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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e2213253, 2022 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858507

ABSTRACT

Importance: Neurologic symptoms are common in COVID-19, but the central nervous system (CNS) pathogenesis is unclear, and viral RNA is rarely detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Objective: To measure viral antigen and inflammatory biomarkers in CSF in relation to neurologic symptoms and disease severity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was performed from March 1, 2020, to June 30, 2021, in patients 18 years or older who were admitted to Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden, with COVID-19. All patients had CSF samples taken because of neurologic symptoms or within a study protocol. Healthy volunteer and prepandemic control groups were included. Exposure: SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes included CSF SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen (N-Ag) using an ultrasensitive antigen capture immunoassay platform and CSF biomarkers of immune activation (neopterin, ß2-microglobulin, and cytokines) and neuronal injury (neurofilament light protein [NfL]). Results: Forty-four patients (median [IQR] age, 57 [48-69] years; 30 [68%] male; 26 with moderate COVID-19 and 18 with severe COVID-19 based on the World Health Organization Clinical Progression Scale), 10 healthy controls (median [IQR] age, 58 [54-60] years; 5 [50%] male), and 41 patient controls (COVID negative without evidence of CNS infection) (median [IQR] age, 59 [49-70] years; 19 [46%] male) were included in the study. Twenty-one patients were neuroasymptomatic and 23 were neurosymptomatic (21 with encephalopathy). In 31 of 35 patients for whom data were available (89%), CSF N-Ag was detected; viral RNA test results were negative in all. Nucleocapsid antigen was significantly correlated with CSF neopterin (r = 0.38; P = .03) and interferon γ (r = 0.42; P = .01). No differences in CSF N-Ag concentrations were found between patient groups. Patients had markedly increased CSF neopterin, ß2-microglobulin, interleukin (IL) 2, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α compared with controls. Neurosymptomatic patients had significantly higher median (IQR) CSF interferon γ (86 [47-172] vs 21 [17-81] fg/mL; P = .03) and had a significantly higher inflammatory biomarker profile using principal component analysis compared with neuroasymptomatic patients (0.54; 95% CI, 0.03-1.05; P = .04). Age-adjusted median (IQR) CSF NfL concentrations were higher in patients compared with controls (960 [673-1307] vs 618 [489-786] ng/L; P = .002). No differences were seen in any CSF biomarkers in moderate compared with severe disease. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of Swedish adults with COVID-19 infection and neurologic symptoms, compared with control participants, viral antigen was detectable in CSF and correlated with CNS immune activation. Patients with COVID-19 had signs of neuroaxonal injury, and neurosymptomatic patients had a more marked inflammatory profile that could not be attributed to differences in COVID-19 severity. These results highlight the clinical relevance of neurologic symptoms and suggest that viral components can contribute to CNS immune responses without direct viral invasion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Antigens, Viral , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Interferon-gamma , Male , Middle Aged , Neopterin/cerebrospinal fluid , Neurofilament Proteins , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Clin Biochem ; 104: 1-12, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748124

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 [COVID-19], caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2], has rapidly evolved into a global health emergency. Neopterin [NPT], produced by macrophages when stimulated with interferon [IFN-]gamma, is an essential cytokine in the antiviral immune response. NPT has been used as a marker for the early assessment of disease severity in different diseases. The leading cause of NPT production is the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-. Macrophage activation has also been revealed to be linked with disease severity in SARS-CoV-2 patients. We demonstrate the importance of NPT in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and suggest that targeting NPT in SARS-CoV-2 infection may be critical in the early prediction of disease progression and provision of timely management of infected individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neopterin , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cytokines , Humans , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 709893, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403459

ABSTRACT

Highlights: Innate immune activation during Covid-19 infection is associated with pernicious clinical outcome. Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is a worldwide threat that has already caused more than 3 000 000 deaths. It is characterized by different patterns of disease evolution depending on host factors among which old-age and pre-existing comorbidities play a detrimental role. Previous coronavirus epidemics, notably SARS-CoV, were associated with increased serum neopterin levels, which can be interpreted as a sign of acute innate immunity in response to viral infection. Here we hypothesize that neopterin may serve as a biomarker of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection and Covid-19 disease severity. Methods: We measured neopterin blood levels by ELISA. Seric concentration was quantified from 256 healthy donors and 374 Covid-19 patients at hospital admission. Enrolled Covid-19 patients were all symptomatic and displayed a large spectrum of comorbidities. Patients were followed until disease resolution or death. Results: Severe and critically ill SARS-CoV-2 infected patients were characterized by a profound exacerbation of immune activation characterized by elevated neopterin blood levels. Systemic neopterin levels above 19nM stratified healthy individuals from Covid-19 patients with 87% specificity and 100% sensitivity. Moreover, systemic neopterin levels above 53nM differentiated non-survivors from survivors with 64% specificity and 100% sensitivity. Conclusion: We propose that neopterin concentration measured at arrival to hospital is a hallmark of severe Covid-19 and identifies a high-risk population of pernicious clinical outcome with a need for special medical care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neopterin , Critical Illness , Humans
4.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 476(11): 4161-4166, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328645

ABSTRACT

Neopterin (NPT) is a member of pteridines group, synthesized by macrophages when stimulated by interferon gamma (INF-γ). NPT is regarded as a macrophage stimulation indicator, marker of cellular immune activation and T helper 1 (Th1) type 1 immune response. Here, we aimed to provide a view point on the NPT features and role in Covid-19. Serum NPT level is regarded as an independent prognostic factor for Covid-19 severity, with levels starting to increase from the 3rd day of SARS-CoV-2 infection, being associated with severe dyspnea, longer hospitalization period and complications. Also, early raise of NPT reflects monocytes/macrophages activation before antibody immune response, despite the NPT level may also remain high in Covid-19 patients or at the end of incubation period before the onset of clinical symptoms. On the other hand, NPT attenuates the activity of macrophage foam cells and is linked to endothelial inflammation through inhibition of adhesion molecules and monocytes migration. However, NPT also exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects by suppressing NF-κB signaling and NLRP3 inflammasomes. NPT can be viewed as a protective compensatory mechanism to counterpoise hyper-inflammation, oxidative stress, and associated organ damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Neopterin/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Hospitalization , Humans , Macrophages/immunology , Oxidative Stress , Severity of Illness Index
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1520-1525, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196469

ABSTRACT

In Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) cases, hyper inflammation is associated with the severity of the disease. High levels of circulating cytokines were reported in severe COVID-19 patients. Neopterin produced by macrophages on stimulation with interferon-gamma, which is an important cytokine in the antiviral immune response, hence it can be used to predict the severity of disease in COVID-19 cases. In this study, it was aimed to determine the prognostic value of the neopterin for the prediction of severe disease in patients with COVID-19. This single-center, prospective study was conducted in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and healthy volunteers. Severe and mild COVID-19 cases were compared in terms of clinical and laboratory findings as well as serum neopterin levels on hospital admission. To assess the prognostic utility of neopterin between the severe and mild COVID-19 groups, a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. The median serum neopterin level was four times higher in COVID-19 patients than the healthy controls (46 vs. 12 nmol/L; p < .001). The AUC value of serum neopterin was 0.914 (95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.97). The sensitivity and specificity of serum neopterin for the cut-off value of 90 nmol/L to identify severe COVID-19 cases were 100% and 76%, respectively. Serum neopterin levels on hospitalization were significantly higher in severe COVID-19 disease than mild COVID-19 patients. Neopterin levels can be used as an early prognostic biomarker for COVID-19 on admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Neopterin/blood , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
6.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(1): e00293, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028690

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread from Wuhan, China, and become a worldwide pandemic. Most patients display respiratory symptoms but up to 50% report gastrointestinal symptoms. Neopterin is a surrogate marker for viral inflammation, and its production by macrophages is driven by interferon-γ. METHODS: We measured fecal neopterin in 37 hospitalized COVID-19 patients not requiring intensive care measures and 22 healthy controls. RESULTS: Fecal neopterin was elevated in stool samples from COVID-19 patients compared with that in samples from healthy controls. Especially, patients reporting gastrointestinal symptoms exhibited increased fecal neopterin values. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 is associated with an inflammatory immune response in the gastrointestinal tract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Feces/chemistry , Gastrointestinal Diseases/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Neopterin/analysis , Adult , Aged , Austria/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Tract/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Inpatients , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 942, 2020 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-968990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, is rapidly spreading worldwide. There is limited information about prognostic markers that could help clinicians to identify COVID-19 patients with a poor prognosis. Serum levels of the immune activation marker neopterin has shown to be of prognostic value in patients with SARS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether serum neopterin is associated with the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: We included 34 patients with confirmed COVID-19 between March 3 and March 30, 2020. Fifteen patients had mild disease and did not require hospitalization, whereas 19 patients developed severe COVID-19 requiring intensive care. Concentrations of serum neopterin, tryptophan, and kynurenine were measured at and repeatedly after inclusion. RESULTS: We found a more than two-fold higher mean concentration of neopterin in severely ill patients (mean value 42.0 nmol/L (SD 18.2)) compared to patients with mild symptoms (16.9 nmol/L (SD 11.0)). All of the severe cases had elevated neopterin concentrations (> 9.1 nmol/L) at the initial sampling with values ranging from 17.2 to 86.7 nmol/L. In comparison, 10 of 15 patients with mild disease had neopterin levels above 9.1 nmol/L, with concentrations in the range from 4.9 to 31.6 nmol/L. Neopterin levels gradually decreased during the course of COVID-19, but severe cases maintained elevated levels for a longer period. Moreover, lower levels of tryptophan and higher levels of kynurenine, indicating an increased tryptophan catabolism, were seen in the group with severe cases. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we found that serum neopterin levels are associated with the severity of COVID-19. Our findings suggest that neopterin could be used as a prognostic marker, but further studies are needed to elucidate how it can be used in the clinic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Neopterin/blood , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Critical Care , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Kynurenine/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tryptophan/blood
8.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1866(10): 165823, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133265

ABSTRACT

A wide array of molecular pathways has been investigated during the past decade in order to understand the mechanisms by which the practice of physical exercise promotes neuroprotection and reduces the risk of developing communicable and non-communicable chronic diseases. While a single session of physical exercise may represent a challenge for cell homeostasis, repeated physical exercise sessions will improve immunosurveillance and immunocompetence. Additionally, immune cells from the central nervous system will acquire an anti-inflammatory phenotype, protecting central functions from age-induced cognitive decline. This review highlights the exercise-induced anti-inflammatory effect on the prevention or treatment of common chronic clinical and experimental settings. It also suggests the use of pterins in biological fluids as sensitive biomarkers to follow the anti-inflammatory effect of physical exercise.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Exercise/physiology , Immune System/drug effects , Immune System/immunology , Animals , Biomarkers , Blood-Brain Barrier/immunology , Chronic Disease , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Cytokines , Databases, Factual , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Neopterin/pharmacology , Neuroprotection/immunology
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