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1.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 15(1): 1-2, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613126

ABSTRACT

The First Lady of the United States, Dr. Jill Biden, visited the Hollings Cancer Center at the Medical University of South Carolina on October 25, 2021. This Commentary remarks on the administration's goal of directing public attention to cancer screening and prevention as part of an overall effort to recover ground lost in the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in underserved communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/standards , Famous Persons , Neoplasms/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Neoplasms/virology , United States
2.
Mol Cells ; 44(12): 861-878, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592997

ABSTRACT

The human genome contains many retroviral elements called human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), resulting from the integration of retroviruses throughout evolution. HERVs once were considered inactive junk because they are not replication-competent, primarily localized in the heterochromatin, and silenced by methylation. But HERVs are now clearly shown to actively regulate gene expression in various physiological and pathological conditions such as developmental processes, immune regulation, cancers, autoimmune diseases, and neurological disorders. Recent studies report that HERVs are activated in patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection. In this review, we describe internal and external factors that influence HERV activities. We also present evidence showing the gene regulatory activity of HERV LTRs (long terminal repeats) in model organisms such as mice, rats, zebrafish, and invertebrate models of worms and flies. Finally, we discuss several molecular and cellular pathways involving various transcription factors and receptors, through which HERVs affect downstream cellular and physiological events such as epigenetic modifications, calcium influx, protein phosphorylation, and cytokine release. Understanding how HERVs participate in various physiological and pathological processes will help develop a strategy to generate effective therapeutic approaches targeting HERVs.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , Endogenous Retroviruses/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Models, Animal , Neoplasms/genetics , Terminal Repeat Sequences/genetics , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/virology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
3.
Eur J Cancer ; 157: 441-449, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573973

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with cancer are presumed a frail group at high risk of contracting coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and vaccination represents a cornerstone in addressing the COVID-19 pandemic. However, data on COVID-19 vaccination in cancer patients are fragmentary and poor. METHODS: An observational study was conducted to evaluate the seropositivity rate and safety of a two-dose regimen of the BNT162b2 or messenger RNA-1273 vaccine in adult patients with solid cancer undergoing active anticancer treatment or whose treatment had been terminated within 6 months of the start of the study. The control group was composed of healthy volunteers. Serum samples were evaluated for SARS-COV-2 antibodies before vaccinations and 2-6 weeks after the administration of the second vaccine dose. Primary end-point: seropositivity rate. Secondary end-points: safety, factors influencing seroconversion, IgG titers of patients versus healthy volunteers, COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Between 20th March 2021 and 12th June 2021, 293 consecutive patients with cancer-solid tumours underwent a program of COVID-19 vaccinations; of these, 2 patients refused vaccination, 13 patients did not receive the second dose of the vaccine because of cancer progression, and 21 patients had COVID-19 antibodies at baseline and were excluded. The 257 evaluable patients had a median age of 65 years (range 28-86), 66.15% with metastatic disease. Primary end-point: seropositivity rate in patients was 75.88% versus 100% in the control group. Secondary end-points: no Grade 3-4 side-effects, no COVID-19 infections were reported. Patients median IgG titer was significantly lower than in the control group; male sex and active anticancer therapy influenced negative seroconversion. BNT162b2 or messenger RNA-1273 vaccines were immunogenic in cancer patients, showing good safety profile.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods
4.
Int J Cancer ; 150(3): 431-439, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561555

ABSTRACT

We retrospectively analyzed the epidemiological characteristics of cancer patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and their correlations with publicly available mobility data. Between 19 October 2020 and 28 February 2021, 4754 patient visits were carried out, and 1454 treatments have been applied at the Haemato-Oncology Day Hospital Merano. Additional measures to prevent local SARS-CoV-2 transmission included a specific questionnaire for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms as well as a SARS-CoV-2 real-time polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) 2 days prior to any intravenous or subcutaneous therapy. Community mobility was assessed through publicly available mobile phone tracking data from Google; 106/719 (14.7%) cancer patients have been tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR during the second wave compared to 5/640 (0.8%) within the first wave (P < .001); 66/106 (62%) had solid tumors, and 40/106 (38%) had hematological malignancies; 90/106 (85%) patients received ongoing antitumor therapies. Mortality rate of COVID-19 positive cancer patients (7/106; 6.6%) was higher compared to the overall population (731/46 421; 1.6%; P < .001). Strict control measures at our department led to a significantly lower test positivity rate compared to the general population, resulting in a reduction of 58.5% of new SARS-CoV-2 cases. Over time, infection rates and community mobility correlated in the first and second wave after initiating and lifting restrictions. Our findings underscore the importance of strict preventive control measures including testing and contact tracing in vulnerable subpopulations such as cancer patients, particularly if social restriction policies are being lifted. Smartphone-based mobility data may help to guide policy makers to prevent a vulnerable population like cancer patients from virus transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Mandatory Programs , Neoplasms/complications , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Travel
6.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(6): 765-778, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety profiles of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with cancer is unknown. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine in patients with cancer. METHODS: For this prospective observational study, we recruited patients with cancer and healthy controls (mostly health-care workers) from three London hospitals between Dec 8, 2020, and Feb 18, 2021. Participants who were vaccinated between Dec 8 and Dec 29, 2020, received two 30 µg doses of BNT162b2 administered intramuscularly 21 days apart; patients vaccinated after this date received only one 30 µg dose with a planned follow-up boost at 12 weeks. Blood samples were taken before vaccination and at 3 weeks and 5 weeks after the first vaccination. Where possible, serial nasopharyngeal real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) swab tests were done every 10 days or in cases of symptomatic COVID-19. The coprimary endpoints were seroconversion to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein in patients with cancer following the first vaccination with the BNT162b2 vaccine and the effect of vaccine boosting after 21 days on seroconversion. All participants with available data were included in the safety and immunogenicity analyses. Ongoing follow-up is underway for further blood sampling after the delayed (12-week) vaccine boost. This study is registered with the NHS Health Research Authority and Health and Care Research Wales (REC ID 20/HRA/2031). FINDINGS: 151 patients with cancer (95 patients with solid cancer and 56 patients with haematological cancer) and 54 healthy controls were enrolled. For this interim data analysis of the safety and immunogenicity of vaccinated patients with cancer, samples and data obtained up to March 19, 2021, were analysed. After exclusion of 17 patients who had been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 (detected by either antibody seroconversion or a positive rRT-PCR COVID-19 swab test) from the immunogenicity analysis, the proportion of positive anti-S IgG titres at approximately 21 days following a single vaccine inoculum across the three cohorts were 32 (94%; 95% CI 81-98) of 34 healthy controls; 21 (38%; 26-51) of 56 patients with solid cancer, and eight (18%; 10-32) of 44 patients with haematological cancer. 16 healthy controls, 25 patients with solid cancer, and six patients with haematological cancer received a second dose on day 21. Of the patients with available blood samples 2 weeks following a 21-day vaccine boost, and excluding 17 participants with evidence of previous natural SARS-CoV-2 exposure, 18 (95%; 95% CI 75-99) of 19 patients with solid cancer, 12 (100%; 76-100) of 12 healthy controls, and three (60%; 23-88) of five patients with haematological cancers were seropositive, compared with ten (30%; 17-47) of 33, 18 (86%; 65-95) of 21, and four (11%; 4-25) of 36, respectively, who did not receive a boost. The vaccine was well tolerated; no toxicities were reported in 75 (54%) of 140 patients with cancer following the first dose of BNT162b2, and in 22 (71%) of 31 patients with cancer following the second dose. Similarly, no toxicities were reported in 15 (38%) of 40 healthy controls after the first dose and in five (31%) of 16 after the second dose. Injection-site pain within 7 days following the first dose was the most commonly reported local reaction (23 [35%] of 65 patients with cancer; 12 [48%] of 25 healthy controls). No vaccine-related deaths were reported. INTERPRETATION: In patients with cancer, one dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine yields poor efficacy. Immunogenicity increased significantly in patients with solid cancer within 2 weeks of a vaccine boost at day 21 after the first dose. These data support prioritisation of patients with cancer for an early (day 21) second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. FUNDING: King's College London, Cancer Research UK, Wellcome Trust, Rosetrees Trust, and Francis Crick Institute.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Wales
7.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 21(12): 1371-1383, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526146

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: For the clinical treatment of cancer patients, coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) can cause serious immune-related problems. Cancer patients, who experience immunosuppression due to the pathogenesis and severity of disease, may become more aggressive due to multiple factors such as age, comorbidities, and immunosuppression. In this pandemic era, COVID-19 causes lymphopenia, cancer cell awakening, inflammatory diseases, and a cytokine storm that worsens disease-related morbidity and prognosis. AREAS COVERED: We discuss all the risk factors of COVID-19 associated with cancer patients and propose new strategies to use antiviral and anticancer drugs for therapeutic purposes. We bring new drugs, cancers and COVID-19 treatment strategies together to address the immune system challenges faced by oncologists. EXPERT OPINION: The chronic inflammatory microenvironment caused by COVID-19 awakens dormant cancer cells through inflammation and autoimmune activation. Drug-related strategies to ensure that clinical treatment can reduce the susceptibility of cancer patients to COVID-19, and possible counter-measures to minimize the harm caused by the COVID-19 have been outlined. The response to the pandemic and recovery has been elaborated, which can provide information for long-term cancer treatment and speed up the optimization process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Inflammation/drug therapy , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/virology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Med Oncol ; 39(1): 6, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506526

ABSTRACT

To assess the prognostic role of different inflammatory indices on the outcome of cancer patients with COVID-19. Sixty-two adults and 22 pediatric cancer patients with COVID-19 infection were assessed for the prognostic value of certain inflammatory indices including the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), derived NLR (dNLR), systemic inflammation index (SII), mean platelet volume to platelet ratio (MPR), C-reactive protein to lymphocyte ratio (CRP/L), aggregate index of systemic inflammation (AISI), systemic inflammation response index (SIRI), and neutrophil to lymphocyte, platelet ratio (NLPR). Data were correlated to patients' outcome regarding ICU admission, and incidence of mortality. Increased CRP/L ratio in adult COVID-19 cancer patients was significantly associated with inferior survival [152 (19-2253) in non-survivors, compared to 27.4 (0.8-681) in survivors (P = 0.033)]. It achieved a sensitivity (60%) and a specificity (90.2%) at a cut-off 152, while it achieved a sensitivity of 60% and specificity 95.1% at a cut-off 252 (AUC 0.795, P = 0.033). When combining both CRP/L and NLPR for the prediction of poor outcome in adult cancer patients with COVID19, the sensitivity increased to 80% and the specificity was 70.7% (AUC 0.805, P = 0.027). Increased incidence of ICU admission in pediatric cancer patients associated significantly with the severity of covid19 infection, decreased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) < 28.3, increased red cell distribution width (RDW) > 16, lymphopenia < 1.04, pseudo Pelger-Huet appearance, and PLR < 196.4 (P = 0.004, P = 0.040, P = 0.029, P = 0. 0.039, P = 0.050, and P = 0.040; respectively). The mean corpuscular volume (MCV), MCH, and RDW could be useful prognostic markers for poor outcome in COVID-19 pediatric cancer patients (P < 0.05 for all). Increased both CRP/L and NLPR associated significantly with poor survival in adult COVID-19 cancer patients, while PLR associated significantly with ICU admission in pediatric COVID-19 cancer patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Inflammation/pathology , Neoplasms/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Blood Platelets/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Leukocyte Count/methods , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/virology , Neutrophils/pathology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19839, 2021 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454816

ABSTRACT

Computational drug repositioning aims at ranking and selecting existing drugs for novel diseases or novel use in old diseases. In silico drug screening has the potential for speeding up considerably the shortlisting of promising candidates in response to outbreaks of diseases such as COVID-19 for which no satisfactory cure has yet been found. We describe DrugMerge as a methodology for preclinical computational drug repositioning based on merging multiple drug rankings obtained with an ensemble of disease active subnetworks. DrugMerge uses differential transcriptomic data on drugs and diseases in the context of a large gene co-expression network. Experiments with four benchmark diseases demonstrate that our method detects in first position drugs in clinical use for the specified disease, in all four cases. Application of DrugMerge to COVID-19 found rankings with many drugs currently in clinical trials for COVID-19 in top positions, thus showing that DrugMerge can mimic human expert judgment.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology/methods , Databases, Genetic , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
13.
Infect Genet Evol ; 95: 105092, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the demographics, clinical characteristics and severity of patients infected with nine different SARS-CoV-2 variants, during three phases of the COVID-19 epidemic in Marseille. METHODS: A single centre retrospective cohort study was conducted in 1760 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 of Nextstrain clades 20A, 20B, and 20C (first phase, February-May 2020), Pangolin lineages B.1.177 (we named Marseille-2) and B.1.160 (Marseille-4) variants (second phase, June-December 2020), and B.1.1.7 (alpha), B.1.351 (beta), P.1 (gamma) and A.27 (Marseille-501) variants (third phase, January 2021-today). Outcomes were the occurrence of clinical failures, including hospitalisation, transfer to the intensive-care unit, and death. RESULTS: During each phase, no major differences were observed with regards to age and gender distribution, the prevalence of chronic diseases, and clinical symptoms between variants circulating in a given phase. The B.1.177 and B.1.160 variants were associated with more severe outcomes. Infections occurring during the second phase were associated with a higher rate of death as compared to infections during the first and third phases. Patients in the second phase were more likely to be hospitalised than those in the third phase. Patients infected during the third phase were more frequently obese than others. CONCLUSION: A large cohort study is recommended to evaluate the transmissibility and to better characterise the clinical severity of emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Genome, Viral , Hypertension/pathology , Obesity/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Genotype , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/pathology , Heart Diseases/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/virology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/virology , Phylogeny , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
14.
Cancer Med ; 10(21): 7781-7792, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is well established that cancer patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 are at particularly elevated risk of adverse outcomes, but the comparison of SARS-CoV-2 infection risk between cancer patients and cancer-free individuals has been poorly investigated on a population-basis. METHODS: A population-based study was thus conducted in Friuli Venezia Giulia region, northeastern Italy, to estimate prevalence and determinants of SARS-CoV-2 infection among cancer patients, as compared to cancer-free individuals, and to evaluate adverse outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The study included 263,042 individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2 in February-December 2020 with cancer history retrieved through the regional cancer registry. Odds ratios (ORs) of SARS-CoV-2 positivity, with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were calculated using multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for sex and age. Hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for sex and age for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and all-cause death were estimated using Cox models. RESULTS: Among 26,394 cancer patients tested for SARS-CoV-2, the prevalence of infection was 11.7% versus 16.2% among 236,648 cancer-free individuals, with a corresponding OR = 0.59 (95% CI: 0.57-0.62). The prevalence was much higher (29% in both groups) during the second pandemic wave (October-December 2020). Among cancer patients, age ≥80 years and cancer diagnosis ≥13 months before SARS-CoV-2 testing were the major risk factors of infection. Among 3098 infected cancer patients, the fatality rate was 17.4% versus 15.8% among 23,296 negative ones (HR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.49-1.78), and versus 5.0% among 38,268 infected cancer-free individuals (HR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.12-1.36). No significant differences emerged when considering ICU admission risk. CONCLUSION: Albeit cancer patients reported reduced SARS-CoV-2 infection risk, those infected showed higher mortality than uninfected ones and infected cancer-free population. Study findings claim for continuing to protect cancer patients from SARS-CoV-2, without reducing the level of oncologic care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(17): 20860-20885, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405570

ABSTRACT

Cancer patients are particularly susceptible to the development of severe Covid-19, prompting us to investigate the serum metabolome of 204 cancer patients enrolled in the ONCOVID trial. We previously described that the immunosuppressive tryptophan/kynurenine metabolite anthranilic acid correlates with poor prognosis in non-cancer patients. In cancer patients, we observed an elevation of anthranilic acid at baseline (without Covid-19 diagnosis) and no further increase with mild or severe Covid-19. We found that, in cancer patients, Covid-19 severity was associated with the depletion of two bacterial metabolites, indole-3-proprionate and 3-phenylproprionate, that both positively correlated with the levels of several inflammatory cytokines. Most importantly, we observed that the levels of acetylated polyamines (in particular N1-acetylspermidine, N1,N8-diacetylspermidine and N1,N12-diacetylspermine), alone or in aggregate, were elevated in severe Covid-19 cancer patients requiring hospitalization as compared to uninfected cancer patients or cancer patients with mild Covid-19. N1-acetylspermidine and N1,N8-diacetylspermidine were also increased in patients exhibiting prolonged viral shedding (>40 days). An abundant literature indicates that such acetylated polyamines increase in the serum from patients with cancer, cardiovascular disease or neurodegeneration, associated with poor prognosis. Our present work supports the contention that acetylated polyamines are associated with severe Covid-19, both in the general population and in patients with malignant disease. Severe Covid-19 is characterized by a specific metabolomic signature suggestive of the overactivation of spermine/spermidine N1-acetyl transferase-1 (SAT1), which catalyzes the first step of polyamine catabolism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/virology , Polyamines/blood , Acetylation , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Male , Metabolome , Middle Aged , Propionates/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult , ortho-Aminobenzoates/blood
16.
Eur J Cancer ; 157: 124-131, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401447

ABSTRACT

AIM: Patients with cancer are at an increased risk for severe coronavirus disease of 2019, thus data on the safety and efficacy of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines are essential. We conducted this prospective study of patients with cancer vaccinated with BNT162b2 and monitored for antibody response and safety. The aim was to evaluate the rate of seropositivity and define predictors for non-reactive immune response. Furthermore, we evaluated the frequency and the severity of adverse events. METHODS: The study included patients with solid tumours undergoing anticancer treatment and immunocompetent health-care workers serving as controls. Serum titres of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralising antibodies were measured 2-4 weeks after each vaccine dose. RESULTS: The analysis included 129 patients, of which 70.5% patients were metastatic. Patients were treated with chemotherapy (55%), immunotherapy (34.1%), biological agents (24.8%), hormonal treatment (8.5%) and radiotherapy (4.6%), that were given either alone or in combinations. The seropositivity rate among patients with cancer and controls was 32.4% versus 59.8% (p < 0.0001) after the first dose and 84.1% versus 98.9% (p < 0.0001) after the second dose, respectively. Median RBD-IgG titre was lower among patients than controls (p < 0.0001). Patients who were seronegative after the second dose had significantly more comorbidities than that with patients with seropositivity (77.8% vs 41.1%, respectively, p = 0.0042). CONCLUSION: Adequate antibody response after BNT162b2 vaccination was achieved after two doses but not after one dose, in patients with cancer vaccinated during anticancer therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/virology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/diet therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods
17.
Future Oncol ; 17(35): 4871-4882, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394695

ABSTRACT

Objective: Our study goal was to evaluate the behavioral response and practices of cancer patients to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the Middle East and north Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a validated anonymous 45-question survey administered via SurveyMonkey® to cancer patients in 13 centers in Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco and Saudi Arabia. Results: During the study period (from 21 April to 30 May 2020), 3642 patients participated in the study. The majority of patients (84.81%) were worried about contracting the infection. The reported strict adherence to precautions included avoiding the following actions: hand-shaking (77.40%), hugging and kissing (82.89%), social gathering (90.09%), meeting friends (84.68%) and visiting markets (75.65%). In a multivariate analysis, patients with poor precautionary practices were about twice as likely to cancel their medical appointment or a treatment session. Conclusion: Improving cancer patients' knowledge of and adherence to precautionary measures is needed not just to reduce the risk of acquiring infection but also to minimize the interruption of their medical care.


Lay abstract COVID-19 poses a higher risk for patients with cancer than other patients; therefore, it is prudent that they adhere to precautionary measures to protect themselves from the infection. We conducted a study to evaluate the behaviors and practices of these patients in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the Middle, East and North Africa. We developed a survey of 45 questions that was distributed in 13 centers in Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco and Saudi Arabia between 21 April and 30 May 2020. About 85% of the 3642 patients who participated in the study were worried about contracting the infection. A substantial percentage of them (10­30%) were not adhering to various precautions and social distancing rules. On the other hand, 16% of them canceled medical appointments and 12% canceled treatment sessions. Our study showed the need for better adherence of patients with cancer to the infection precautions and most importantly, the need to have a better compliance with their treatment plans, such as keeping their scheduled appointments, to avoid harms from treatment delays.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Morocco/epidemiology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/psychology , Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17381, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379332

ABSTRACT

Cancer patients are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and generally have higher mortality rate. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG is an important consideration for the patients in this COVID-19 pandemic. Recent researches suggested the rapid decay of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the general population, but the decline rate of the antibodies in cancer patients was unknown. In this observational study, we reported the clinical features of the 53 cancer patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 from Wuhan, China and tracked the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the patients for more than 12 months. We found the duration (days) of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in the patients was significant longer in chemotherapy (mean: 175; range: 75 to 315) and radiotherapy groups (mean: 168; range: 85 to 265) than in non-chemo- or radio-therapy group (mean: 58; range: 21 to 123) after their recovery from COVID-19. We also used single-cell RNA sequencing to track the immunologic changes in a representative patient recovered  from COVID-19 and found that CD8 + effective T cells, memory B cells and plasma cells were persistently activated in the patient undergoing chemotherapy. Together, our findings show that chemotherapy and radiotherapy might be beneficial to extend the duration of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , China , Drug Therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Plasma Cells/metabolism , Radiotherapy , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single-Cell Analysis , Time Factors
20.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; 1876(2): 188622, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377662

ABSTRACT

Since the identification of the first human oncogenic virus in 1964, viruses have been studied for their potential role in aiding the development of cancer. Through the modulation of cellular pathways associated with proliferation, immortalization, and inflammation, viral proteins can mimic the effect of driver mutations and contribute to transformation. Aside from the modulation of signaling pathways, the insertion of viral DNA into the host genome and the deregulation of cellular miRNAs represent two additional mechanisms implicated in viral oncogenesis. In this review, we will discuss the role of twelve different viruses on cancer development and how these viruses utilize the abovementioned mechanisms to influence oncogenesis. The identification of specific mechanisms behind viral transformation of human cells could further elucidate the process behind cancer development.


Subject(s)
Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics , Neoplasms/etiology , Neoplasms/virology , Virus Diseases/complications , Humans , Virus Diseases/pathology
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