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1.
Cytokine ; 157: 155962, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2177976

ABSTRACT

Considerable evidence supports that cytokines are important mediators of pathophysiologic processes within the central nervous system (CNS). Numerous studies have documented the increased production of various cytokines in the human CNS in various neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Deciphering cytokine actions in the intact CNS has important implications for our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of these disorders. The purpose of this study is to discuss the recent research on treating cytokine storm and amyloids, including stroke, Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's condition, Multi-sclerosis (MS), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Neuroinflammation observed in neurological disorders has a pivotal role in exacerbating Aß burden and tau hyperphosphorylation, suggesting that stimulating cytokines in response to an undesirable external response could be a checkpoint for treating neurological disorders. Furthermore, the pro-inflammatory cytokines help our immune system through a neuroprotective mechanism in clearing viral infection by recruiting mononuclear cells. This study reveals that cytokine applications may play a vital role in providing novel regulation and methods for the therapeutic approach to neurological disorders and the causes of the deregulation, which is responsible for neuroinflammation and viral infection. However, it needs to be further investigated to clarify better the mechanisms of cytokine release in response to various stimuli, which could be the central point for treating neurological disorders.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Nervous System Diseases , Virus Diseases , Cytokines/physiology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Neuroinflammatory Diseases
2.
biorxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.01.20.524893

ABSTRACT

Pregnant people infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus have shown a higher incidence of "preeclampsia-like syndrome". Preeclampsia is a systematic syndrome that affects 5% of people worldwide and is the leading cause of maternal mortality. It is characterised by placental dysfunction, leading to poor placental perfusion, maternal hypertension and neurological disturbances. Here, we used whole-transcriptome, spatial profiling of placental tissues to analyse the expression of genes between placentae from pregnant participants who contracted SARS-CoV-2 and those prior to the pandemic. Our analysis of the trophoblast and villous core stromal cell populations revealed tissue-specific pathways enriched in the SARS-CoV-2 placentae that align with a pre-eclampsia signature. Most notably, we found enrichment of pathways involved in vascular tension, blood pressure, inflammation, and oxidative stress. This study illustrates how spatially resolved transcriptomic analysis can aid in understanding the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy that are thought to induce "preeclampsia-like syndrome". Our study highlights the benefits of spatial profiling to map the crosstalk between trophoblast and villous core stromal cells linked to pathways involved in "preeclampsia-like syndrome."


Subject(s)
Nervous System Diseases , Pre-Eclampsia , Hypertension , Inflammation
3.
biorxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.01.17.524329

ABSTRACT

Aging is the primary risk factor for most neurodegenerative diseases, and recently coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with severe neurological manifestations that can eventually impact neurodegenerative conditions in the long-term. The progressive accumulation of senescent cells in vivo strongly contributes to brain aging and neurodegenerative co-morbidities but the impact of virus-induced senescence in the aetiology of neuropathologies is unknown. Here, we show that senescent cells accumulate in physiologically aged brain organoids of human origin and that senolytic treatment reduces inflammation and cellular senescence; for which we found that combined treatment with the senolytic drugs dasatinib and quercetin rejuvenates transcriptomic human brain aging clocks. We further interrogated brain frontal cortex regions in postmortem patients who succumbed to severe COVID-19 and observed increased accumulation of senescent cells as compared to age-matched control brains from non-COVID-affected individuals. Moreover, we show that exposure of human brain organoids to SARS-CoV-2 evoked cellular senescence, and that spatial transcriptomic sequencing of virus-induced senescent cells identified a unique SARS-CoV-2 variant-specific inflammatory signature that is different from endogenous naturally-emerging senescent cells. Importantly, following SARS-CoV-2 infection of human brain organoids, treatment with senolytics blocked viral retention and prevented the emergence of senescent corticothalamic and GABAergic neurons. Furthermore, we demonstrate in human ACE2 overexpressing mice that senolytic treatment ameliorates COVID-19 brain pathology following infection with SARS-CoV-2. In vivo treatment with senolytics improved SARS-CoV-2 clinical phenotype and survival, alleviated brain senescence and reactive astrogliosis, promoted survival of dopaminergic neurons, and reduced viral and senescence-associated secretory phenotype gene expression in the brain. Collectively, our findings demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 can trigger cellular senescence in the brain, and that senolytic therapy mitigates senescence-driven brain aging and multiple neuropathological sequelae caused by neurotropic viruses, including SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Inflammation
4.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2458402.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: The nerves in the legs and feet are most frequently damaged by diabetic neuropathy. The COVID-19 infection is associated with a high risk of neuropathy symptoms. Case Presentation: On July 12, 2022, a 58-year-old black female retiree with significant symptoms of numbness and muscle weakness in the hands and legs was brought into the emergency room. 17 years prior, she received a type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosis. Metformin 1.5 g twice a day and glibenclamide 10 mg twice a day were part of her therapy regimen. When she was admitted to the emergency room, she described a one-day history of shortness of breath, frequent urination, excessive thirst, hyperglycemia, excessive appetite, fever, headache, and dehydration. A chest X-ray showed bilateral diffuse, patchy airspace opacities that could be caused by multifocal pneumonia or viral pneumonia. She started receiving 1000 mL of fluid resuscitation (0.9% normal saline) as soon as she was moved to the critical care unit, along with a drip-in insulin infusion. Conclusion: Diabetes, infections like COVID-19, poor vitamin levels, and other factors can all contribute to diabetic neuropathies. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are much more likely to experience severe morbidity and death from coronavirus disease-19. Symptoms of diabetic neuropathy continued for months after a COVID-19 infection test resulted in a positive result.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hypesthesia , COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Viral , Headache , Death , Nervous System Diseases , Dyspnea , Fever , Hyperglycemia , Muscle Weakness , Dehydration , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Neuropathies
5.
authorea preprints; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-AUTHOREA PREPRINTS | ID: ppzbmed-10.22541.au.167303809.92917586.v1

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a predominantly respiratory infection, is demonstrated to cause neurologic complications even in the recovery phase. This systematic review aims to investigate the neuroimaging findings in Acute/ Subacute and Chronic or Post-COVID-19 patients. We searched the online databases of PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, using relevant keywords up to December, 2021. We included all observational studies reporting neuroimaging findings in confirmed COVID-19 patients, during acute/subacute or chronic phase. We included 25 studies in our study. Structural and functional neuroimaging modalities, mainly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and computed tomography (CT), were applied in COVID patients with valuable findings to detect the neural alterations in the brain. Hypometabolism in various regions of the brain, especially the hippocampus, parahippocampus, entorhinal cortices, cingulate, and frontal cortices as well as pons and thalamus were among findings reported in post-COVID patients. In addition, anatomical alterations in different areas of the brain including the thalamus, pons, cingulate cortex, corpus callosum, and Globus pallidus were reported. Such findings can justify several post-COVID neurological symptoms or complications. Structural and functional neuroimaging in COVID and post-COVID patients potentially can show alterations which can help in follow up of patients.


Subject(s)
Nervous System Diseases , COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections
6.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2448315.v1

ABSTRACT

Aims Long-COVID occurs after SARS-CoV-2 infection and results in diverse, prolonged symptoms. The present study aims to determine the underlying mechanisms, and to inform prognosis and treatment.Methods Plasma proteome from Long-COVID outpatients was analyzed in comparison to acutely ill COVID-19 (mild and severe) inpatients and healthy control subjects. The expression of approximately 3000 protein biomarkers was determined with proximity extension assays and then deconvoluted with multiple bioinformatics tools into both cell types and signaling mechanisms, as well as organ specificity.Results Compared to age- and sex-matched acutely ill COVID-19 inpatients and healthy control subjects, Long-COVID outpatients showed natural killer cells with a resting phenotype, as opposed to active, and neutrophils that formed extracellular traps. This resetting of cell phenotypes was reflected in vascular events mediated by both angiopoietin-1 (ANGPT1) and vascular-endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA). Levels of ANGPT1 and VEGFA were validated by serological methods in different patient cohorts. Silent signaling of transforming growth factor-β1 with elevated EP300 favored not only vascular inflammation, but also tumor necrosis factor-α driven pathways. In addition, a vascular proliferative state associated with hypoxia inducible factor 1 pathway was predicted that progressed from COVID-19 to Long-COVID. The vasculo-proliferative process identified in Long-COVID was associated with significant changes in the organ-specific proteome reflective of neurological and cardiometabolic dysfunction.Conclusions Taken together, our study uncovered a vasculo-proliferative process in Long-COVID initiated by prior hypoxia, and identified potential organ-specific prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Necrosis , Nervous System Diseases , Hypoxia , Neoplasms , Inflammation
7.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.12.18.22283646

ABSTRACT

Background An increasing number of studies have described new and persistent symptoms and conditions as potential post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC). However, it remains unclear whether certain symptoms or conditions occur more frequently among persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with those never infected with SARS-CoV-2. We compared the occurrence of specific COVID-associated symptoms and conditions as potential PASC 31 to 150 days following a SARS-CoV-2 test among adults ([≥]20 years) and children (<20 years) with positive and negative test results documented in the electronic health records (EHRs) of institutions participating in PCORnet, the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network. Methods and Findings This study included 3,091,580 adults (316,249 SARS-CoV-2 positive; 2,775,331 negative) and 675,643 children (62,131 positive; 613,512 negative) who had a SARS-CoV-2 laboratory test (nucleic acid amplification or rapid antigen) during March 1, 2020-May 31, 2021 documented in their EHR. We identified hospitalization status in the day prior through the 16 days following the SARS-CoV-2 test as a proxy for the severity of COVID-19. We used logistic regression to calculate the odds of receiving a diagnostic code for each symptom outcome and Cox proportional hazard models to calculate the risk of being newly diagnosed with each condition outcome, comparing those with a SARS-CoV-2 positive test to those with a negative test. After adjustment for baseline covariates, hospitalized adults and children with a positive test had increased odds of being diagnosed with [≥]1 symptom (adults: adjusted odds ratio[aOR], 1.17[95% CI, 1.11-1.23]; children: aOR, 1.18[95% CI, 1.08-1.28]) and shortness of breath (adults: aOR, 1.50[95% CI, 1.38-1.63]; children: aOR, 1.40[95% CI, 1.15-1.70]) 31-150 days following a SARS-CoV-2 test compared with hospitalized individuals with a negative test. Hospitalized adults with a positive test also had increased odds of being diagnosed with [≥]3 symptoms (aOR, 1.16[95% CI, 1.08 - 1.26]) and fatigue (aOR, 1.12[95% CI, 1.05 - 1.18]) compared with those testing negative. The risks of being newly diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (aHR, 1.25[95% CI, 1.17-1.33]), hematologic disorders (aHR, 1.19[95% CI, 1.11-1.28]), and respiratory disease (aHR, 1.44[95% CI, 1.30-1.60]) were higher among hospitalized adults with a positive test compared with those with a negative test. Non-hospitalized adults with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test had higher odds of being diagnosed with fatigue (aOR, 1.11[95% CI, 1.05-1.16]) and shortness of breath (aOR, 1.22[95% CI, 1.15-1.29]), and had an increased risk (aHR, 1.12[95% CI, 1.02-1.23]) of being newly diagnosed with hematologic disorders (i.e., venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism) 31-150 days following SARS-CoV-2 test compared with those testing negative. The risk of being newly diagnosed with certain conditions, such as mental health conditions and neurological disorders, was lower among patients with a positive viral test relative to those with a negative viral test. Conclusions Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were at higher risk of being diagnosed with certain symptoms and conditions, particularly fatigue, respiratory symptoms, and hematological abnormalities, after acute infection. The risk was highest among adults hospitalized after SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Pulmonary Embolism , COVID-19 , Acute Disease , Venous Thromboembolism , Nervous System Diseases , Dyspnea , Hematologic Diseases , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Fatigue
8.
Neurol India ; 70(5): 1901-1904, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116688

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus is a novel virus which has disrupted life in the past year. While it involves the lungs in the majority and this has been extensively studied, it involves other organ systems. More number of studies need to be focused on the extrapulmonary manifestations of the disease. Objective: To delineate the clinical manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus on the central and peripheral nervous systems and to assess the risk factors and the outcome of COVID-19 patients with neurological manifestations. Materials and Methods: All patients who were SARS-CoV-2 RNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive were assessed, and detailed clinical history and laboratory findings were collected. Data was analyzed using percentage, mean, and frequency. Results: Out of 864 patients, 17 (N = 17, 1.96%) had neurological manifestations. Twelve out of 17 had comorbid conditions. Patients had diverse presentations ranging from acute cerebrovascular accident to paraplegia and encephalopathy. Ten (58.8%) patients presented with acute cerebrovascular accidents. Of the patients who developed stroke, five (50%) died. Conclusions: COVID-19 usually presents as a respiratory disease. The neurological manifestations of COVID-19 are not uncommon. One should be aware of a wide spectrum of neurological signs and symptoms of COVID-19 for early diagnosis and treatment for preventing mortality and morbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Stroke , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , RNA, Viral , Tertiary Care Centers , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116228

ABSTRACT

Interferons (IFNs) are pleiotropic cytokines originally identified for their antiviral activity. IFN-α and IFN-ß are both type I IFNs that have been used to treat neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Microglia, astrocytes, as well as neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems, including spinal cord neurons and dorsal root ganglion neurons, express type I IFN receptors (IFNARs). Type I IFNs play an active role in regulating cognition, aging, depression, and neurodegenerative diseases. Notably, by suppressing neuronal activity and synaptic transmission, IFN-α and IFN-ß produced potent analgesia. In this article, we discuss the role of type I IFNs in cognition, neurodegenerative diseases, and pain with a focus on neuroinflammation and neuro-glial interactions and their effects on cognition, neurodegenerative diseases, and pain. The role of type I IFNs in long-haul COVID-associated neurological disorders is also discussed. Insights into type I IFN signaling in neurons and non-neuronal cells will improve our treatments of neurological disorders in various disease conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Interferon-alpha , Interferon-beta , Pain
10.
Cell Rep ; 41(5): 111573, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113996

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can induce a plethora of neurological complications in some patients. However, it is still under debate whether SARS-CoV-2 directly infects the brain or whether CNS sequelae result from systemic inflammatory responses triggered in the periphery. By using high-resolution microscopy, we investigated whether SARS-CoV-2 reaches the brain and how viral neurotropism can be modulated by aging in a non-human primate model of COVID-19. Seven days after infection, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the olfactory cortex and interconnected regions and was accompanied by robust neuroinflammation and neuronal damage exacerbated in aged, diabetic animals. Our study provides an initial framework for identifying the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying SARS-CoV-2 neurological complications, which will be essential to reducing both the short- and long-term burden of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , Neurons , Primates
11.
Rev Med Suisse ; 18(779): 855-856, 2022 04 27.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2111729
12.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 34(3): 342-350, 2022.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110722

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether critical SARS-CoV-2 infection is more frequently associated with signs of corticospinal tract dysfunction and other neurological signs, symptoms, and syndromes, than other infectious pathogens. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study with consecutive inclusion of patients admitted to intensive care units due to primary infectious acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring invasive mechanical ventilation > 48 hours. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to three investigators for clinical evaluation, which encompassed the examination of signs of corticospinal tract dysfunction. Clinical data, including other neurological complications and possible predictors, were independently obtained from clinical records. RESULTS: We consecutively included 54 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, 27 due to SARS-CoV-2 and 27 due to other infectious pathogens. The groups were comparable in most characteristics. COVID-19 patients presented a significantly higher risk of neurological complications (RR = 1.98; 95%CI 1.23 - 3.26). Signs of corticospinal tract dysfunction tended to be more prevalent in COVID-19 patients (RR = 1.62; 95%CI 0.72 - 3.44). CONCLUSION: Our study is the first comparative analysis between SARS-CoV-2 and other infectious pathogens, in an intensive care unit setting, assessing neurological dysfunction. We report a significantly higher risk of neurological dysfunction among COVID-19 patients. As such, we suggest systematic screening for neurological complications in severe COVID-19 patients.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a infecção grave pelo SARS-CoV-2 está mais comumente associada a sinais de disfunção do trato corticoespinhal e outros sinais, sintomas e síndromes neurológicas, em comparação com outros agentes infecciosos. MÉTODOS: Este foi um estudo de coorte prospectivo com inclusão consecutiva de doentes admitidos a unidades de cuidados intensivos devido a síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo infeccioso primário, com necessidade de ventilação mecânica invasiva por > 48 horas. Os doentes incluídos foram atribuídos aleatoriamente a três investigadores para a avaliação clínica, a qual incluía a pesquisa de sinais de disfunção do trato corticoespinhal. Os dados clínicos, incluindo outras complicações neurológicas e possíveis preditores, foram obtidos independentemente a partir dos registros clínicos. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos consecutivamente 54 doentes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo, 27 devido a SARS-CoV-2 e 27 devido a outros agentes infecciosos. Os grupos eram comparáveis na maioria das características. Os doentes com COVID-19 apresentavam risco significativamente superior de complicações neurológicas (RR = 1,98; IC95% 1,23 - 3,26). Os sinais de disfunção do trato corticoespinhal tendiam a ser mais prevalentes em doentes com COVID-19 (RR = 1,62; IC95% 0,72 - 3,44). CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo foi a primeira análise comparativa visando avaliar disfunção neurológica, entre doentes com infecção SARS-CoV-2 e outros agentes infecciosos, em um contexto de unidade de cuidados intensivos. Reportamos um risco significativamente superior de disfunção neurológica em doentes com COVID-19. Como tal, sugere-se o rastreio sistemático de complicações neurológicas em doentes com COVID-19 crítico.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Prospective Studies , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology
13.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2339100.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: Little is known about the underpinning mechanisms of neurological dysfunction in post-COVID syndrome. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 87 consecutive subjects after a mild infection, with a median of 54 days after diagnosis of COVID-19. We performed structured interviews, neurological examinations, 3T-MRI scans, and neuropsychological assessments. The MRI study included white matter investigation with diffusion tensor images (DTI) and functional connectivity with resting-state functional MRI (RS-fMRI). Results: Subjects self-reported headaches (40%) and memory difficulties (33%). The quantitative analyses confirmed symptoms of fatigue (68% of participants), excessive somnolence (35%), symptoms of anxiety (29%), impaired cognitive flexibility (40%), and language dysfunction (33%). Besides, we observed a correlation between DTI fractional anisotropy (FA) and abnormal attention and cognitive flexibility in the Trail Making Test part B. Elevated levels of fatigue and somnolence associated with higher connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in the RS-fMRI study of the default mode network. While higher connectivity of the PCC with bilateral angular gyri was associated with higher fatigue levels, the elevated levels of somnolence correlated with higher connectivity between the PCC and both the left thalamus and putamen. Conclusions: COVID-19 is associated with long-term neuropsychiatric symptoms and cerebral functional and microstructural alterations.


Subject(s)
Disorders of Excessive Somnolence , Language Disorders , Cognition Disorders , COVID-19 , Headache , Nervous System Diseases , Anxiety Disorders , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Mobility Limitation , Brain Diseases , Fatigue
14.
Top Antivir Med ; 30(3): 475-489, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101547

ABSTRACT

The 2022 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections featured new and important findings about the neurologic complications of HIV-1, COVID-19, and other infections. Long-term analyses identified that cognitive decline over time, phenotypic aging, and stroke are associated with various comorbidities in people with HIV. Neuroimaging studies showed greater neuroinflammation, white matter damage, demyelination, and overall brain aging in people with chronic HIV infection. Childhood trauma and exposure to environmental pollutants contribute to these neuroimaging findings. Studies of blood and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers showed that systemic inflammation, neurodegeneration, endothelial activation, oxidative stress, and iron dysregulation are associated with worse cognition in people with HIV. Some animal studies focused on myeloid cells of the central nervous system, but other animal and human studies showed that lymphoid cells also contribute to HIV neuropathogenesis. The deleterious central nervous system effects of polypharmacy and anticholinergic drugs in people with HIV were demonstrated. In contrast, a large randomized controlled trial showed that integrase strand transfer inhibitor therapy was not associated with neurotoxicity. Studies of cryptococcal meningitis demonstrated he cost-effectiveness of single high-dose liposomal amphotericin and the prognostic value of the cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay. People hospitalized with COVID-19 had more anxiety over time after discharge. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen is present in cerebrospinal fluid in the absence of viral RNA. Systemic inflammation, astrocyte activation, and tryptophan metabolism pathways are associated with post-COVID-19 neurologic syndromes. Whether these processes are independent or intertwined during HIV-1 and COVID-19 infections requires further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Nervous System Diseases , Male , Humans , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Inflammation
15.
16.
biorxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.11.22.517339

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has highlighted the importance of having proper tools and models to study the pathophysiology of emerging infectious diseases to test therapeutic protocols, assess changes in viral phenotype and evaluate the effect of viral evolution. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as an animal model for SARS-CoV-2 infection, using different approaches (description of clinical signs, viral replication, receptor profiling and host immune response) and targeting four different organs (lungs, intestine, brain and PBMCs). Our data showed that both male and female hamsters are susceptible to the infection and develop a disease similar to the one observed in patients with COVID-19, including moderate to severe pulmonary lesions, inflammation and recruitment of the immune system in lungs and at systemic level. However, all animals recovered within 14 days without developing the severe pathology seen in humans, and none of them died. We found faint evidence for intestinal and neurological tropism associated with absence of lesions and a minimal host response in intestines and brains, highlighting another crucial difference with the multi-organ impairment of severe COVID-19. When comparing male and female hamsters, it was observed that males sustained higher viral shedding and replication in lungs, suffered from more severe symptoms and histopathological lesions and triggered higher pulmonary inflammation. Overall, these data confirm the Syrian hamster as being a suitable model for mild-moderate COVID-19 and reflect sex-related differences in the response against the virus observed in humans.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia , Anencephaly , Lung Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Inflammation
17.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2291620.v1

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The severity of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection is mainly related to its respiratory complications. However, it can also lead to numerous and varied thromboembolic events. Symptoms may include headache, fever, and neurological disorders. Since 2020, the clinical presentation of COVID-19 infection have become increasingly varied, leading in some cases to complex symptom associations, including numerous neurological symptoms. SARS-CoV-2 may lead to neurotropism which could reach the central nervous system and all cranial nerves. Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a rare condition, occurring as a complication of an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) or facial infection.Case presentation: A 73-year-old man without personal or family history of thrombosis, was referred to the emergency room for a sudden appearance of diplopia and ptosis, 3 days after testing positive for COVID-19 infection. An initial head CT-scan found no signs of stroke. He underwent a cerebral MRI 7 days later, which revealed a thrombosis of his right cavernous sinus. A brain CT scan follow-up 7 days later showed regression of the thrombosis with complete recanalization of the cavernous sinus. This was accompanied by a complete regression of diplopia and fever. He was discharged from the hospital 10 days after hospital admission.Conclusions In this case report, we describe a rare event of cavernous thrombophlebitis following a COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Diplopia , Infections , COVID-19 , Headache , Thromboembolism , Nervous System Diseases , Thrombosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Fever , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Stroke , Thrombophlebitis
18.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 122(10): 31-37, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091095

ABSTRACT

The consequences of COVID-19 include a wide range of neurological, emotional and cognitive impairments. The pathogenesis of postcovid disorders is complex and has not been fully studied. The article discusses the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of neuropostocoid. A hypothesis is formulated about the possible role of circumventricular organs in its formation. The main directions of treatment of patients with postcovid disorders are proposed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/therapeutic use , Peptides/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy
19.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 24(10): 1098-1103, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090826

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the changes in the disease spectrum among hospitalized children in the pediatric intensive care units (PICU) within 2 years before and after the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The related data on disease diagnosis were collected from all children who were hospitalized in the PICU of Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical College from January 2018 to December 2019 (pre-COVID-19 group) and from January 2020 to December 2021 (post-COVID-19 group). A statistical analysis was performed for the disease spectrum of the two groups. RESULTS: There were 2 368 children in the pre-COVID-19 group and 1 653 children in the post-COVID-19 group. The number of children in the post-COVID-19 group was reduced by 30.19% compared with that in the pre-COVID-19 group. There was a significant difference in age composition between the two groups (P<0.05). The top 10 diseases in the pre-COVID-19 group by number of cases were respiratory diseases, neurological diseases, sepsis, critical illness, circulatory system diseases, severe neurosurgical diseases, digestive system diseases, unintentional injuries, endocrine system diseases, and tumors. The top 10 diseases in the post-COVID-19 group by number of cases were respiratory diseases, neurological diseases, sepsis, circulatory system diseases, unintentional injuries, endocrine system diseases, severe neurosurgical diseases, acute abdomen, trauma surgical diseases, and digestive system diseases. The proportions of respiratory diseases, critical illness and severe neurosurgical diseases in the post-COVID-19 group were lower than those in the pre-COVID-19 group (P<0.05), while the proportions of unintentional injuries, acute abdomen, endocrine system diseases, trauma surgical diseases and sepsis were higher than those in the pre-COVID-19 group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 epidemic has led to a significant reduction in the number of children admitted to the PICU, and there are significant changes in the disease spectrum within 2 years before and after the outbreak of COVID-19. Relevant prevention and control measures taken during the COVID-19 epidemic can reduce the incidence of respiratory diseases, neurological diseases, and other critical illness in children, but it is necessary to strengthen the prevention of unintentional injuries and chronic disease management during the epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Nervous System Diseases , Sepsis , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Sepsis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
20.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 191, 2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Presently, it is known that, even if less frequently than in adults, children can develop a severe new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Children with the SARS-CoV-2 infection can have neurological signs and symptoms of disease more frequently than previously thought, revealing the involvement of the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, or both. Aim of this manuscript is to highlight the neurologic complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 among pediatric patients with COVID-19, suggesting when to monitor carefully neurologic development. MAIN FINDINGS: Children with a severe chronic underlying disease, infants and toddlers and those who develop the so-called multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) are those with the highest incidence of neurological complications. Fortunately, in most of the cases, neurological manifestations, mainly represented by headache and anosmia, are mild and transient and do not significantly complicate the COVID-19 course. However, in some cases, very severe clinical problems associated with relevant alterations of neuroimaging, electroencephalography, nerve conduction studies and electromyography findings can develop. Generally, almost all the children with COVID-19 and neurological manifestations till now described have made a complete recovery, although in some cases this has occurred after several weeks of treatment. Moreover, COVID-19 infection during pregnancy has been found associated with an increased risk of obstetric complications that can lead to neurological acute and long-term manifestations in neonates. CONCLUSIONS: Based on data showing the neurologic impact of COVID-19 in pediatric age, we suggest monitoring neurological development a few months after healing in pediatric patients who have presented MIS-C, seizures or other neurological manifestations and in children of pregnant women with COVID-19 in order to detect overt and subtle deficits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
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