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1.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(3): 458-466, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the spectrum, characteristics and outcomes of neurologic manifestations associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre retrospective study during the French coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in March-April 2020. All COVID-19 patients with de novo neurologic manifestations were eligible. RESULTS: We included 222 COVID-19 patients with neurologic manifestations from 46 centres in France. Median (interquartile range, IQR) age was 65 (53-72) years and 136 patients (61.3%) were male. COVID-19 was severe or critical in 102 patients (45.2%). The most common neurologic diseases were COVID-19-associated encephalopathy (67/222, 30.2%), acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome (57/222, 25.7%), encephalitis (21/222, 9.5%) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (15/222, 6.8%). Neurologic manifestations appeared after the first COVID-19 symptoms with a median (IQR) delay of 6 (3-8) days in COVID-19-associated encephalopathy, 7 (5-10) days in encephalitis, 12 (7-18) days in acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome and 18 (15-28) days in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Brain imaging was performed in 192 patients (86.5%), including 157 magnetic resonance imaging (70.7%). Among patients with acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome, 13 (22.8%) of 57 had multiterritory ischaemic strokes, with large vessel thrombosis in 16 (28.1%) of 57. Brain magnetic resonance imaging of encephalitis patients showed heterogeneous acute nonvascular lesions in 14 (66.7%) of 21. Cerebrospinal fluid of 97 patients (43.7%) was analysed, with pleocytosis found in 18 patients (18.6%) and a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR result in two patients with encephalitis. The median (IQR) follow-up was 24 (17-34) days with a high short-term mortality rate (28/222, 12.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical spectrum and outcomes of neurologic manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection were broad and heterogeneous, suggesting different underlying pathogenic processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 33(1): 49-57, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320718

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To understand the role of postinfectious autoimmune vascular inflammation in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019-related neurological illness caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus and its effects on the brain in children and adults. RECENT FINDINGS: There are a very small number of postmortem neuropathological series of coronavirus disease 2019-related cerebrovascular and parenchymal disease. However, they fall into at least three major categories, with the majority manifesting those of terminal hypoxia, and others demonstrating inflammatory vascular leptomeningeal, cerebral and brainstem interstitial changes suspicious for encephalitis in a minority of cases. It remains uncertain whether these histopathological features have a relationship to post-infectious inflammatory immune mechanisms and microscopic vasculitis in adults as it appears to be in affected children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome. SUMMARY: The reasons for this dichotomy are unclear but may related to inherent and epigenetic factors that remain poorly understood. Treatment addressing postinfectious mechanisms of pulmonary, systemic, and nervous system injury may avert early mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology
3.
Semin Neurol ; 43(2): 312-320, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312320

ABSTRACT

With the hundreds of millions of people worldwide who have been, and continue to be, affected by pandemic coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and its chronic sequelae, strategies to improve recovery and rehabilitation from COVID-19 are critical global public health priorities. Neurologic complications have been associated with acute COVID-19 infection, usually in the setting of critical COVID-19 illness. Neurologic complications are also a core feature of the symptom constellation of long COVID and portend poor outcomes. In this article, we review neurologic complications and their mechanisms in critical COVID-19 illness and long COVID. We focus on parallels with neurologic disease associated with non-COVID critical systemic illness. We conclude with a discussion of how recent findings can guide both neurologists working in post-acute neurologic rehabilitation facilities and policy makers who influence neurologic resource allocation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Acute Disease
4.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 80(5 Suppl 1): 281-289, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged neurologists since its early days. Neurology consultation services were then overloaded by emergency department and intensive-care patients with acute neurological syndromes. These complications are better explained today, but the growing number of patients with reported longstanding neurological symptoms constitute an emerging, complex, and still poorly understood phenomenon. OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes data on relevant neurological manifestations of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and lasting post-infectious disease, also known as Long COVID. The complex history of Long COVID is examined to illustrate the upsides and challenges imposed by the active participation of patient communities in the production of medical knowledge. METHODS: Narrative review. RESULTS: Infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is associated with encephalopathy/delirium, cerebrovascular disease, headache, and peripheral nervous system involvement. Long COVID is a living concept jointly defined by patient communities, physicians and scientists, including neurologists. CONCLUSION: Co-production of Long COVID knowledge between scientists and patients has initiated an era of patient-led research and evidence-based activism that acts as a two-edged sword - putting patient's suffering in the spotlight, but with a tradeoff in methodological consistency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
5.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 123(2): 44-51, 2023.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268564

ABSTRACT

Despite the significant shift in global attention away from the pandemic, the problem of a new coronavirus infection remains important in the medical community. Almost 3 years after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic the issues of rehabilitation and management of delayed manifestations and sequelae of the disease are especially important. According to numerous available data, the new coronavirus infection is characterized by multiorgan lesions. Respiratory dysfunction, clotting disorders, myocardial dysfunction and various arrhythmias, acute coronary syndrome, acute renal failure, GI disorders, hepatocellular damage, hyperglycemia and ketosis, dermatological complications, ophthalmological symptoms and neurological disorders may be found. Significant prevalence of the latter in the post-coronavirus period necessitated this International Expert Forum to develop unified approaches to the management of patients with neurological complications and sequelae of new coronavirus infection based on practical experience and considering the scientific information available on COVID-19. The expert council developed a resolution formulating the tactics for the management of patients with neurological manifestations of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis
6.
Viruses ; 15(3)2023 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285120

ABSTRACT

There have been suggestions that Long COVID might be purely functional (meaning psychological) in origin. Labelling patients with neurological dysfunction in Long COVID as having functional neurological disorder (FND) in the absence of proper testing may be symptomatic of that line of thought. This practice is problematic for Long COVID patients, as motor and balance symptoms have been reported to occur in Long COVID frequently. FND is characterized by the presentation of symptoms that seem neurological but lack compatibility of the symptom with a neurological substrate. Although diagnostic classification according to the ICD-11 and DSM-5-TR is dependent predominantly on the exclusion of any other medical condition that could account for the symptoms, current neurological practice of FND classification allows for such comorbidity. As a consequence, Long COVID patients with motor and balance symptoms mislabeled as FND have no longer access to Long COVID care, whereas treatment for FND is seldom provided and is ineffective. Research into underlying mechanisms and diagnostic methods should explore how to determine whether motor and balance symptoms currently diagnosed as FND should be considered one part of Long COVID symptoms, in other words, one component of symptomatology, and in which cases they correctly represent FND. Research into rehabilitation models, treatment and integrated care are needed, which should take into account biological underpinnings as well as possible psychological mechanisms and the patient perspective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Conversion Disorder , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Conversion Disorder/diagnosis , Conversion Disorder/psychology , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/therapy
7.
Comp Med ; 73(1): 91-103, 2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253837

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of the worldwide coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, has infected an estimated 525 million people with over 6 million deaths. Although COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory disease, an escalating number of neurologic symptoms have been reported in humans. Some neurologic symptoms, such as loss of smell or taste, are mild. However, other symptoms, such as meningoencephalitis or stroke, are potentially fatal. Along with surveys and postmortem evaluations on humans, scientists worked with several animal species to try to elucidate the causes of neurologic symptoms. Neurologic sequelae remain challenging to study due to the complexity of the nervous system and difficulties in identification and quantification of neurologic signs. We reviewed animal models used in the study of neurologic COVID-19, specifically research in mice, hamsters, ferrets, and nonhuman primates. We summarized findings on the presence and pathologic effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the nervous system. Given the need to increase understanding of COVID-19 and its effects on the nervous system, scientists must strive to obtain new information from animals to reduce mortality and morbidity with neurologic complications in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , Animals , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Ferrets , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Models, Animal
8.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 24(12): 1301-1306, 2022 Dec 15.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203147

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a worldwide pandemic since the end of 2019. There is an increasing number of reports on nervous system symptoms, among which encephalitis is considered a serious neurological complication of COVID-19, but there are few reports of this complication in China. Acute encephalitis has severe symptoms. If it is not identified early and treated in time, the mortality is high and the prognosis is poor. During the current global epidemic, it is necessary to pay attention to the severe nervous system symptoms of COVID-19. Therefore, this article summarizes the clinical features of COVID-19 complicated by acute encephalitis through literature review and a detailed analysis of medical records, so as to provide a reference for clinicians to deal with the cases of COVID-19 complicated by acute encephalitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Nervous System Diseases , Child , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Encephalitis/diagnosis , Encephalitis/etiology , Encephalitis/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1070379, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198911

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with disorders affecting the peripheral and the central nervous system. A high number of patients develop post-COVID-19 syndrome with the persistence of a large spectrum of symptoms, including neurological, beyond 4 weeks after infection. Several potential mechanisms in the acute phase have been hypothesized, including damage of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). We tested weather markers of BBB damage in association with markers of brain injury and systemic inflammation may help in identifying a blood signature for disease severity and neurological complications. Methods: Blood biomarkers of BBB disruption (MMP-9, GFAP), neuronal damage (NFL) and systemic inflammation (PPIA, IL-10, TNFα) were measured in two COVID-19 patient cohorts with high disease severity (ICUCovid; n=79) and with neurological complications (NeuroCovid; n=78), and in two control groups free from COVID-19 history, healthy subjects (n=20) and patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; n=51). Samples from COVID-19 patients were collected during the first and the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Lombardy, Italy. Evaluations were done at acute and chronic phases of the COVID-19 infection. Results: Blood biomarkers of BBB disruption and neuronal damage are high in COVID-19 patients with levels similar to or higher than ALS. NeuroCovid patients display lower levels of the cytokine storm inducer PPIA but higher levels of MMP-9 than ICUCovid patients. There was evidence of different temporal dynamics in ICUCovid compared to NeuroCovid patients with PPIA and IL-10 showing the highest levels in ICUCovid patients at acute phase. On the contrary, MMP-9 was higher at acute phase in NeuroCovid patients, with a severity dependency in the long-term. We also found a clear severity dependency of NFL and GFAP levels, with deceased patients showing the highest levels. Discussion: The overall picture points to an increased risk for neurological complications in association with high levels of biomarkers of BBB disruption. Our observations may provide hints for therapeutic approaches mitigating BBB disruption to reduce the neurological damage in the acute phase and potential dysfunction in the long-term.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Blood-Brain Barrier , Interleukin-10 , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Inflammation , Biomarkers
10.
Shock ; 58(6): 507-513, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191213

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Background : COVID-19 disease severity markers include mostly molecules related to not only tissue perfusion, inflammation, and thrombosis, but also biomarkers of neural injury. Clinical and basic research has demonstrated that SARS-COV-2 affects the central nervous system. The aims of the present study were to investigate the role of neural injury biomarkers and to compare them with inflammatory markers in their predictive ability of mortality. Methods : We conducted a prospective observational study in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and in a cohort of patients with moderate/severe disease. S100b, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and inflammatory markers, including soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), were measured on intensive care unit or ward admission, respectively. Statistical comparisons between patient groups were performed for all biomarkers under investigation. Correlations between different biomarkers were tested with Spearman correlation coefficient. Receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted using mortality as the classification variable and the biomarker levels on admission as the prognostic variables. Results : A total of 70 patients with COVID-19 were included in the final analysis. Of all studied biomarkers, s100b had the best predictive ability for death in the intensive care unit, with an area under the curve of 0.73 (0.61-0.83), P = 0.0003. S100b levels correlated with NSE, interleukin (IL)-8, and IL-10 (0.27 < rs < 0.37, P < 0.05), and tended to correlate with suPAR ( rs = 0.26, P = 0.05), but not with the vasopressor dose ( P = 0.62). Conclusion : Among the investigated biomarkers, s100b demonstrated the best predictive ability for death in COVID-19 patients. The overall biomarker profile of the patients implies direct involvement of the nervous system by the novel coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Phosphopyruvate Hydratase , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit , Humans , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness , Nervous System Diseases/blood , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/virology , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit/blood , Phosphopyruvate Hydratase/blood
11.
Nervenarzt ; 94(2): 84-92, 2023 Feb.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2174002

ABSTRACT

This review article summarizes important findings on the interfaces between the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and neurology with an emphasis of the implications for neurointensive care medicine. More specifically, the prevalence, pathomechanisms and impact of neurological manifestations are reported. The most common neurological manifestations of critically ill COVID-19 patients are cerebrovascular complications, encephalopathies and intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW). A relevant direct pathophysiological effect by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) itself has not yet been established with certainty. In fact, indirect systemic inflammatory processes triggered by the viral infection and side effects of intensive care treatment are much more likely to cause the reported sequelae. The impact of the pandemic on patients with neurological disorders and neurointensive care medicine is far-reaching but not yet sufficiently studied.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Neurology , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Critical Care
12.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 191, 2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Presently, it is known that, even if less frequently than in adults, children can develop a severe new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Children with the SARS-CoV-2 infection can have neurological signs and symptoms of disease more frequently than previously thought, revealing the involvement of the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, or both. Aim of this manuscript is to highlight the neurologic complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 among pediatric patients with COVID-19, suggesting when to monitor carefully neurologic development. MAIN FINDINGS: Children with a severe chronic underlying disease, infants and toddlers and those who develop the so-called multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) are those with the highest incidence of neurological complications. Fortunately, in most of the cases, neurological manifestations, mainly represented by headache and anosmia, are mild and transient and do not significantly complicate the COVID-19 course. However, in some cases, very severe clinical problems associated with relevant alterations of neuroimaging, electroencephalography, nerve conduction studies and electromyography findings can develop. Generally, almost all the children with COVID-19 and neurological manifestations till now described have made a complete recovery, although in some cases this has occurred after several weeks of treatment. Moreover, COVID-19 infection during pregnancy has been found associated with an increased risk of obstetric complications that can lead to neurological acute and long-term manifestations in neonates. CONCLUSIONS: Based on data showing the neurologic impact of COVID-19 in pediatric age, we suggest monitoring neurological development a few months after healing in pediatric patients who have presented MIS-C, seizures or other neurological manifestations and in children of pregnant women with COVID-19 in order to detect overt and subtle deficits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
13.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 80(5 Suppl 1): 1-6, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065214

ABSTRACT

Training of neurologists for the near future is a challenge due to the likely advances in neuroscientific methods, which will change much of our knowledge on diagnosis and treatment of neurological diseases. OBJECTIVE: to comment on what may be more likely to be a constant in the very near future and to recommend how to prepare the neurologist for the 21st century. METHODS: through a critical review of recent articles on the teaching of Neurology, to present a personal view on the subject. RESULTS: Diagnostic methods and therapeutic resources in Neurology will be greatly improved, but the central core of teaching young neurologists will continue to be the clinical/anatomical correlation. The neurologist must be prepared to be the primary physician in the care of patients with neurological disorders, although the roles of consultant and clinical neuroscientist must also be considered. In addition to technical knowledge, the neurologist must be prepared to discuss not only distressing issues related to the specialty, such as the risks of genetic diseases for family members of their patients, the inexorable progression of some diseases and the need for palliative care, but also problems not directly related to Neurology that cause anxiety and depression in the patient or that are the main reason for the initial consultation. CONCLUSION: neurology will be an even more important area of medicine and the neurologist must be well prepared to be the primary doctor to diagnose, treat and follow the patient with neurological disorders. In addition to technical knowledge, training in doctor-patient relations should be highlighted.


Subject(s)
Nervous System Diseases , Neurology , Anxiety , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Neurologists , Neurology/history
14.
Nurse Pract ; 47(10): 42-47, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051568

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Functional neurologic disorder is a complex disorder of truly experienced neurologic symptoms without evidence of underlying neurologic disease. This clinical review focuses on the pediatric population and includes the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinician knowledge and early identification can substantially improve patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Conversion Disorder , Nervous System Diseases , Pediatrics , Child , Conversion Disorder/diagnosis , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Pandemics
17.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 34(7): 1635-1644, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1920347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the relevance of telephone-based cognitive screening tests in clinical practice and research, no specific test assessing executive functioning is available. The present study aimed at standardizing and providing evidence of clinical usability for the Italian telephone-based Frontal Assessment Battery (t-FAB). METHODS: The t-FAB (ranging 0-12), comprising two subtests, has two versions: one requiring motor responses (t-FAB-M) and the other verbal responses (t-FAB-V). Three hundred and forty-six Italian healthy adults (HPs; 143 males; age range = 18-96 years; education range = 4-23 years) and 40 participants with neurological diseases were recruited. To HPs, the t-FAB was administered along with a set of telephone-based tests: MMSE, verbal fluency (VF), backward digit span (BDS). The in-person version of the FAB was administered to both HPs and clinical groups. Factorial structure, construct validity, inter-rater and test-retest reliability, t-FAB-M vs. t-FAB-V equivalence and diagnostic accuracy were assessed. Norms were derived via Equivalent Scores. RESULTS: In HPs, t-FAB measures yielded high inter-rater/test-retest reliability (ICC = .78-.94), were internally related (p ≤ .005) and underpinned by a single component, converging with the telephone-based MMSE, VF, BDS (p ≤ .0013). The two t-FAB versions were statistically equivalent in clinical groups (ps of both equivalence bounds < .001). Education predicted all t-FAB scores (p < .001), whereas age only the t-FAB-M score (p ≤ .004). t-FAB scores converge with the in-person FAB in HPs and clinical groups (rs = .43-.78). Both t-FAB versions were accurate in discriminating HPs from the clinical cohort (AUC = .73-.76). DISCUSSION: The t-FAB is a normed, valid, reliable and clinically usable telephone-based cognitive screening test to adopt in both clinical and research practice.


Subject(s)
Executive Function , Nervous System Diseases , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Neuropsychological Tests , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results , Telephone
18.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 9(7): 995-1010, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885373

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the initial features and evolution of neurologic Postacute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (neuro-PASC) in patients with and without prior neurologic disease. METHODS: Participants with neurologic symptoms following acute SARS-CoV-2 infection were recruited from October 9, 2020 to October 11, 2021. Clinical data included a SARS-CoV-2 infection history, neurologic review of systems, neurologic exam, Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA), and symptom-based self-reported surveys at baseline (conducted after acute infection) and 6-month follow-up assessments. RESULTS: Fifty-six participants (69% female, mean age 50 years, 29% with prior neurologic disease such as multiple sclerosis) were enrolled, of which 27 had completed the 6-month follow-up visit in this ongoing study. SARS-CoV-2 infection severity was largely described as mild (39.3%) or moderate (42.9%). At baseline, following acute infection, the most common neurologic symptoms were fatigue (89.3%) and headaches (80.4%). At the 6-month follow-up, memory impairment (68.8%) and decreased concentration (61.5%) were the most prevalent, though on average all symptoms showed a reduction in reported severity score at the follow-up. Complete symptom resolution was reported in 33.3% of participants by 6 months. From baseline to 6 months, average MoCA scores improved overall though 26.3% of participants' scores decreased. A syndrome consisting of tremor, ataxia, and cognitive dysfunction (PASC-TAC) was observed in 7.1% of patients. INTERPRETATION: Early in the neuro-PASC syndrome, fatigue and headache are the most commonly reported symptoms. At 6 months, memory impairment and decreased concentration were most prominent. Only one-third of participants had completed resolution of neuro-PASC at 6 months, although persistent symptoms trended toward improvement at follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Progression , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Headache/etiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Memory Disorders/etiology , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis
19.
Brain Behav ; 12(6): e2587, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802075

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several investigations were carried out during the pandemic, demonstrating a number of neurological symptoms linked to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this review is to discuss COVID-19 disease's neurological signs and squeals. METHODOLOGY: From December 2019 to May 2020, data were retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect, as well as a manual search using Google Scholar. COVID-19, neurological symptoms, cranial nerves, motor system were among the key phrases utilized in the search. RESULTS: The intensity of respiratory involvement increases the likelihood of neurological symptoms and consequences. According to some research, it might range from 34% to 80%. The central and peripheral neural systems are both affected, resulting in cranial nerve palsies and limb paralysis. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 neurologic complications are key drivers of patient severity and mortality. Headache, convulsions, mental and psychic disorders, delirium, and insomnia are just some of the symptoms that the virus can cause. The olfactory nerve is the most commonly damaged cranial nerve, resulting in anosmia. Stroke (mostly infarction), encephalitis, meningitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, relapse of multiple sclerosis, and transverse myelitis are all symptoms and squeals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/complications , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
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