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1.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3491-3502, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although COVID-19 predominantly affects the respiratory system, recent studies have reported the occurrence of neurological disorders such as stroke in relation to COVID-19 infection. Encephalitis is an inflammatory condition of the brain that has been described as a severe neurological complication of COVID-19. Despite a growing number of reported cases, encephalitis related to COVID-19 infection has not been adequately characterised. To address this gap, this systematic review and meta-analysis aims to describe the incidence, clinical course, and outcomes of patients who suffer from encephalitis as a complication of COVID-19. METHODS: All studies published between 1 November 2019 and 24 October 2020 that reported on patients who developed encephalitis as a complication of COVID-19 were included. Only cases with radiological and/or biochemical evidence of encephalitis were included. RESULTS: In this study, 610 studies were screened and 23 studies reporting findings from 129,008 patients, including 138 with encephalitis, were included. The average time from diagnosis of COVID-19 to onset of encephalitis was 14.5 days (range = 10.8-18.2 days). The average incidence of encephalitis as a complication of COVID-19 was 0.215% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.056%-0.441%). The average mortality rate of encephalitis in COVID-19 patients was 13.4% (95% CI = 3.8%-25.9%). These patients also had deranged clinical parameters, including raised serum inflammatory markers and cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. CONCLUSIONS: Although encephalitis is an uncommon complication of COVID-19, when present, it results in significant morbidity and mortality. Severely ill COVID-19 patients are at higher risk of suffering from encephalitis as a complication of the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Nervous System Diseases , Encephalitis/epidemiology , Encephalitis/etiology , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 674922, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607886

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the world has been facing an outbreak of a new disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by a novel beta-coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 infection mainly affects the respiratory system. Recently, there have been some reports of extra-respiratory symptoms such as neurological manifestations in COVID-19. According to the increasing reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome following COVID-19, we mainly focused on SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome in this review. We tried to explain the possibility of a relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome and potential pathogenic mechanisms based on current and past knowledge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Virulence
3.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3339-3347, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607258

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the spectrum of neurological complications observed in a hospital-based cohort of COVID-19 patients who required a neurological assessment. METHODS: We conducted an observational, monocentric, prospective study of patients with a COVID-19 diagnosis hospitalized during the 3-month period of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary hospital in Madrid (Spain). We describe the neurological diagnoses that arose after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. These diagnoses could be divided into different groups. RESULTS: Only 71 (2.6%) of 2750 hospitalized patients suffered at least one neurological complication (77 different neurological diagnoses in total) during the timeframe of the study. The most common diagnoses were neuromuscular disorders (33.7%), cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) (27.3%), acute encephalopathy (19.4%), seizures (7.8%), and miscellanea (11.6%) comprising hiccups, myoclonic tremor, Horner syndrome and transverse myelitis. CVDs and encephalopathy were common in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to neuromuscular disorders, which usually appeared later on (p = 0.005). Cerebrospinal fluid severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction was negative in 15/15 samples. The mortality was higher in the CVD group (38.1% vs. 8.9%; p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of neurological complications is low in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Different mechanisms appear to be involved in these complications, and there was no evidence of direct invasion of the nervous system in our cohort. Some of the neurological complications can be classified into early and late neurological complications of COVID-19, as they occurred at different times following the onset of COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Neurology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3360-3368, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: COVID-19-related acute neurological phenotypes are being increasingly recognised, with neurological complications reported in more than 30% of hospitalised patients. However, multicentric studies providing a population-based perspective are lacking. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multicentric study at five hospitals in Northern Portugal, representing 45.1% of all hospitalised patients in this region, between 1 March and 30 June 2020. RESULTS: Among 1261 hospitalised COVID-19 patients, 457 (36.2%) presented neurological manifestations, corresponding to a rate of 357 per 1000 in the North Region. Patients with neurologic manifestations were younger (68.0 vs. 71.2 years, p = 0.002), and the most frequent neurological symptoms were headache (13.4%), delirium (10.1%), and impairment of consciousness (9.7%). Acute well-defined central nervous system (CNS) involvement was found in 19.1% of patients, corresponding to a rate of 217 per 1000 hospitalised patients in the whole region. Assuming that all patients with severe neurological events were hospitalised, we extrapolated our results to all COVID-19 patients in the region, estimating that 116 will have a severe neurological event, corresponding to a rate of nine per 1000 (95% CI = 7-11). Overall case fatality in patients presenting neurological manifestations was 19.8%, increasing to 32.6% among those with acute well-defined CNS involvement. CONCLUSIONS: We characterised the population of hospitalised COVID-19 patients in Northern Portugal and found that neurological symptoms are common and associated with a high degree of disability at discharge. CNS involvement with criteria for in-hospital admission was observed in a significant proportion of patients. This knowledge provides the tools for adequate health planning and for improving COVID-19 multidisciplinary patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Portugal/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 121(11): 81-87, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599964

ABSTRACT

Present two clinical cases of cerebral circulation disorders in COVID-19. Cerebrovascular disorders in patients have been associated with COVID-19. Despite the similarity of symptoms, the pathogenesis of neurological damage in these patients was different due to damage to the arterial system in the first case and the venous system in the second case. It is concluded that during the COVID-19 pandemic, doctors need to be alert to all patients with new-onset neurological symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Nervous System Diseases , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether children receiving immunosuppressive therapies for neuroimmunologic disorders had (1) increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV2 infection or to develop more severe forms of COVID-19; (2) increased relapses or autoimmune complications if infected; and (3) changes in health care delivery during the pandemic. METHODS: Patients with and without immunosuppressive treatment were recruited to participate in a retrospective survey evaluating the period from March 14, 2020, to March 30, 2021. Demographics, clinical features, type of immunosuppressive treatment, suspected or confirmed COVID-19 in the patients or cohabitants, and changes in care delivery were recorded. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-three children were included: 84 (55%) female, median age 13 years (interquartile range [8-16] years), 79 (52%) on immunosuppressive treatment. COVID-19 was suspected or confirmed in 17 (11%) (all mild), with a frequency similar in patients with and without immunosuppressive treatment (11/79 [14%] vs 6/74 [8%], p = 0.3085). The frequency of neurologic relapses was similar in patients with (18%) and without (21%) COVID-19. Factors associated with COVID-19 included having cohabitants with COVID-19 (p < 0.001) and lower blood levels of vitamin D (p = 0.039). Return to face-to-face schooling or mask type did not influence the risk of infection, although 43(28%) children had contact with a classmate with COVID-19. Clinic visits changed from face to face to remote for 120 (79%) patients; 110 (92%) were satisfied with the change. DISCUSSION: In this cohort of children with neuroimmunologic disorders, the frequency of COVID-19 was low and not affected by immunosuppressive therapies. The main risk factors for developing COVID-19 were having cohabitants with COVID-19 and low vitamin D levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Child , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Masks/virology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pandemics , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Vitamin D/blood
7.
eNeuro ; 8(3)2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551335

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) presents a variability of clinical symptoms, ranging from asymptomatic to severe respiratory and systemic conditions. In a cohort of patients, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), beyond the classical respiratory manifestations, induces anosmia. Evidence has suggested SARS-CoV-2-induced anosmia can be the result of neurodegeneration of the olfactory pathway. Neurologic symptoms associated with COVID-19 have been reported; however, the precise mechanism and possible long-lasting effects remain poorly investigated. Preclinical models are valuable tools for describing and testing new possible treatments for neurologic disorders. In this way, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) organism model represents an attractive tool in the field of neuroscience, showing economic and logistic advantages besides genetic and physiologic similarities with mammalian, including the brain structure and functions. Besides, its external embryonic development, high availability of eggs, and fast development allows easy genetic manipulation and fast replications. In the present review, we suggest that the zebrafish model can be advantageous to investigate the neurologic features of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Animals , Anosmia , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Zebrafish
8.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 33(6): 591-596, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546082

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute central and peripheral nervous system injury may occur in association with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus. This review will assist readers to recognize neurologic manifestations associated with COVID-19 including common and life-threatening symptoms and diagnostic testing. We will also review current recommendations for treatment of neurologic injury associated with COVID-19 infection in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Data from systematic reviews and prospectively collected cohorts of children with COVID-19 are beginning to characterize the breadth of neurologic manifestations associated with COVID-19 in the acute infectious and postinfectious periods. Among hospitalized children in particular, neurologic symptoms are common. Life threatening conditions including encephalitis, myelitis, stroke, and demyelinating syndromes have been reported. Within the pediatric population, age, and preexisting neurologic conditions appear to be important factors in determining likely phenotypes. Treatment at this time is based on careful neuromonitoring, supportive care, and neuromodulatory therapies as indicated. SUMMARY: Neurologic symptoms are common in children with COVID-19 and may be life threatening. The pathophysiology, therapeutic options, and long-term outcomes from COVID-19 associated neurologic injury are currently being investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Stroke , Child , Humans , Peripheral Nervous System , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 33(6): 580-590, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546081

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has overwhelmed the global community, negatively impacting patient health and research efforts; associated neurological manifestations are a significant cause of morbidity. This review outlines the worldwide epidemiology of neurologic manifestations of different SARS-CoV-2 clinical pediatric phenotypes, including acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and postacute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC). We discuss strategies to develop adaptive global research platforms for future investigation into emerging pediatric neurologic conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Multicenter, multinational studies show that neurological manifestations of acute COVID-19, such as smell/taste disorders, headache, and stroke, are common in hospitalized adults (82%) and children (22%), associated with increased mortality in adults. Neurological manifestations of MIS-C are reported in up to 20% of children, including headache, irritability, and encephalopathy. Data on PASC are emerging and include fatigue, cognitive changes, and headache. Reports of neurological manifestations in each phenotype are limited by lack of pediatric-informed case definitions, common data elements, and resources. SUMMARY: Coordinated, well resourced, multinational investigation into SARS-CoV-2-related neurological manifestations in children is critical to rapid identification of global and region-specific risk factors, and developing treatment and mitigation strategies for the current pandemic and future health neurologic emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics
11.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 533-544, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537202

ABSTRACT

Cough is one of the most common presenting symptoms of COVID-19, along with fever and loss of taste and smell. Cough can persist for weeks or months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, often accompanied by chronic fatigue, cognitive impairment, dyspnoea, or pain-a collection of long-term effects referred to as the post-COVID syndrome or long COVID. We hypothesise that the pathways of neurotropism, neuroinflammation, and neuroimmunomodulation through the vagal sensory nerves, which are implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection, lead to a cough hypersensitivity state. The post-COVID syndrome might also result from neuroinflammatory events in the brain. We highlight gaps in understanding of the mechanisms of acute and chronic COVID-19-associated cough and post-COVID syndrome, consider potential ways to reduce the effect of COVID-19 by controlling cough, and suggest future directions for research and clinical practice. Although neuromodulators such as gabapentin or opioids might be considered for acute and chronic COVID-19 cough, we discuss the possible mechanisms of COVID-19-associated cough and the promise of new anti-inflammatories or neuromodulators that might successfully target both the cough of COVID-19 and the post-COVID syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/etiology , Inflammation/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neuroimmunomodulation , Cough/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
12.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(6): e259-e263, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534305

ABSTRACT

Neurological complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are highly variable and can be quite severe, but they are rare in children. A careful understanding of the variety of presentations of neurological symptoms related to COVID-19 is critical for the effective management of these patients. Given the smaller numbers of children with these complications, a comprehensive review of neurological presentations in adults with COVID-19 may help facilitate the understanding of those complications that may present in children and how these presentations may be similar. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(6):e259-e263.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/microbiology , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets ; 20(5): 390-391, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526729

ABSTRACT

A letter to the editor to discuss several uses of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the investigation of neurological manifestations of covid-19. Described several situations in which the MRI is needed. Brain MRI is an important diagnostic method in the covid-19 scenario, to investigate possible neurological complications of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Nervous System Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Headache/diagnostic imaging , Headache/etiology , Humans
14.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(Special Issue): 1304-1310, 2021 Aug.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524925

ABSTRACT

According to the literature, the main neurological complications of COVID-19 are hyposmia, hypogeia, headache, dizziness, myalgia, and severe neurological syndromes like encephalopathy, stroke, and coma. The mechanisms of neurological complications of the acute period are direct viral damage, hypoxic damage, and immune damage due to the activation of inflammation, including autoantibodies. After the end of the acute phase of the disease, neurological complications in the form of asthenic syndrome, vascular syndrome, exacerbation of chronic diseases (deterioration of cognitive and communication functions in patients with autism, schizophrenia, exacerbation of autoimmune neurological diseases, aggravation of the condition of patients with tics, increased frequency of epileptic seizures in adults and children, resumption of epileptic seizures in patients who were previously in stable remission, the debut of epileptic seizures). These disorders are based on the following mechanisms: neuroinflammation, activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, -2, -6, -8, -10, -17, -18, CXCL10, CCL2), formation of autoantibodies, increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier, mitochondrial dysfunction, adrenal and thyroid dysfunction, venous dyscirculation. In the treatment of neurological complications after a COVID-19 infection, it is advisable to use anti-inflammatory therapy, mitochondrial therapy (including the technique of intermittent hypoxic-hyperoxic therapy), detoxication, correction of hormonal status (primarily the state of the adrenal glands and thyroid gland), vasoactive therapy, and symptomatic therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Adult , Asthenia , Child , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
15.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 8(4)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518339

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) is a severe immune-mediated disorder. We aim to report the neurologic features of children with PIMS-TS. METHODS: We identified children presenting to a large children's hospital with PIMS-TS from March to June 2020 and performed a retrospective medical note review, identifying clinical and investigative features alongside short-term outcome of children presenting with neurologic symptoms. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients with PIMS-TS were identified, 9 (12%) had neurologic involvement: altered conciseness (3), behavioral changes (3), focal neurology deficits (2), persistent headaches (2), hallucinations (2), excessive sleepiness (1), and new-onset focal seizures (1). Four patients had cranial images abnormalities. At 3-month follow-up, 1 child had died, 1 had hemiparesis, 3 had behavioral changes, and 4 completely recovered. Systemic inflammatory and prothrombotic markers were higher in patients with neurologic involvement (mean highest CRP 267 vs 202 mg/L, p = 0.05; procalcitonin 30.65 vs 13.11 µg/L, p = 0.04; fibrinogen 7.04 vs 6.17 g/L, p = 0.07; d-dimers 19.68 vs 7.35 mg/L, p = 0.005). Among patients with neurologic involvement, these markers were higher in those without full recovery at 3 months (ferritin 2284 vs 283 µg/L, p = 0.05; d-dimers 30.34 vs 6.37 mg/L, p = 0.04). Patients with and without neurologic involvement shared similar risk factors for PIMS-TS (Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic ethnicity 78% vs 70%, obese/overweight 56% vs 42%). CONCLUSIONS: Broad neurologic features were found in 12% patients with PIMS-TS. By 3-month follow-up, half of these surviving children had recovered fully without neurologic impairment. Significantly higher systemic inflammatory markers were identified in children with neurologic involvement and in those who had not recovered fully.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Inflammation/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child Behavior Disorders/epidemiology , Child Behavior Disorders/etiology , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Inflammation/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/psychology , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/psychology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology
17.
Neurologist ; 26(6): 237-243, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501232

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease that affects many organs, especially the lung, and may lead to multiorgan failure. Studies describing neurological dysfunctions involving the central and peripheral nervous systems have emerged. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the neurological signs and symptoms in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The data of 290 patients admitted to our center (ward and intensive care unit) who received a diagnosis of COVID-19 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients' demographic, clinical and laboratory data, and their neurological diseases, symptoms, and complications were compared. RESULTS: Male sex, heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and having a history of neurological disease were associated with increased mortality in patients with COVID-19. Seizures and altered consciousness were also found to be more common in patients who died. In addition, lower platelet counts (P=0.001), higher C-reactive protein levels (P<0.001) and higher D-dimer levels (P=0.003) were associated with increased risk of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that close monitoring of any possible neurological manifestations is mandatory in hospitalized patients at the onset of COVID-19 and during disease progression. Clinical findings such as neurological symptoms and acute phase reactants are important in the follow-up and treatment of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 33(6): 597-602, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501214

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to address our current understanding of the pathophysiology of neurologic injury resulting from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection on the developing nervous system. RECENT FINDINGS: SARS-CoV2 may enter the brain through three potential mechanisms: transsynaptic spread from the olfactory bulb following intranasal exposure, migration across the blood-brain barrier through endothelial cell infection, and migration following disruption of the blood-brain barrier from resulting inflammation. SARS-CoV2 does not appear to directly infect neurons but rather may produce an inflammatory cascade that results in neuronal injury. Additionally, autoantibodies targeting neuronal tissue resulting from the immune response to SARS-CoV2 are present in select patients and may contribute to central nervous system (CNS) injury. SUMMARY: These findings suggest that neuronal injury during SARS-CoV2 infection is immune mediated rather than through direct viral invasion. Further multimodal studies evaluating the pathophysiology of neurologic conditions in pediatric patients specifically following SARS-CoV2 infection are needed to improve our understanding of mechanisms driving neurologic injury and to identify potential treatment options.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Central Nervous System , Child , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Neurol Sci ; 430: 120030, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482732

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We describe the spectrum of acute neurological disorders among hospitalized patients who recently had COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. METHOD: We performed a prospective study at 7 acute hospitals in Singapore. Hospitalized patients who were referred for neurological complaints and had COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273, in the last 6 weeks were classified into central nervous system (CNS) syndromes, cerebrovascular disorders, peripheral nervous system (PNS) disorders, autonomic nervous system (ANS) disorders and immunization stress-related responses (ISRR). RESULTS: From 30 December 2020 to 20 April 2021, 1,398,074 persons (median age 59 years, 54.5% males) received COVID-19 mRNA vaccine (86.7% BNT162b2, 13.3% mRNA-1273); 915,344(65.5%) completed 2 doses. Four hundred and fifty-seven(0.03%) patients were referred for neurological complaints [median age 67(20-97) years, 281(61.5%) males; 95.8% received BNT162b2 and 4.2% mRNA-1273], classified into 73(16.0%) CNS syndromes, 286(62.6%) cerebrovascular disorders, 59(12.9%) PNS disorders, 0 ANS disorders and 39(8.5%) ISRRs. Eleven of 27 patients with cranial mononeuropathy had Bell's palsy. Of 33 patients with seizures, only 4 were unprovoked and occurred within 2 weeks of vaccination. All strokes occurred among individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular risk factors. We recorded 2 cases of cerebral venous thrombosis; none were vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia. Five had mild flares of immune-mediated diseases. CONCLUSION: Our observational study does not establish causality of the described disorders to vaccines. Though limited by the lack of baseline incidence data of several conditions, we observed no obvious signal of serious neurological morbidity associated with mRNA vaccination. The benefits of COVID-19 vaccination outweigh concerns over neurological adverse events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20864, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479817

ABSTRACT

Following SARS-CoV-2 infection, some COVID-19 patients experience severe host driven adverse events. To treat these complications, their underlying etiology and drug treatments must be identified. Thus, a novel AI methodology MOATAI-VIR, which predicts disease-protein-pathway relationships and repurposed FDA-approved drugs to treat COVID-19's clinical manifestations was developed. SARS-CoV-2 interacting human proteins and GWAS identified respiratory failure genes provide the input from which the mode-of-action (MOA) proteins/pathways of the resulting disease comorbidities are predicted. These comorbidities are then mapped to their clinical manifestations. To assess each manifestation's molecular basis, their prioritized shared proteins were subject to global pathway analysis. Next, the molecular features associated with hallmark COVID-19 phenotypes, e.g. unusual neurological symptoms, cytokine storms, and blood clots were explored. In practice, 24/26 of the major clinical manifestations are successfully predicted. Three major uncharacterized manifestation categories including neoplasms are also found. The prevalence of neoplasms suggests that SARS-CoV-2 might be an oncovirus due to shared molecular mechanisms between oncogenesis and viral replication. Then, repurposed FDA-approved drugs that might treat COVID-19's clinical manifestations are predicted by virtual ligand screening of the most frequent comorbid protein targets. These drugs might help treat both COVID-19's severe adverse events and lesser ones such as loss of taste/smell.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computational Biology/methods , Neoplasms/complications , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Thrombosis/complications , Virus Replication , Benchmarking , Comorbidity , Computer Simulation , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Drug Discovery , Humans , Machine Learning , Molecular Medicine , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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