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2.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235103

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative pathogen of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a fatal respiratory illness. The associated risk factors for COVID-19 are old age and medical comorbidities. In the current combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era, a significant portion of people living with HIV-1 (PLWH) with controlled viremia is older and with comorbidities, making these people vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-associated severe outcomes. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2 is neurotropic and causes neurological complications, resulting in a health burden and an adverse impact on PLWH and exacerbating HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity on neuroinflammation, the development of HAND and preexisting HAND is poorly explored. In the present review, we compiled the current knowledge of differences and similarities between SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1, the conditions of the SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 and HIV-1/AIDS syndemic and their impact on the central nervous system (CNS). Risk factors of COVID-19 on PLWH and neurological manifestations, inflammatory mechanisms leading to the neurological syndrome, the development of HAND, and its influence on preexisting HAND are also discussed. Finally, we have reviewed the challenges of the present syndemic on the world population, with a particular emphasis on PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Central Nervous System , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology
3.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(3): 458-466, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the spectrum, characteristics and outcomes of neurologic manifestations associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre retrospective study during the French coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in March-April 2020. All COVID-19 patients with de novo neurologic manifestations were eligible. RESULTS: We included 222 COVID-19 patients with neurologic manifestations from 46 centres in France. Median (interquartile range, IQR) age was 65 (53-72) years and 136 patients (61.3%) were male. COVID-19 was severe or critical in 102 patients (45.2%). The most common neurologic diseases were COVID-19-associated encephalopathy (67/222, 30.2%), acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome (57/222, 25.7%), encephalitis (21/222, 9.5%) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (15/222, 6.8%). Neurologic manifestations appeared after the first COVID-19 symptoms with a median (IQR) delay of 6 (3-8) days in COVID-19-associated encephalopathy, 7 (5-10) days in encephalitis, 12 (7-18) days in acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome and 18 (15-28) days in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Brain imaging was performed in 192 patients (86.5%), including 157 magnetic resonance imaging (70.7%). Among patients with acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome, 13 (22.8%) of 57 had multiterritory ischaemic strokes, with large vessel thrombosis in 16 (28.1%) of 57. Brain magnetic resonance imaging of encephalitis patients showed heterogeneous acute nonvascular lesions in 14 (66.7%) of 21. Cerebrospinal fluid of 97 patients (43.7%) was analysed, with pleocytosis found in 18 patients (18.6%) and a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR result in two patients with encephalitis. The median (IQR) follow-up was 24 (17-34) days with a high short-term mortality rate (28/222, 12.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical spectrum and outcomes of neurologic manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection were broad and heterogeneous, suggesting different underlying pathogenic processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Brain Behav ; 13(7): e3066, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is still considered a global pandemic. The prognosis of COVID-19 patients varies greatly. We aimed to assess the impact of preexisting, chronic neurological diseases (CNDs) and new-onset acute neurological complications (ANCs) on the disease course, its complications, and outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a monocentric retrospective analysis from all hospitalized COVID-19 patients between May 1, 2020 and January 31, 2021. Employing multivariable logistic regression models, we explored the association of CNDs and ANCs separately with hospital mortality and functional outcome. RESULTS: A total of 250 among 709 patients with COVID-19 had CNDs. We found a 2.0 times higher chance of death (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37-2.92) for CND patients than for non-CND patients. The chance for an unfavorable functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale > 3 at discharge) was 1.67 times higher in patients with CNDs than those without (95% CI: 1.07-2.59). Furthermore, 117 of all patients had 135 ANCs in total. We observed a 1.86 times higher chance to die (95% CI: 1.18-2.93) for patients with ANCs than without. The chance for a worse functional outcome was 3.6-fold higher in ANC patients than without (95% CI: 2.22-6.01). Patients with CNDs had 1.73 times higher odds for developing ANCs (95% CI: 0.97-3.08). CONCLUSION: Preexisting neurologic disorders or ANCs in COVID-19 patients were associated with higher mortality and poorer functional outcome at discharge. Furthermore, development of acute neurologic complications was more frequent in patients with preexisting neurologic disease. Early neurological evaluation appears to be an important prognostic factor in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Prognosis
6.
Neurobiol Dis ; 182: 106147, 2023 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314299

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has sparked a global pandemic with severe complications and high morbidity rate. Neurological symptoms in COVID-19 patients, and neurological sequelae post COVID-19 recovery have been extensively reported. Yet, neurological molecular signature and signaling pathways that are affected in the central nervous system (CNS) of COVID-19 severe patients remain still unknown and need to be identified. Plasma samples from 49 severe COVID-19 patients, 50 mild COVID-19 patients, and 40 healthy controls were subjected to Olink proteomics analysis of 184 CNS-enriched proteins. By using a multi-approach bioinformatics analysis, we identified a 34-neurological protein signature for COVID-19 severity and unveiled dysregulated neurological pathways in severe cases. Here, we identified a new neurological protein signature for severe COVID-19 that was validated in different independent cohorts using blood and postmortem brain samples and shown to correlate with neurological diseases and pharmacological drugs. This protein signature could potentially aid the development of prognostic and diagnostic tools for neurological complications in post-COVID-19 convalescent patients with long term neurological sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Central Nervous System , Brain
7.
Semin Neurol ; 43(2): 312-320, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312320

ABSTRACT

With the hundreds of millions of people worldwide who have been, and continue to be, affected by pandemic coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and its chronic sequelae, strategies to improve recovery and rehabilitation from COVID-19 are critical global public health priorities. Neurologic complications have been associated with acute COVID-19 infection, usually in the setting of critical COVID-19 illness. Neurologic complications are also a core feature of the symptom constellation of long COVID and portend poor outcomes. In this article, we review neurologic complications and their mechanisms in critical COVID-19 illness and long COVID. We focus on parallels with neurologic disease associated with non-COVID critical systemic illness. We conclude with a discussion of how recent findings can guide both neurologists working in post-acute neurologic rehabilitation facilities and policy makers who influence neurologic resource allocation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Acute Disease
8.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 33(1): 49-57, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320718

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To understand the role of postinfectious autoimmune vascular inflammation in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019-related neurological illness caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus and its effects on the brain in children and adults. RECENT FINDINGS: There are a very small number of postmortem neuropathological series of coronavirus disease 2019-related cerebrovascular and parenchymal disease. However, they fall into at least three major categories, with the majority manifesting those of terminal hypoxia, and others demonstrating inflammatory vascular leptomeningeal, cerebral and brainstem interstitial changes suspicious for encephalitis in a minority of cases. It remains uncertain whether these histopathological features have a relationship to post-infectious inflammatory immune mechanisms and microscopic vasculitis in adults as it appears to be in affected children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome. SUMMARY: The reasons for this dichotomy are unclear but may related to inherent and epigenetic factors that remain poorly understood. Treatment addressing postinfectious mechanisms of pulmonary, systemic, and nervous system injury may avert early mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology
9.
Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am ; 34(3): 539-549, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309532

ABSTRACT

It is known that there can be neurologic complications related to acute infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Currently, there is a growing body of evidence that postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection can manifest as neurologic sequelae as a result of direct neuroinvasion, autoimmunity, and possibly lead to chronic neurodegenerative processes. Certain complications can be associated with worse prognosis, lower functional outcome, and higher mortality. This article provides an overview of the known pathophysiology, symptoms presentation, complications and treatment approaches of the post-acute neurologic and neuromuscular sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Prognosis
10.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 67(4): 338-349, 2020.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293749

ABSTRACT

The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are reminiscent of those of acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by cytokine release syndrome and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis that is observed in patients with other coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Neurologists face the challenge of assessing patients with pre-existing neurological diseases who have contracted SARS-CoV-2, patients with COVID-19 who present neurological emergencies, and patients who are carriers of the virus and have developed secondary neurological complications, either during the course of the disease or after it. Some authors and recent literature reports suggest that the presence of neurological manifestations in patients who are carriers of SARS-CoV-2 may be associated with a greater severity of the disease.


Las manifestaciones clínicas de COVID-19 recuerdan las del síndrome de insuficiencia respiratoria aguda inducido por el síndrome de liberación de citocinas y la linfohistiocitosis hemofagocitica observada en pacientes con otros coronavirus como SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV. Los neurólogos tienen el reto de evaluar pacientes con enfermedades neurológicas preexistentes que contraen SARS-CoV-2, pacientes con COVID-19 que presentan emergencias neurológicas y pacientes portadores del virus que desarrollan complicaciones neurológicas secundarias, durante el curso de la enfermedad o posterior a la misma. Algunos autores y reportes en la literatura recientes sugieren que las manifestaciones neurológicas en pacientes portadores de SARS-CoV-2 pueden asociarse con mayor gravedad de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , Anosmia/etiology , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Leukocytes/immunology , Organ Specificity , Viral Tropism
11.
QJM ; 116(3): 161-180, 2023 Mar 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293833

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused several pandemic peaks worldwide due to its high variability and infectiousness, and COVID-19 has become a long-standing global public health problem. There is growing evidence that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) frequently causes multi-organ injuries and more severe neurological manifestations. Therefore, increased awareness of possible neurological complications is beneficial in preventing and mitigating the impact of long-term sequelae and improving the prognostic outcome of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Here, we review the main pathways of SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion and the potential mechanisms causing neurological damage. We also discuss in detail neurological complications, aiming to provide cutting-edge basis for subsequent related basic research and clinical studies of diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy
12.
Semin Neurol ; 43(2): 187-194, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296549

ABSTRACT

Neurologic symptoms have been reported in over 30% of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the pathogenesis of these symptoms remains under investigation. Here, we place the neurologic complications of COVID-19 within the context of three historical viral pandemics that have been associated with neurologic diseases: (1) the 1918 influenza pandemic, subsequent spread of encephalitis lethargica, and lessons for the study of COVID-19-related neuroinflammation; (2) the controversial link between the 1976 influenza vaccination campaign and Guillain-Barré Syndrome and its implications for the post- and parainfectious complications of COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccination; and (3) potential applications of scientific techniques developed in the wake of the human immunodeficiency virus pandemic to the study of postacute sequelae of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Influenza, Human , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications
13.
J Neurol Sci ; 449: 120646, 2023 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304531

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Uniform case definitions are required to ensure harmonised reporting of neurological syndromes associated with SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, it is unclear how clinicians perceive the relative importance of SARS-CoV-2 in neurological syndromes, which risks under- or over-reporting. METHODS: We invited clinicians through global networks, including the World Federation of Neurology, to assess ten anonymised vignettes of SARS-CoV-2 neurological syndromes. Using standardised case definitions, clinicians assigned a diagnosis and ranked association with SARS-CoV-2. We compared diagnostic accuracy and assigned association ranks between different settings and specialties and calculated inter-rater agreement for case definitions as "poor" (κ ≤ 0.4), "moderate" or "good" (κ > 0.6). RESULTS: 1265 diagnoses were assigned by 146 participants from 45 countries on six continents. The highest correct proportion were cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST, 95.8%), Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS, 92.4%) and headache (91.6%) and the lowest encephalitis (72.8%), psychosis (53.8%) and encephalopathy (43.2%). Diagnostic accuracy was similar between neurologists and non-neurologists (median score 8 vs. 7/10, p = 0.1). Good inter-rater agreement was observed for five diagnoses: cranial neuropathy, headache, myelitis, CVST, and GBS and poor agreement for encephalopathy. In 13% of vignettes, clinicians incorrectly assigned lowest association ranks, regardless of setting and specialty. CONCLUSION: The case definitions can help with reporting of neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2, also in settings with few neurologists. However, encephalopathy, encephalitis, and psychosis were often misdiagnosed, and clinicians underestimated the association with SARS-CoV-2. Future work should refine the case definitions and provide training if global reporting of neurological syndromes associated with SARS-CoV-2 is to be robust.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Observer Variation , Uncertainty , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Encephalitis/complications , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , COVID-19 Testing
14.
15.
Annu Rev Med ; 73: 113-127, 2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262693

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has created a global pandemic. Beyond the well-described respiratory manifestations, SARS-CoV-2 may cause a variety of neurologic complications, including headaches, alteration in taste and smell, encephalopathy, cerebrovascular disease, myopathy, psychiatric diseases, and ocular disorders. Herein we describe SARS-CoV-2's mechanism of neuroinvasion and the epidemiology, outcomes, and treatments for neurologic manifestations of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 72: 103097, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256766

ABSTRACT

Due to its high prevalence and fatality, the current Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, which first emerged in China in 2019, quickly spread around the world and immediately became a serious global health concern. Although respiratory issues were initially the most prominent symptom of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it became obvious rapidly that COVID-19, like many other coronavirus family members, could affect the central nervous system (CNS). During the pandemic, CNS involvement expressed itself in a variety of forms, including insomnia, anosmia, headaches, encephalopathies, encephalitis, cerebrovascular accidents, cognitive and memory impairment, and increased psychiatric disorders. Almost everyone who has been infected has at least one of these neurological symptoms, demonstrating that the virus has a high ability to impact the CNS. As the coronavirus pandemic passes its second year, the manifestations it can cause in the long run, such as its psychological sequels, have not yet been thoroughly studied. Given the high importance of this issue in today's society and due to the lack of reliable knowledge about the COVID-19 landscape on psychiatric disorders, we intend to investigate coronavirus's possible effect on mental illnesses based on available literature. Because the majority of the psychological effects of the coronavirus can continue for a long period after the pandemic ends, our research can give insight into potential psychiatric sequels associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Stroke , Central Nervous System , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications
17.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 20(2): 412-431, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252791

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization declared the pandemic situation caused by SARSCoV- 2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2) in March 2020, but the detailed pathophysiological mechanisms of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are not yet completely understood. Therefore, to date, few therapeutic options are available for patients with mildmoderate or serious disease. In addition to systemic and respiratory symptoms, several reports have documented various neurological symptoms and impairments of mental health. The current review aims to provide the available evidence about the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on mental health. The present data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 produces a wide range of impairments and disorders of the brain. However, a limited number of studies investigated the neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV-2. Although the main features and outcomes of COVID-19 are linked to severe acute respiratory illness, the possible damages on the brain should be considered, too.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , Mental Health , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 51(4): 370-379, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286582

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has had a significant impact on the global population and has produced compelling evidence of non-pulmonary organ dysfunction, including the nervous system. It is vital that specialists in ophthalmology and neurology are informed of the potential complications of COVID-19 and gain a deeper understanding of how COVID-19 can cause diseases of the nervous system. In this review we detail four possible mechanisms by which COVID-19 infection may result in neurological or neuro-ophthalmological complications: (1) Toxic and metabolic effects of severe pulmonary COVID-19 disease on the neural axis including hypoxia and the systemic hyper-inflammatory state, (2) endothelial dysfunction, (3) dysimmune responses directed again the neuroaxis, and (4) direct neuro-invasion and injury by the virus itself. We explore the pathological evidence for each of these and how they may link to neuro-ophthalmological disorders. Finally, we explore the evidence for long-term neurological and neuro-ophthalmological complications of COVID-19, with a focus on neurodegeneration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Diseases , Nervous System Diseases , Neurology , Ophthalmology , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Eye Diseases/etiology
19.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(10): 11-12, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273888

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has neurologic manifestations associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study aimed to retrospectively analyze SARS COVID-19 patients with neurological manifestations and identify patterns of presentation including the site of neuroaxis involvement, neuroimaging, and associated systemic involvement. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: This retrospective observational study was conducted at two tertiary care hospitals in western Rajasthan. Data on age, sex, presenting symptoms, and comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, cardiac, cerebrovascular disease, and cancer) were collected from 28th February 2020 to 31st December 2020 through medical records, discharge summaries, and radiological studies. Verbal/written patient consent was obtained due to the prevailing COVID-19 norms at the time of the first wave. Major inclusion criteria were as follows: age >18 years, consent from patient/surrogate, positive RT-PCR report in case of active COVID cases, or positive COVID antibody test in case of post-COVID neurological sequelae. All neurological manifestations were reviewed by at least two neurologists and were divided into central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) manifestations. Systemic features and their temporal relationship with neurological features were recorded. Various other specialized assessments and therapeutic interventions were conducted. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software. A Chi-square test was performed to determine the association between variables. Student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance were used to determine differences in mean values. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: The mean age was 57.32 years for the CNS group and 40 years for the PNS group (p = 0.025). Age was significantly lower in the PNS group than in the CNS group (p = 0.025). Anemia, leucocytosis, and elevated serum creatinine were more commonly seen in the CNS group, although the difference was not statistically significant. The most common CNS manifestations were stroke (41.8%), of which ischemic stroke constituted 83% of cases, followed by seizure (22%), encephalopathy (20.9%), headache (15.1%), and vertigo (3.8%). The most common PNS manifestation was neuropathy (57%), which included Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), critical illness neuropathy, and autonomic neuropathy Conclusion: CNS symptoms of COVID-19 are more common than PNS symptoms. Stroke is the most frequent (46%) COVID-CNS symptom, which occurs in people of age above 35 years and is associated with high mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Stroke , Humans , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , India/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology
20.
Nervenarzt ; 94(4): 268-277, 2023 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272037

ABSTRACT

Viral diseases of the nervous system are ancient and poliomyelitis was described in Egypt as early as 2000 BC. They can cause a wide range of neurological symptoms, such as meningitis, encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, Guillain-Barré-like syndrome and stroke, often leaving mild to severe residuals. Depending on the pathogen, the symptoms appear quickly within hours, or lead to increasing chronic symptoms within 1 week or months. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which was newly identified in January 2020 and occurs worldwide, illustrates the sequelae of a phenomenon that has been known for centuries, the possible rapid spread of pathogen-related infectious diseases. Due to vaccination programs some pathogens are becoming rarer or are considered to be eradicated. Nevertheless, vaccination programs, especially in the poorer regions, are repeatedly interrupted, for example by wars. The most recent example is the interruption of vaccination against poliomyelitis in Ukraine. As life expectancy continues to rise and years of life lost to infectious diseases decrease, the new infectious disease threat is likely to come from emerging and re-emerging infections; however, according to a recent analysis of population data from 29 countries, life expectancy during the corona pandemic has decreased, e.g., by 28 months in the USA and by 6 months in Germany. Climate change, rapid urbanization and changing land-use patterns could increase the risk in the coming decades. In particular, the climate change can alter the spectrum of global pathogens and especially vector-borne infections can spread to new areas. A sustained increase in travel, trade and mobility enables the pathogens to spread quickly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Nervous System Diseases , Poliomyelitis , Virus Diseases , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Communicable Diseases/complications , Poliomyelitis/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology
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