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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 674922, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607886

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the world has been facing an outbreak of a new disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by a novel beta-coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 infection mainly affects the respiratory system. Recently, there have been some reports of extra-respiratory symptoms such as neurological manifestations in COVID-19. According to the increasing reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome following COVID-19, we mainly focused on SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome in this review. We tried to explain the possibility of a relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome and potential pathogenic mechanisms based on current and past knowledge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Virulence
2.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3339-3347, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607258

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the spectrum of neurological complications observed in a hospital-based cohort of COVID-19 patients who required a neurological assessment. METHODS: We conducted an observational, monocentric, prospective study of patients with a COVID-19 diagnosis hospitalized during the 3-month period of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary hospital in Madrid (Spain). We describe the neurological diagnoses that arose after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. These diagnoses could be divided into different groups. RESULTS: Only 71 (2.6%) of 2750 hospitalized patients suffered at least one neurological complication (77 different neurological diagnoses in total) during the timeframe of the study. The most common diagnoses were neuromuscular disorders (33.7%), cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) (27.3%), acute encephalopathy (19.4%), seizures (7.8%), and miscellanea (11.6%) comprising hiccups, myoclonic tremor, Horner syndrome and transverse myelitis. CVDs and encephalopathy were common in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to neuromuscular disorders, which usually appeared later on (p = 0.005). Cerebrospinal fluid severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction was negative in 15/15 samples. The mortality was higher in the CVD group (38.1% vs. 8.9%; p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of neurological complications is low in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Different mechanisms appear to be involved in these complications, and there was no evidence of direct invasion of the nervous system in our cohort. Some of the neurological complications can be classified into early and late neurological complications of COVID-19, as they occurred at different times following the onset of COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Neurology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3360-3368, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: COVID-19-related acute neurological phenotypes are being increasingly recognised, with neurological complications reported in more than 30% of hospitalised patients. However, multicentric studies providing a population-based perspective are lacking. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multicentric study at five hospitals in Northern Portugal, representing 45.1% of all hospitalised patients in this region, between 1 March and 30 June 2020. RESULTS: Among 1261 hospitalised COVID-19 patients, 457 (36.2%) presented neurological manifestations, corresponding to a rate of 357 per 1000 in the North Region. Patients with neurologic manifestations were younger (68.0 vs. 71.2 years, p = 0.002), and the most frequent neurological symptoms were headache (13.4%), delirium (10.1%), and impairment of consciousness (9.7%). Acute well-defined central nervous system (CNS) involvement was found in 19.1% of patients, corresponding to a rate of 217 per 1000 hospitalised patients in the whole region. Assuming that all patients with severe neurological events were hospitalised, we extrapolated our results to all COVID-19 patients in the region, estimating that 116 will have a severe neurological event, corresponding to a rate of nine per 1000 (95% CI = 7-11). Overall case fatality in patients presenting neurological manifestations was 19.8%, increasing to 32.6% among those with acute well-defined CNS involvement. CONCLUSIONS: We characterised the population of hospitalised COVID-19 patients in Northern Portugal and found that neurological symptoms are common and associated with a high degree of disability at discharge. CNS involvement with criteria for in-hospital admission was observed in a significant proportion of patients. This knowledge provides the tools for adequate health planning and for improving COVID-19 multidisciplinary patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Portugal/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 121(11): 81-87, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599964

ABSTRACT

Present two clinical cases of cerebral circulation disorders in COVID-19. Cerebrovascular disorders in patients have been associated with COVID-19. Despite the similarity of symptoms, the pathogenesis of neurological damage in these patients was different due to damage to the arterial system in the first case and the venous system in the second case. It is concluded that during the COVID-19 pandemic, doctors need to be alert to all patients with new-onset neurological symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Nervous System Diseases , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(Special Issue): 1304-1310, 2021 Aug.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524925

ABSTRACT

According to the literature, the main neurological complications of COVID-19 are hyposmia, hypogeia, headache, dizziness, myalgia, and severe neurological syndromes like encephalopathy, stroke, and coma. The mechanisms of neurological complications of the acute period are direct viral damage, hypoxic damage, and immune damage due to the activation of inflammation, including autoantibodies. After the end of the acute phase of the disease, neurological complications in the form of asthenic syndrome, vascular syndrome, exacerbation of chronic diseases (deterioration of cognitive and communication functions in patients with autism, schizophrenia, exacerbation of autoimmune neurological diseases, aggravation of the condition of patients with tics, increased frequency of epileptic seizures in adults and children, resumption of epileptic seizures in patients who were previously in stable remission, the debut of epileptic seizures). These disorders are based on the following mechanisms: neuroinflammation, activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, -2, -6, -8, -10, -17, -18, CXCL10, CCL2), formation of autoantibodies, increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier, mitochondrial dysfunction, adrenal and thyroid dysfunction, venous dyscirculation. In the treatment of neurological complications after a COVID-19 infection, it is advisable to use anti-inflammatory therapy, mitochondrial therapy (including the technique of intermittent hypoxic-hyperoxic therapy), detoxication, correction of hormonal status (primarily the state of the adrenal glands and thyroid gland), vasoactive therapy, and symptomatic therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Adult , Asthenia , Child , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20238, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467130

ABSTRACT

Neurological complications worsen outcomes in COVID-19. To define the prevalence of neurological conditions among hospitalized patients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test in geographically diverse multinational populations during early pandemic, we used electronic health records (EHR) from 338 participating hospitals across 6 countries and 3 continents (January-September 2020) for a cross-sectional analysis. We assessed the frequency of International Classification of Disease code of neurological conditions by countries, healthcare systems, time before and after admission for COVID-19 and COVID-19 severity. Among 35,177 hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, there was an increase in the proportion with disorders of consciousness (5.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.7-7.8%, pFDR < 0.001) and unspecified disorders of the brain (8.1%, 5.7-10.5%, pFDR < 0.001) when compared to the pre-admission proportion. During hospitalization, the relative risk of disorders of consciousness (22%, 19-25%), cerebrovascular diseases (24%, 13-35%), nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage (34%, 20-50%), encephalitis and/or myelitis (37%, 17-60%) and myopathy (72%, 67-77%) were higher for patients with severe COVID-19 when compared to those who never experienced severe COVID-19. Leveraging a multinational network to capture standardized EHR data, we highlighted the increased prevalence of central and peripheral neurological phenotypes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, particularly among those with severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Prevalence , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
8.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 83(4): 1563-1601, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468319

ABSTRACT

Neurological disorders significantly impact the world's economy due to their often chronic and life-threatening nature afflicting individuals which, in turn, creates a global disease burden. The Group of Twenty (G20) member nations, which represent the largest economies globally, should come together to formulate a plan on how to overcome this burden. The Neuroscience-20 (N20) initiative of the Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics (SBMT) is at the vanguard of this global collaboration to comprehensively raise awareness about brain, spine, and mental disorders worldwide. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the various brain initiatives worldwide and highlight the need for cooperation and recommend ways to bring down costs associated with the discovery and treatment of neurological disorders. Our systematic search revealed that the cost of neurological and psychiatric disorders to the world economy by 2030 is roughly $16T. The cost to the economy of the United States is $1.5T annually and growing given the impact of COVID-19. We also discovered there is a shortfall of effective collaboration between nations and a lack of resources in developing countries. Current statistical analyses on the cost of neurological disorders to the world economy strongly suggest that there is a great need for investment in neurotechnology and innovation or fast-tracking therapeutics and diagnostics to curb these costs. During the current COVID-19 pandemic, SBMT, through this paper, intends to showcase the importance of worldwide collaborations to reduce the population's economic and health burden, specifically regarding neurological/brain, spine, and mental disorders.


Subject(s)
Global Burden of Disease , International Cooperation , Mental Disorders , Nervous System Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Burden of Disease/organization & administration , Global Burden of Disease/trends , Global Health/economics , Global Health/trends , Humans , Mental Disorders/economics , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Nervous System Diseases/economics , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Neurosciences/methods , Neurosciences/trends , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(1): 318-323, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The European Federation of Neurological Associations (EFNA), in partnership with the NeuroCOVID-19 taskforce of the European Academy of Neurology (EAN), has investigated the impact of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on individuals with neurological diseases, as well as the hopes and fears of these patients about the post-pandemic phase. METHODS: An EFNA-EAN survey was available online to any person living with a neurological disorder in Europe. It consisted of 18 items concerning the impact of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on the medical care of people with neurological disorders, and the hopes and fears of these individuals regarding the post-pandemic phase. RESULTS: For 44.4% of the 443 survey participants, the overall care of their neurological disease during the pandemic was inappropriate. This perception was mainly due to significant delays in accessing medical care (25.7%), insufficiently reliable information received about the potential impact of COVID-19 on their neurological disease (49.6%), and a substantial lack of involvement in their disease management decisions (54.3%). Participants indicated that their major concerns for the post-pandemic phase were experiencing longer waiting times to see a specialist (24.1%), suffering from social isolation and deteriorating mental well-being (23.1%), and facing delays in clinical trials with disinvestment in neuroscience research (13.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the great efforts of health services to cope with the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, individuals with neurological conditions feel they have been left behind. These findings provide invaluable insights for improving the care of patients with neurological disorders in the further course of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448933

ABSTRACT

Virus-induced infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are among the most serious problems in public health and can be associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, mainly in low- and middle-income countries, where these manifestations have been neglected. Typically, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, varicella-zoster, and enterovirus are responsible for a high number of cases in immunocompetent hosts, whereas other herpesviruses (for example, cytomegalovirus) are the most common in immunocompromised individuals. Arboviruses have also been associated with outbreaks with a high burden of neurological disorders, such as the Zika virus epidemic in Brazil. There is a current lack of understanding in Brazil about the most common viruses involved in CNS infections. In this review, we briefly summarize the most recent studies and findings associated with the CNS, in addition to epidemiological data that provide extensive information on the circulation and diversity of the most common neuro-invasive viruses in Brazil. We also highlight important aspects of the prion-associated diseases. This review provides readers with better knowledge of virus-associated CNS infections. A deeper understanding of these infections will support the improvement of the current surveillance strategies to allow the timely monitoring of the emergence/re-emergence of neurotropic viruses.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Diseases/virology , Central Nervous System Infections/epidemiology , Prion Diseases/epidemiology , Alphavirus/pathogenicity , Brazil/epidemiology , Central Nervous System/virology , Central Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , Central Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Central Nervous System Infections/virology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/physiopathology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/virology , Enterovirus/pathogenicity , Flavivirus/pathogenicity , Herpesviridae/pathogenicity , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Prion Diseases/physiopathology , Prions/metabolism , Prions/pathogenicity , Simplexvirus/pathogenicity , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/pathogenicity , Zika Virus/pathogenicity
11.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 68(5): 1081-1091, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415700

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has spread rapidly across the world in 2020, affecting both adults and, to a lesser extent, children. In this article, the authors describe the neurologic manifestations of COVID-19 in children, including the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, laboratory and imaging findings, and treatment options. The management of patients with concomitant neuroimmunologic disorders and drug interactions between medications used to treat COVID-19 and other neurologic disorders (especially immune-modifying drugs) is also discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Child Welfare/statistics & numerical data , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Child , Comorbidity , Humans
12.
Intern Med ; 60(22): 3559-3567, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412660

ABSTRACT

Objective Various neurological manifestations have been increasingly reported in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We determined the neurological features and long-term sequelae in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods We retrospectively studied 95 consecutive hospitalized patients with COVID-19 between March 1 and May 13, 2020. Acute neurological presentations (within two weeks of the symptom onset of COVID-19) were compared between 60 non-severe and 35 severely infected patients who required high-flow oxygen. In the 12 ventilated patients (the most severe group), we evaluated neurological complications during admission, subacute neurological presentations, and neurological sequelae (51 and 137 days from the onset [median], respectively). Results Of the 95 patients (mean age 53 years old; 40% women), 63% had acute neurological presentations, with an increased prevalence in cases of severe infections (83% vs. 52%, p<0.001). Impaired consciousness and limb weakness were more frequent in severe patients than in non-severe ones (0% vs. 49%; p<0.001, and 0% vs. 54%; p<0.001, respectively). In the most severe group (mean age 72 years old; 42% women), 83% of patients had neurological complications [cerebrovascular disease (17%), encephalopathy (82%), and neuropathy (55%)], and 92% had subacute neurological presentations [impaired consciousness (17%), higher brain dysfunction (82%), limb weakness (75%), and tremor (58%)]. Neurological sequelae were found in 83% of cases, including higher brain dysfunction (73%), limb weakness (50%), and tremor (58%). Conclusions Neurological manifestations are common in COVID-19, with the possibility of long-lasting sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Neurology ; 97(16): 767-775, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394514

ABSTRACT

The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has triggered a global effort to rapidly develop and deploy effective and safe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations. Vaccination has been one of the most effective medical interventions in human history, although potential safety risks of novel vaccines must be monitored, identified, and quantified. Adverse events must be carefully assessed to define whether they are causally associated with vaccination or coincidence. Neurologic adverse events following immunizations are overall rare but with significant morbidity and mortality when they occur. Here, we review neurologic conditions seen in the context of prior vaccinations and the current data to date on select COVID-19 vaccines including mRNA vaccines and the adenovirus-vector COVID-19 vaccines, ChAdOx1 nCOV-19 (AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2.S Johnson & Johnson (Janssen/J&J).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Vaccination/trends , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/administration & dosage , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/adverse effects , Nervous System Diseases/chemically induced , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Poliovirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Poliovirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects
14.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102267, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377695

ABSTRACT

AIMS: 1: Describe the epidemiology and determine risk factors for COVID-19 associated mucormycosis. 2: Elaborate the clinical spectrum of Rhino-Orbital-Cerebral Mucormycosis (ROCM), pattern of neuroaxis involvement and it's radiological correlates. METHODS: Observational study. Consecutive, confirmed cases of mucormycosis (N = 55) were included. A case of mucormycosis was defined as one who had clinical and radiological features consistent with mucormycosis along with demonstration of the fungus in tissue via KOH mount/culture/histopathological examination (HPE). Data pertaining to epidemiology, risk factors, clinico-radiological features were analysed using percentage of total cases. RESULTS: Middle aged, diabetic males with recent COVID-19 infection were most affected. New onset upper jaw toothache was a striking observation in several cases. Among neurological manifestations headache, proptosis, vision loss, extraocular movement restriction; cavernous sinus, meningeal and parenchymal involvement were common. Stroke in ROCM followed a definitive pattern with watershed infarction. CONCLUSIONS: New onset upper jaw toothache and loosening of teeth should prompt an immediate search for mucormycosis in backdrop of diabetic patients with recent COVID-19 disease, aiding earlier diagnosis and treatment initiation. Neuroaxis involvement was characterized by a multitude of features pertaining to involvement of optic nerve, extraocular muscles, meninges, brain parenchyma and internal carotid artery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/etiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/etiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/microbiology , Orbit/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Prevalence , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Rhinitis/etiology , Rhinitis/microbiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors
15.
J Neurol ; 268(6): 2007-2012, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1342967

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become one of the most serious pandemics of the recent times. Since this pandemic began, there have been numerous reports about the COVID-19 involvement of the nervous system. There have been reports of both direct and indirect involvement of the central and peripheral nervous system by the virus. OBJECTIVE: To review the neuropsychiatric manifestations along with corresponding pathophysiologic mechanisms of nervous system involvement by the COVID-19. BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the disease in humans in the later part of 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has rapidly spread across the world with over 2,719,000 reported cases in over 200 countries [World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) situation report-96.,]. While patients typically present with fever, shortness of breath, sore throat, and cough, neurologic manifestations have been reported, as well. These include the ones with both direct and indirect involvement of the nervous system. The reported manifestations include anosmia, ageusia, central respiratory failure, stroke, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), acute necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalopathy, toxic-metabolic encephalopathy, headache, myalgia, myelitis, ataxia, and various neuropsychiatric manifestations. These data were derived from the published clinical data in various journals and case reports. CONCLUSION: The neurological manifestations of the COVID-19 are varied and the data about this continue to evolve as the pandemic continues to progress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Stroke , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology
17.
J Neurol ; 268(8): 2629-2655, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318755

ABSTRACT

Neurological manifestations in pandemics frequently cause short and long-term consequences which are frequently overlooked. Despite advances in the treatment of infectious diseases, nervous system involvement remains a challenge, with limited treatments often available. The under-recognition of neurological manifestations may lead to an increase in the burden of acute disease as well as secondary complications with long-term consequences. Nervous system infection or dysfunction during pandemics is common and its enduring consequences, especially among vulnerable populations, are frequently forgotten. An improved understanding the possible mechanisms of neurological damage during epidemics, and increased recognition of the possible manifestations is fundamental to bring insights when dealing with future outbreaks. To reverse this gap in knowledge, we reviewed all the pandemics, large and important epidemics of human history in which neurological manifestations are evident, and described the possible physiological processes that leads to the adverse sequelae caused or triggered by those pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 121(6): 145-151, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318479

ABSTRACT

Last year the global medical community faced the pandemic of the new coronavirus infection caused by SARS-CoV-2. To date, there is considerable expert experience, which indicates that the brain, along with the corresponding respiratory system, is a target organ for a new coronavirus infection. Moreover, a number of symptoms from the central and peripheral nervous system can persist for several weeks, months, and even tens of months. To designate such protracted clinical conditions, a new definition was introduced: «Post-COVID-19 Condition¼. Advisory Board of Neurologists and Rehabilitation Therapists met to, discuss of practical experience and taking into account scientific information about COVID-19, which was available at the time of the meeting, to develop unified approaches for the management of patients with neurological complications and the consequences of a new coronavirus infection. The Advisory Board worked out a resolution in which formulated the tactics of managing patients with neurological manifestations of COVID-19. The substantiation of the importance and expediency of the development and implementation of a special program of clinical examination of patients who have undergone COVID-19, which would include a clinical examination with a detailed assessment of cognitive functions to early identification and diagnosis of neurodegeneration and subsequent therapy, is given.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Brain , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 12(15): 2776-2797, 2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309426

ABSTRACT

Common symptoms such as dizziness, headache, olfactory dysfunction, nausea, vomiting, etc. in COVID-19 patients have indicated the involvement of the nervous system. However, the exact association of the nervous system with COVID-19 infection is still unclear. Thus, we have conducted a meta-analysis of clinical studies associated with neurological problems in COVID-19 patients. We have searched for electronic databases with MeSH terms, and the studies for analysis were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and quality assessment. The Stats Direct (version 3) was used for the analysis. The pooled prevalence with 95% confidence interval of various neurological manifestations reported in the COVID-19 patients was found to be headache 14.6% (12.2-17.2), fatigue 33.6% (29.5-37.8), olfactory dysfunction 26.4% (21.8-31.3), gustatory dysfunction 27.2% (22.3-32.3), vomiting 6.7% (5.5-8.0), nausea 9.8% (8.1-11.7), dizziness 6.7% (4.7-9.1), myalgia 21.4% (18.8-24.1), seizure 4.05% (2.5-5.8), cerebrovascular diseases 9.9% (6.8-13.4), sleep disorders 14.9% (1.9-36.8), altered mental status 17.1% (12.3-22.5), neuralgia 2.4% (0.8-4.7), arthralgia 19.9% (15.3-25.0), encephalopathy 23.5% (14.3-34.1), encephalitis 0.6% (0.2-1.3), malaise 38.3% (24.7-52.9), confusion 14.2% (6.9-23.5), movement disorders 5.2% (1.7-10.4), and Guillain-Barre syndrome 6.9% (2.3-13.7). However, the heterogeneity among studies was found to be high. Various neurological manifestations related to the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) are associated with COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Nervous System Diseases , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
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