tracking data from Google; 106/719 (14.7%) cancer patients have been tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR during the second wave compared to 5/640 (0.8%) within the first wave (P < .001); 66/106 (62%) had solid tumors, and 40/106 (38%) had hematological malignancies; 90/106 (85%) patients received ongoing antitumor therapies. Mortality rate of COVID-19 positive cancer patients (7/106; 6.6%) was higher compared to the overall population (731/46 421; 1.6%; P < .001). Strict control measures at our department led to a significantly lower test positivity rate compared to the general population, resulting in a reduction of 58.5% of new SARS-CoV-2 cases. Over time, infection rates and community mobility correlated in the first and second wave after initiating and lifting restrictions. Our findings underscore the importance of strict preventive control measures including testing and contact tracing in vulnerable subpopulations such as cancer patients, particularly if social restriction policies are being lifted. Smartphone-based mobility data may help to guide policy makers to prevent a vulnerable population like cancer patients from virus transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Mandatory Programs , Neoplasms/complications , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Travel
18.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542790

ABSTRACT

The detailed characterization of human γδ T lymphocyte differentiation at the single-cell transcriptomic (scRNAseq) level in tumors and patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requires both a reference differentiation trajectory of γδ T cells and a robust mapping method for additional γδ T lymphocytes. Here, we incepted such a method to characterize thousands of γδ T lymphocytes from (n = 95) patients with cancer or adult and pediatric COVID-19 disease. We found that cancer patients with human papillomavirus-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and Epstein-Barr virus-positive Hodgkin's lymphoma have γδ tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes that are more prone to recirculate from the tumor and avoid exhaustion. In COVID-19, both TCRVγ9 and TCRVγnon9 subsets of γδ T lymphocytes relocalize from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to the infected lung tissue, where their advanced differentiation, tissue residency, and exhaustion reflect T cell activation. Although severe COVID-19 disease increases both recruitment and exhaustion of γδ T lymphocytes in infected lung lesions but not blood, the anti-IL6R therapy with Tocilizumab promotes γδ T lymphocyte differentiation in patients with COVID-19. PBMC from pediatric patients with acute COVID-19 disease display similar γδ T cell lymphopenia to that seen in adult patients. However, blood γδ T cells from children with the COVID-19-related multisystem inflammatory syndrome are not lymphodepleted, but they are differentiated as in healthy PBMC. These findings suggest that some virus-induced memory γδ T lymphocytes durably persist in the blood of adults and could subsequently infiltrate and recirculate in tumors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , RNA-Seq , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , Adult , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Cell Differentiation , Child , Head and Neck Neoplasms/immunology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/virology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/isolation & purification , Hodgkin Disease/immunology , Hodgkin Disease/virology , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/metabolism , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/physiology , Neoplasms/virology , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Cell Analysis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/physiology
19.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 22(11): 3499-3506, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1539062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination is the most effective way to fight the COVID-19 pandemic and to protect people who have a higher risk of developing severe illness and death from COVID-19 such as cancer patients. We aimed in this study to determine the acceptance rate of COVID-19 vaccination of the Salah Azaiez Institute (SAI) of cancer of Tunisia patients and to identify its associated factors. METHODS: It was a cross sectional study about patients admitted to the SAI for treatment during the month of February 2021. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among Tunisian cancer patients. RESULTS: A total of 200 patients were included in this study with a mean age of 54.4±12.7 years and a gender ratio of 0.5. Only 35.0% of surveyed patients reported their acceptance to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Multivariate analysis showed that believing in COVID-19 vaccine safety and efficacy (OR=3.1 [1.3-7.4]), enrollment in the COVID-19 vaccine platform (OR=8.3 [1.8-38.1]) and the willingness to receive influenza vaccine (OR=3.9 [1.6-9.3]) were independently associated with the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among SAI cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rate found in this study was low. Communication strategies of the vaccination campaigns should provide clear, simple and detailed messages about the efficacy and the benefits of the COVID-19 vaccines. More engagement of health authorities to promote COVID-19 vaccination is necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vaccination/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Belief Model , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tunisia/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Future Oncol ; 18(5): 533-541, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538323

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory outcomes of solid cancer patients who were reinfected with COVID-19. Methods: Patients who were tested negative on the COVID-19 PCR test and those with improved clinical conditions after infection with COVID-19 were enrolled in this study. Patients who received a positive COVID-19 PCR test 28 days after the initial positive PCR test were considered as reinfected. Results: A total of 1024 patients with the diagnosis of solid malignancy and COVID-19 PCR positivity were examined. The reinfection rate was 3.1%. Mortality rate of reinfection was 34.3%. The serum ferritin and creatinine values in reinfection were found to be significantly higher than the first infection (respectively; p = 0.015, p = 0.014). Conclusion: This study has demonstrated one of the first preliminary clinical results of COVID-19 reinfection in solid cancer patients.


Plain language summary Solid cancer patients are at a higher risk than general population in terms of COVID-19 infectivity and COVID-19-associated death and disease. It is also known that COVID-19 infection has a more severe course in immunocompromised patients. Solid cancer patients may be a vulnerable subgroup of patients to reinfection with COVID-19. The rate of reinfection was 3.1% (n = 32) in our study population of 1024 solid cancer patients who were tested positive on a COVID-19 PCR test. The death rate of the patients with solid cancer was 34.3% (n = 11). In addition, we demonstrated that intensive care follow-up is significantly longer during the reinfection period. It was demonstrated that the time between the last dose of chemotherapy for the patients and the reinfection COVID PCR positivity did not affect the death rate. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected people's daily lives and treatments in many aspects. Owing to the high death rate of reinfection, even if cancer patients have reinfection, our approach is to continue cancer treatment as soon as the patient is cured. Finally, we support the priority vaccination of cancer patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/complications , Neoplasms/pathology , Reinfection/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasms/virology , Prognosis , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Rate
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