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1.
Cells ; 11(15)2022 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993938

ABSTRACT

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that play a prominent role in post-transcriptional gene regulation mechanisms in the brain tuning synaptic plasticity, memory formation, and cognitive functions in physiological and pathological conditions [...].


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Depressants , MicroRNAs , Nervous System Diseases , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/genetics , Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , Neuronal Plasticity/physiology
2.
Hosp Pract (1995) ; 50(3): 189-195, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882942

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence suggest that SARS-CoV-2 invasion of the central nervous system leads to meningitis and encephalopathy syndromes. Additionally, chronic alcoholics were found to be at a higher risk of developing mental health problems and serious neurological manifestations, if exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Herein, we studied RNA seq data from alcoholics' brain tissue and COVID-19 patient's brain tissue to identify the common differentially expressed genes. RESULTS: Overlap analysis depicted the expression of seven genes (GHRL, SLN, VGF, IL1RL1, NPTX2, PDYN, and RPRML) that were significantly upregulated in both groups. Along with these, protein-protein interaction analysis revealed 10 other key molecules with strong interactions with the aforementioned genes. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together with the functional effect of these genes, we suggest a strong molecular link between COVID-19-induced severities and neurological impairment in patients suffering from alcohol abuse disorder. These findings emphasize the importance of identifying chronic alcoholism as a risk factor for developing cognitive and memory impairment in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Alcoholism/complications , Alcoholism/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/genetics , Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1507(1): 70-83, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673249

ABSTRACT

For many years, it was believed that the aging process was inevitable and that age-related diseases could not be prevented or reversed. The geroscience hypothesis, however, posits that aging is, in fact, malleable and, by targeting the hallmarks of biological aging, it is indeed possible to alleviate age-related diseases and dysfunction and extend longevity. This field of geroscience thus aims to prevent the development of multiple disorders with age, thereby extending healthspan, with the reduction of morbidity toward the end of life. Experts in the field have made remarkable advancements in understanding the mechanisms underlying biological aging and identified ways to target aging pathways using both novel agents and repurposed therapies. While geroscience researchers currently face significant barriers in bringing therapies through clinical development, proof-of-concept studies, as well as early-stage clinical trials, are underway to assess the feasibility of drug evaluation and lay a regulatory foundation for future FDA approvals in the future.


Subject(s)
Aging/genetics , Aging/metabolism , Congresses as Topic/trends , Longevity/physiology , Research Report , Autophagy/physiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Metabolomics/methods , Metabolomics/trends , Nervous System Diseases/genetics , Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Stem Cell Transplantation/trends
5.
Comput Biol Med ; 138: 104859, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433102

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) still tends to propagate and increase the occurrence of COVID-19 across the globe. The clinical and epidemiological analyses indicate the link between COVID-19 and Neurological Diseases (NDs) that drive the progression and severity of NDs. Elucidating why some patients with COVID-19 influence the progression of NDs and patients with NDs who are diagnosed with COVID-19 are becoming increasingly sick, although others are not is unclear. In this research, we investigated how COVID-19 and ND interact and the impact of COVID-19 on the severity of NDs by performing transcriptomic analyses of COVID-19 and NDs samples by developing the pipeline of bioinformatics and network-based approaches. The transcriptomic study identified the contributing genes which are then filtered with cell signaling pathway, gene ontology, protein-protein interactions, transcription factor, and microRNA analysis. Identifying hub-proteins using protein-protein interactions leads to the identification of a therapeutic strategy. Additionally, the incorporation of comorbidity interactions score enhances the identification beyond simply detecting novel biological mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 and its NDs comorbidities. By computing the semantic similarity between COVID-19 and each of the ND, we have found gene-based maximum semantic score between COVID-19 and Parkinson's disease, the minimum semantic score between COVID-19 and Multiple sclerosis. Similarly, we have found gene ontology-based maximum semantic score between COVID-19 and Huntington disease, minimum semantic score between COVID-19 and Epilepsy disease. Finally, we validated our findings using gold-standard databases and literature searches to determine which genes and pathways had previously been associated with COVID-19 and NDs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Nervous System Diseases , Computational Biology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Cell Mol Neurobiol ; 42(1): 99-107, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265525

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy is the dynamically determined co-expression of wild type (WT) inherited polymorphisms and collective time-dependent somatic mutations within individual mtDNA genomes. The temporal expression and distribution of cell-specific and tissue-specific mtDNA heteroplasmy in healthy individuals may be functionally associated with intracellular mitochondrial signaling pathways and nuclear DNA gene expression. The maintenance of endogenously regulated tissue-specific copy numbers of heteroplasmic mtDNA may represent a sensitive biomarker of homeostasis of mitochondrial dynamics, metabolic integrity, and immune competence. Myeloid cells, monocytes, macrophages, and antigen-presenting dendritic cells undergo programmed changes in mitochondrial metabolism according to innate and adaptive immunological processes. In the central nervous system (CNS), the polarization of activated microglial cells is dependent on strategically programmed changes in mitochondrial function. Therefore, variations in heteroplasmic mtDNA copy numbers may have functional consequences in metabolically competent mitochondria in innate and adaptive immune processes involving the CNS. Recently, altered mitochondrial function has been demonstrated in the progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Accordingly, our review is organized to present convergent lines of empirical evidence that potentially link expression of mtDNA heteroplasmy by functionally interactive CNS cell types to the extent and severity of acute and chronic post-COVID-19 neurological disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Heteroplasmy/genetics , Nervous System Diseases/genetics , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Immunity , Mitochondria/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Nervous System Diseases/metabolism
7.
J Inorg Biochem ; 219: 111423, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129080

ABSTRACT

The recent pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus resulted in the greatest global health crisis since the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. There is limited knowledge of whether SARS-CoV-2 is physically associated with human metalloproteins. Recently, high-confidence, experimentally supported protein-protein interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and human proteins were reported. In this work, 58 metalloproteins among these human targets have been identified by a structure-based approach. This study reveals that most human metalloproteins interact with the recently discovered SARS-CoV-2 orf8 protein, whose antibodies are one of the principal markers of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Furthermore, this work provides sufficient evidence to conclude that Zn2+ plays an important role in the interplay between the novel coronavirus and humans. First, the content of Zn-binding proteins in the involved human metalloproteome is significantly higher than that of the other metal ions. Second, a molecular linkage between the identified human Zn-binding proteome with underlying medical conditions, that might increase the risk of severe illness from the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has been found. Likely perturbations of host cellular metal homeostasis by SARS-CoV-2 infection are highlighted.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Metalloproteins/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Metalloproteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
8.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(5): 1917-1931, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009203

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus (CoV), called novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), belongs to the Coronaviridae family which was originated from the sea market in Wuhan city in China, at the end of the year 2019. COVID-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) are belonging to the same family (Coronaviridae). The current outbreak of COVID-19 creates public concern and threats all over the world and now it spreads out to more than 250 countries and territories. The researchers and scientists from all over the world are trying to find out the therapeutic strategies to abate the morbidity and mortality rate of the COVID-19 pandemic. The replication, spreading, and severity of SARS-CoV2 depend on environmental settings. Noteworthy, meteorological parameters are considered as crucial factors that affect respiratory infectious disorders, although the controversial effect of the meteorological parameter is exposed against COVID-19. Besides, COVID-19 accelerates the pathogenesis of the neurological disorders. However, the pathogenic mechanisms between COVID-19 and neurological disorders are still unclear. Hence, this review is focused on the genomics and ecology of SARS-CoV2 and elucidated the effects of climatic factors on the progression of COVID-19. This review also critically finds out the vulnerability between COVID-19 and neurological disorders based on the latest research data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Genetic Variation , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Comorbidity , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/genetics , Pandemics
9.
Pain ; 161(11): 2494-2501, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-878868

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has created a global crisis. COVID-19, the disease caused by the virus, is characterized by pneumonia, respiratory distress, and hypercoagulation and can be fatal. An early sign of infection is loss of smell, taste, and chemesthesis-loss of chemical sensation. Other neurological effects of the disease have been described, but not explained. It is now apparent that many of these neurological effects (for instance joint pain and headache) can persist for at least months after infection, suggesting a sensory neuronal involvement in persistent disease. We show that human dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons express the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 at the RNA and protein level. We also demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 and coronavirus-associated factors and receptors are broadly expressed in human DRG at the lumbar and thoracic level as assessed by bulk RNA sequencing. ACE2 mRNA is expressed by a subset of nociceptors that express MRGPRD mRNA, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 may gain access to the nervous system through entry into neurons that form free nerve endings at the outermost layers of skin and luminal organs. Therefore, DRG sensory neurons are a potential target for SARS-CoV-2 invasion of the peripheral nervous system, and viral infection of human nociceptors may cause some of the persistent neurological effects seen in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Ganglia, Spinal/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , Nociceptors/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/biosynthesis , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/biosynthesis , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Female , Ganglia, Spinal/virology , Gene Expression , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/genetics , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
10.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(15): 2361-2369, 2020 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634542

ABSTRACT

Spike protein (S protein) is the virus "key" to infect cells and is able to strongly bind to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme2 (ACE2), as has been reported. In fact, Spike structure and function is known to be highly important for cell infection as well as for entering the brain. Growing evidence indicates that different types of coronaviruses not only affect the respiratory system, but they might also invade the central nervous system (CNS). However, very little evidence has been so far reported on the presence of COVID-19 in the brain, and the potential exploitation, by this virus, of the lung to brain axis to reach neurons has not been completely understood. In this Article, we assessed the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein sequence, structure, and electrostatic potential using computational approaches. Our results showed that the S proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV are highly similar, sharing a sequence identity of 77%. In addition, we found that the SARS-CoV-2 S protein is slightly more positively charged than that of SARS-CoV since it contains four more positively charged residues and five less negatively charged residues which may lead to an increased affinity to bind to negatively charged regions of other molecules through nonspecific and specific interactions. Analysis the S protein binding to the host ACE2 receptor showed a 30% higher binding energy for SARS-CoV-2 than for the SARS-CoV S protein. These results might be useful for understanding the mechanism of cell entry, blood-brain barrier crossing, and clinical features related to the CNS infection by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Brain/virology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Nervous System Diseases/genetics , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Protein Structure, Secondary , Protein Structure, Tertiary , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
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