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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 674922, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607886

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the world has been facing an outbreak of a new disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by a novel beta-coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 infection mainly affects the respiratory system. Recently, there have been some reports of extra-respiratory symptoms such as neurological manifestations in COVID-19. According to the increasing reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome following COVID-19, we mainly focused on SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome in this review. We tried to explain the possibility of a relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome and potential pathogenic mechanisms based on current and past knowledge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Virulence
3.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 533-544, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537202

ABSTRACT

Cough is one of the most common presenting symptoms of COVID-19, along with fever and loss of taste and smell. Cough can persist for weeks or months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, often accompanied by chronic fatigue, cognitive impairment, dyspnoea, or pain-a collection of long-term effects referred to as the post-COVID syndrome or long COVID. We hypothesise that the pathways of neurotropism, neuroinflammation, and neuroimmunomodulation through the vagal sensory nerves, which are implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection, lead to a cough hypersensitivity state. The post-COVID syndrome might also result from neuroinflammatory events in the brain. We highlight gaps in understanding of the mechanisms of acute and chronic COVID-19-associated cough and post-COVID syndrome, consider potential ways to reduce the effect of COVID-19 by controlling cough, and suggest future directions for research and clinical practice. Although neuromodulators such as gabapentin or opioids might be considered for acute and chronic COVID-19 cough, we discuss the possible mechanisms of COVID-19-associated cough and the promise of new anti-inflammatories or neuromodulators that might successfully target both the cough of COVID-19 and the post-COVID syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/etiology , Inflammation/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neuroimmunomodulation , Cough/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
4.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(6): e259-e263, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534305

ABSTRACT

Neurological complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are highly variable and can be quite severe, but they are rare in children. A careful understanding of the variety of presentations of neurological symptoms related to COVID-19 is critical for the effective management of these patients. Given the smaller numbers of children with these complications, a comprehensive review of neurological presentations in adults with COVID-19 may help facilitate the understanding of those complications that may present in children and how these presentations may be similar. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(6):e259-e263.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/microbiology , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(Special Issue): 1304-1310, 2021 Aug.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524925

ABSTRACT

According to the literature, the main neurological complications of COVID-19 are hyposmia, hypogeia, headache, dizziness, myalgia, and severe neurological syndromes like encephalopathy, stroke, and coma. The mechanisms of neurological complications of the acute period are direct viral damage, hypoxic damage, and immune damage due to the activation of inflammation, including autoantibodies. After the end of the acute phase of the disease, neurological complications in the form of asthenic syndrome, vascular syndrome, exacerbation of chronic diseases (deterioration of cognitive and communication functions in patients with autism, schizophrenia, exacerbation of autoimmune neurological diseases, aggravation of the condition of patients with tics, increased frequency of epileptic seizures in adults and children, resumption of epileptic seizures in patients who were previously in stable remission, the debut of epileptic seizures). These disorders are based on the following mechanisms: neuroinflammation, activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, -2, -6, -8, -10, -17, -18, CXCL10, CCL2), formation of autoantibodies, increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier, mitochondrial dysfunction, adrenal and thyroid dysfunction, venous dyscirculation. In the treatment of neurological complications after a COVID-19 infection, it is advisable to use anti-inflammatory therapy, mitochondrial therapy (including the technique of intermittent hypoxic-hyperoxic therapy), detoxication, correction of hormonal status (primarily the state of the adrenal glands and thyroid gland), vasoactive therapy, and symptomatic therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Adult , Asthenia , Child , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
6.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets ; 20(5): 390-391, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526729

ABSTRACT

A letter to the editor to discuss several uses of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the investigation of neurological manifestations of covid-19. Described several situations in which the MRI is needed. Brain MRI is an important diagnostic method in the covid-19 scenario, to investigate possible neurological complications of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Nervous System Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Headache/diagnostic imaging , Headache/etiology , Humans
7.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 8(4)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518339

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) is a severe immune-mediated disorder. We aim to report the neurologic features of children with PIMS-TS. METHODS: We identified children presenting to a large children's hospital with PIMS-TS from March to June 2020 and performed a retrospective medical note review, identifying clinical and investigative features alongside short-term outcome of children presenting with neurologic symptoms. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients with PIMS-TS were identified, 9 (12%) had neurologic involvement: altered conciseness (3), behavioral changes (3), focal neurology deficits (2), persistent headaches (2), hallucinations (2), excessive sleepiness (1), and new-onset focal seizures (1). Four patients had cranial images abnormalities. At 3-month follow-up, 1 child had died, 1 had hemiparesis, 3 had behavioral changes, and 4 completely recovered. Systemic inflammatory and prothrombotic markers were higher in patients with neurologic involvement (mean highest CRP 267 vs 202 mg/L, p = 0.05; procalcitonin 30.65 vs 13.11 µg/L, p = 0.04; fibrinogen 7.04 vs 6.17 g/L, p = 0.07; d-dimers 19.68 vs 7.35 mg/L, p = 0.005). Among patients with neurologic involvement, these markers were higher in those without full recovery at 3 months (ferritin 2284 vs 283 µg/L, p = 0.05; d-dimers 30.34 vs 6.37 mg/L, p = 0.04). Patients with and without neurologic involvement shared similar risk factors for PIMS-TS (Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic ethnicity 78% vs 70%, obese/overweight 56% vs 42%). CONCLUSIONS: Broad neurologic features were found in 12% patients with PIMS-TS. By 3-month follow-up, half of these surviving children had recovered fully without neurologic impairment. Significantly higher systemic inflammatory markers were identified in children with neurologic involvement and in those who had not recovered fully.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Inflammation/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child Behavior Disorders/epidemiology , Child Behavior Disorders/etiology , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Inflammation/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/psychology , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/psychology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20238, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467130

ABSTRACT

Neurological complications worsen outcomes in COVID-19. To define the prevalence of neurological conditions among hospitalized patients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test in geographically diverse multinational populations during early pandemic, we used electronic health records (EHR) from 338 participating hospitals across 6 countries and 3 continents (January-September 2020) for a cross-sectional analysis. We assessed the frequency of International Classification of Disease code of neurological conditions by countries, healthcare systems, time before and after admission for COVID-19 and COVID-19 severity. Among 35,177 hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, there was an increase in the proportion with disorders of consciousness (5.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.7-7.8%, pFDR < 0.001) and unspecified disorders of the brain (8.1%, 5.7-10.5%, pFDR < 0.001) when compared to the pre-admission proportion. During hospitalization, the relative risk of disorders of consciousness (22%, 19-25%), cerebrovascular diseases (24%, 13-35%), nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage (34%, 20-50%), encephalitis and/or myelitis (37%, 17-60%) and myopathy (72%, 67-77%) were higher for patients with severe COVID-19 when compared to those who never experienced severe COVID-19. Leveraging a multinational network to capture standardized EHR data, we highlighted the increased prevalence of central and peripheral neurological phenotypes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, particularly among those with severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Prevalence , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
10.
Intern Med ; 60(22): 3559-3567, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412660

ABSTRACT

Objective Various neurological manifestations have been increasingly reported in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We determined the neurological features and long-term sequelae in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods We retrospectively studied 95 consecutive hospitalized patients with COVID-19 between March 1 and May 13, 2020. Acute neurological presentations (within two weeks of the symptom onset of COVID-19) were compared between 60 non-severe and 35 severely infected patients who required high-flow oxygen. In the 12 ventilated patients (the most severe group), we evaluated neurological complications during admission, subacute neurological presentations, and neurological sequelae (51 and 137 days from the onset [median], respectively). Results Of the 95 patients (mean age 53 years old; 40% women), 63% had acute neurological presentations, with an increased prevalence in cases of severe infections (83% vs. 52%, p<0.001). Impaired consciousness and limb weakness were more frequent in severe patients than in non-severe ones (0% vs. 49%; p<0.001, and 0% vs. 54%; p<0.001, respectively). In the most severe group (mean age 72 years old; 42% women), 83% of patients had neurological complications [cerebrovascular disease (17%), encephalopathy (82%), and neuropathy (55%)], and 92% had subacute neurological presentations [impaired consciousness (17%), higher brain dysfunction (82%), limb weakness (75%), and tremor (58%)]. Neurological sequelae were found in 83% of cases, including higher brain dysfunction (73%), limb weakness (50%), and tremor (58%). Conclusions Neurological manifestations are common in COVID-19, with the possibility of long-lasting sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(9): 1021-1023, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391832
13.
Acta Biomed ; 92(4): e2021317, 2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395628

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how the SARS-COV2 is able to affect the nervous system, the main neurological manifestation, and the treatment used, including neurorehabilitation. METHODS: Studies performed during the current year that fulfilled inclusion criteria were selected from PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, and Web of Sciences databases. The search combined the terms "Covid 19," "rehabilitation/treatment," and "neurological complications." RESULTS: The exact route by which SARS-CoV-2 can penetrate the CNS is still unknown, although a possible retrograde transynaptic pathway from peripheral nerve endings, and/or through the olfactory bulb, have been suggested. An early management of COVID-19 by a multiprofessional team is fundamental to avoid long term sequaele. Rehabilitation is recommended to improve respiratory and cardiac function, as well as to avoid long term neurological complications. CONCLUSIONS: As no specific conclusions in term of prognosis and treatment could be done, research and consensus paper are needed to provide NeuroCovid patients with the best treatment options, including neurorehabilitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Prognosis , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Med Hypotheses ; 146: 110396, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386308

ABSTRACT

We have reviewed a considerable amount of recent scientific papers relating inflammation caused by air pollution with chronic and severe medical conditions. Furthermore, there are evidences relating organ inflammation caused by not only outdoor long-term but also short-term inhaled radioisotopes contained in high polluted air or in household natural radioactive background aerosols, in addition to SARS-COV-2 attached to bioaerosols, which are related with a worst evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome patients. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by the interaction with environmental ionizing radiation contained in pollution is pointed out as a critical mechanism that predispose mainly to elder population, but not excluding young subjects, presenting previous chronic conditions of lung inflammation or neuroinflammation, which can lead to the most serious consequences.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Radioactive/adverse effects , COVID-19/etiology , Climate Change , Inflammation/etiology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aerosols , Air Microbiology , COVID-19/mortality , Causality , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Inflammasomes/radiation effects , Models, Biological , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Pneumonia/etiology
15.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102267, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377695

ABSTRACT

AIMS: 1: Describe the epidemiology and determine risk factors for COVID-19 associated mucormycosis. 2: Elaborate the clinical spectrum of Rhino-Orbital-Cerebral Mucormycosis (ROCM), pattern of neuroaxis involvement and it's radiological correlates. METHODS: Observational study. Consecutive, confirmed cases of mucormycosis (N = 55) were included. A case of mucormycosis was defined as one who had clinical and radiological features consistent with mucormycosis along with demonstration of the fungus in tissue via KOH mount/culture/histopathological examination (HPE). Data pertaining to epidemiology, risk factors, clinico-radiological features were analysed using percentage of total cases. RESULTS: Middle aged, diabetic males with recent COVID-19 infection were most affected. New onset upper jaw toothache was a striking observation in several cases. Among neurological manifestations headache, proptosis, vision loss, extraocular movement restriction; cavernous sinus, meningeal and parenchymal involvement were common. Stroke in ROCM followed a definitive pattern with watershed infarction. CONCLUSIONS: New onset upper jaw toothache and loosening of teeth should prompt an immediate search for mucormycosis in backdrop of diabetic patients with recent COVID-19 disease, aiding earlier diagnosis and treatment initiation. Neuroaxis involvement was characterized by a multitude of features pertaining to involvement of optic nerve, extraocular muscles, meninges, brain parenchyma and internal carotid artery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/etiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/etiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/microbiology , Orbit/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Prevalence , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Rhinitis/etiology , Rhinitis/microbiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors
16.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 100: 108076, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375975

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence show that Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been associated with neurological complications in the viral infections. Here in the current investigation, we intended to reveal if MMPs are potentially involved in the development of neurological symptoms in the patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The levels of MMPs, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules were evaluated in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 10 COVID-19 patients with neurological syndrome (NS) and 10 COVID-19 patients lacking NS. Monocytes from the CSF samples were treated with TNF-α and the secreted levels of MMPs were determined. RESULTS: The frequency of monocytes were increased in the CSF samples of COVID-19 patients with NS compared to patients without NS. Levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α, chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL7, CCL12, CXCL8, and CX3CL1, MMPs MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-12, and adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin were significantly increased in the CSF samples of COVID-19 patients with NS compared with patients without NS. Treatment of CSF-derived monocytes obtained from COVID-19 patients with NS caused increased production of MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-12. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of inflammatory cytokines might promote the expression of adhesion molecules on blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB), resulting in facilitation of monocyte recruitment. Increased levels of CSF chemokines might also help to the trafficking of monocytes to CSF. Inflammatory cytokines might enhance production of MMPs from monocytes, leading to disruption of BCSFB (and therefore further infiltration of inflammatory cells to CSF) in COVID-19 patients with NS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Matrix Metalloproteinases/physiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Chemokines/analysis , Cytokines/analysis , Female , Humans , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/analysis , Male , Middle Aged
17.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 41(3): 285-292, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) may present or eventually develop central nervous system and ophthalmic signs and symptoms. Varying reports have emerged regarding isolation of viral RNA from these tissue sites, as well as largely autopsy-based histopathologic descriptions of the brain and the eye in patients with COVID-19. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A primary literature search was performed in literature databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library. Keywords were used alone and in combination including the following: SARS CoV-2, COVID-19, eye, brain, central nervous system, histopathology, autopsy, ocular pathology, aqueous, tears, vitreous, neuropathology, and encephalitis. RESULTS: The reported ophthalmic pathologic and neuropathologic findings in patients with SARS-CoV-2 are varied and inconclusive regarding the role of direct viral infection vs secondary pathology. The authors own experience with autopsy neuropathology in COVID-19 patients is also described. There is a particular paucity of data regarding the histopathology of the eye. However, it is likely that the ocular surface is a potential site for inoculation and the tears a source of spread of viral particles. CONCLUSIONS: Additional large postmortem studies are needed to clarify the role of SARS-CoV in the ophthalmic and neuropathologic manifestations of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Eye/diagnostic imaging , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/etiology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics
18.
Continuum (Minneap Minn) ; 27(4): 1051-1065, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359094

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article describes the spectrum of neurologic complications associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, their underlying pathology and pathogenic mechanisms, gaps in knowledge, and current therapeutic strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: COVID-19 is the clinical syndrome caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. It can affect the entire neuraxis, and presentations in the acute phase are variable, although anosmia is a common manifestation. Encephalopathy is common in patients who are hospitalized and is often associated with multiorgan involvement. Immune-mediated encephalitis is probably underrecognized; however, viral encephalitis is rare. Other manifestations include stroke, seizures, myelitis, and peripheral neuropathies, including Guillain-Barré syndrome, which sometimes has atypical manifestations. Treatment is symptomatic, and immunotherapies have been used successfully in some patients. Long-term complications include dysautonomia, exercise intolerance, malaise, sleep disturbances, cognitive impairment, and mood disorders. SUMMARY: Neurologic manifestations of COVID-19 may occur in the acute setting and may be independent of respiratory manifestations. Immune-mediated syndromes and cerebrovascular complications are common. Large populations of patients are expected to have long-term neurologic complications of COVID-19, many of which may emerge only after recovery from the acute illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Stroke , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5822259, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358938

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 patients can present with neurological manifestations in the form of headache, dizziness, hyposmia, myalgia, peripheral neuropathy, acute cerebrovascular disease, and encephalopathy. Neurological involvement could be due to virus-induced brain hypoxia, brain infection, or immune reaction. We aim to describe the neurological presentation of COVID-19 patients and study their neuroimaging findings and disease outcome. Method: The study is a single-centre, retrospective, observational study in Sheikh Shakhbout Medical City (SSMC), Abu Dhabi, UAE. Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between March and May 2020 who presented with neuropathological features with or without respiratory manifestations of COVID-19 were enrolled. Electronic records were studied for age, sex, duration of hospitalization, detailed neurological presentation, history or documented concomitant fever and respiratory features of COVID-19, inflammatory markers, neuroimaging, progress, and disease outcome. Results: Thirty-three patients of 10 nationalities presented with neurological manifestations. Mean (range) age was 51.4 (21-86) years. Twenty-four had comorbidities, and 18 had no prior or concomitant respiratory symptoms. Ten patients presented with encephalopathy and exhibited altered behavior/sensorium: 7 presented with myositis, 8 with stroke, and 4 with seizures, and 4 had peripheral and cranial nerve involvement. The mean (average) duration of hospital stay was 11.4 days (1-38) with the longest observed in stroke patients. Fifteen patients (45%) died and 3 (9%) had residual weakness. Serum ferritin, CRP, and procalcitonin were higher in the severe disease group and correlated with risk of death. Twelve of 22 brain images showed abnormalities including haemorrhage, infarcts, small vessel ischemia, and oedema. Risk of death was higher in older age but did not differ based on the underlying neuropathology. Conclusion: COVID-19 patients who present with neurological involvement have a higher risk of mortality which is aggravated by older age and higher inflammatory markers. The type of neurological pathology does not seem to influence the risk of mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging , Pandemics , Prognosis , Respiratory Therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
J Neurol Sci ; 428: 117608, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356326

ABSTRACT

A spectrum of neurological disease associated with COVID-19 is becoming increasingly apparent. However, the mechanisms behind these manifestations remain poorly understood, significantly hindering their management. The present review subsequently attempts to address the evolving molecular, cellular and systemic mechanisms of NeuroCOVID, which we have classified as the acute and long-term neurological effects of COVID-19. We place particular emphasis on cerebrovascular, demyelinating and encephalitic presentations, which have been reported. Several mechanisms are presented, especially the involvement of a "cytokine storm". We explore the genetic and demographic factors that may predispose individuals to NeuroCOVID. The increasingly evident long-term neurological effects are also presented, including the impact of the virus on cognition, autonomic function and mental wellbeing, which represent an impending burden on already stretched healthcare services. We subsequently reinforce the need for cautious surveillance, especially for those with predisposing factors, with effective clinical phenotyping, appropriate investigation and, if possible, prompt treatment. This will be imperative to prevent downstream neurological sequelae, including those related to the long COVID phenotypes that are being increasingly recognised.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
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