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1.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262739, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643279

ABSTRACT

Human T-cell Leukemia Virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is an oncovirus that may cause two main life-threatening diseases including a cancer type named Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL) and a neurological and immune disturbance known as HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP). However, a large number of the infected subjects remain as asymptomatic carriers (ACs). There is no comprehensive study that determines which dysregulated genes differentiate the pathogenesis routes toward ATLL or HAM/TSP. Therefore, two main algorithms including weighted gene co-expression analysis (WGCNA) and multi-class support vector machines (SVM) were utilized to find major gene players in each condition. WGCNA was used to find the highly co-regulated genes and multi-class SVM was employed to identify the most important classifier genes. The identified modules from WGCNA were validated in the external datasets. Furthermore, to find specific modules for ATLL and HAM/TSP, the non-preserved modules in another condition were found. In the next step, a model was constructed by multi-class SVM. The results revealed 467, 3249, and 716 classifiers for ACs, ATLL, and HAM/TSP, respectively. Eventually, the common genes between the WGCNA results and classifier genes resulted from multi-class SVM that also determined as differentially expressed genes, were identified. Through these step-wise analyses, PAIP1, BCAS2, COPS2, CTNNB1, FASLG, GTPBP1, HNRNPA1, RBBP6, TOP1, SLC9A1, JMY, PABPC3, and PBX1 were found as the possible critical genes involved in the progression of ATLL. Moreover, FBXO9, ZNF526, ERCC8, WDR5, and XRCC3 were identified as the conceivable major involved genes in the development of HAM/TSP. These genes can be proposed as specific biomarker candidates and therapeutic targets for each disease.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Regulation , Genetic Markers , HTLV-I Infections/complications , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/genetics , Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Support Vector Machine , Gene Expression Profiling , HTLV-I Infections/genetics , HTLV-I Infections/metabolism , HTLV-I Infections/virology , Humans , Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell/etiology , Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/metabolism
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 674922, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607886

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the world has been facing an outbreak of a new disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by a novel beta-coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 infection mainly affects the respiratory system. Recently, there have been some reports of extra-respiratory symptoms such as neurological manifestations in COVID-19. According to the increasing reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome following COVID-19, we mainly focused on SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome in this review. We tried to explain the possibility of a relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome and potential pathogenic mechanisms based on current and past knowledge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Virulence
3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 406, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532031

ABSTRACT

Currently, SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic and threatened many lives. Although SARS-CoV-2 mainly causes respiratory diseases, growing data indicate that SARS-CoV-2 can also invade the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) causing multiple neurological diseases, such as encephalitis, encephalopathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningitis, and skeletal muscular symptoms. Despite the increasing incidences of clinical neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2, the precise neuroinvasion mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 have not been fully established. In this review, we primarily describe the clinical neurological complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 and discuss the potential mechanisms through which SARS-CoV-2 invades the brain based on the current evidence. Finally, we summarize the experimental models were used to study SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion. These data form the basis for studies on the significance of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the brain.


Subject(s)
Brain , COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/virology
4.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 8(4)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518339

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) is a severe immune-mediated disorder. We aim to report the neurologic features of children with PIMS-TS. METHODS: We identified children presenting to a large children's hospital with PIMS-TS from March to June 2020 and performed a retrospective medical note review, identifying clinical and investigative features alongside short-term outcome of children presenting with neurologic symptoms. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients with PIMS-TS were identified, 9 (12%) had neurologic involvement: altered conciseness (3), behavioral changes (3), focal neurology deficits (2), persistent headaches (2), hallucinations (2), excessive sleepiness (1), and new-onset focal seizures (1). Four patients had cranial images abnormalities. At 3-month follow-up, 1 child had died, 1 had hemiparesis, 3 had behavioral changes, and 4 completely recovered. Systemic inflammatory and prothrombotic markers were higher in patients with neurologic involvement (mean highest CRP 267 vs 202 mg/L, p = 0.05; procalcitonin 30.65 vs 13.11 µg/L, p = 0.04; fibrinogen 7.04 vs 6.17 g/L, p = 0.07; d-dimers 19.68 vs 7.35 mg/L, p = 0.005). Among patients with neurologic involvement, these markers were higher in those without full recovery at 3 months (ferritin 2284 vs 283 µg/L, p = 0.05; d-dimers 30.34 vs 6.37 mg/L, p = 0.04). Patients with and without neurologic involvement shared similar risk factors for PIMS-TS (Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic ethnicity 78% vs 70%, obese/overweight 56% vs 42%). CONCLUSIONS: Broad neurologic features were found in 12% patients with PIMS-TS. By 3-month follow-up, half of these surviving children had recovered fully without neurologic impairment. Significantly higher systemic inflammatory markers were identified in children with neurologic involvement and in those who had not recovered fully.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Inflammation/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child Behavior Disorders/epidemiology , Child Behavior Disorders/etiology , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Inflammation/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/psychology , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/psychology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology
5.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502370

ABSTRACT

Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is an evolutionarily conserved and multifunctional protein that drives inflammation in disease. Gal-3's role in the central nervous system has been less studied than in the immune system. However, recent studies show it exacerbates Alzheimer's disease and is upregulated in a large variety of brain injuries, while loss of Gal-3 function can diminish symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. Several novel molecular pathways for Gal-3 were recently uncovered. It is a natural ligand for TREM2 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells), TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4), and IR (insulin receptor). Gal-3 regulates a number of pathways including stimulation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and modulating Wnt signalling in a context-dependent manner. Gal-3 typically acts in pathology but is now known to affect subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the healthy brain. Despite its myriad interactors, Gal-3 has surprisingly specific and important functions in regulating SVZ neurogenesis in disease. Gal-1, a similar lectin often co-expressed with Gal-3, also has profound effects on brain pathology and adult neurogenesis. Remarkably, Gal-3's carbohydrate recognition domain bears structural similarity to the SARS-CoV-2 virus spike protein necessary for cell entry. Gal-3 can be targeted pharmacologically and is a valid target for several diseases involving brain inflammation. The wealth of molecular pathways now known further suggest its modulation could be therapeutically useful.


Subject(s)
Galectin 3/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Neurogenesis , Animals , Brain/metabolism , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Movement , Galectin 3/chemistry , Galectin 3/genetics , Humans , Inflammation , Lateral Ventricles/cytology , Lateral Ventricles/growth & development , Lateral Ventricles/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , Neural Stem Cells/cytology , Signal Transduction
6.
Trop Biomed ; 38(3): 435-445, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451066

ABSTRACT

Ever since the first reported case series on SARS-CoV-2-induced neurological manifestation in Wuhan, China in April 2020, various studies reporting similar as well as diverse symptoms of COVID-19 infection relating to the nervous system were published. Since then, scientists started to uncover the mechanism as well as pathophysiological impacts it has on the current understanding of the disease. SARS-CoV-2 binds to the ACE2 receptor which is present in certain parts of the body which are responsible for regulating blood pressure and inflammation in a healthy system. Presence of the receptor in the nasal and oral cavity, brain, and blood allows entry of the virus into the body and cause neurological complications. The peripheral and central nervous system could also be invaded directly in the neurogenic or hematogenous pathways, or indirectly through overstimulation of the immune system by cytokines which may lead to autoimmune diseases. Other neurological implications such as hypoxia, anosmia, dysgeusia, meningitis, encephalitis, and seizures are important symptoms presented clinically in COVID-19 patients with or without the common symptoms of the disease. Further, patients with higher severity of the SARS-CoV-2 infection are also at risk of retaining some neurological complications in the long-run. Treatment of such severe hyperinflammatory conditions will also be discussed, as well as the risks they may pose to the progression of the disease. For this review, articles pertaining information on the neurological manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection were gathered from PubMed and Google Scholar using the search keywords "SARS-CoV-2", "COVID-19", and "neurological dysfunction". The findings of the search were filtered, and relevant information were included.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Central Nervous System/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Peripheral Nervous System/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anosmia/virology , Central Nervous System/virology , Dysgeusia/virology , Encephalitis, Viral/virology , Humans , Meningitis, Viral/virology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/virology
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 711741, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430696

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is widespread worldwide and seriously affects the daily life and health of humans. Countries around the world are taking necessary measures to curb the spread. However, COVID-19 patients often have at least one organ complication and sequelae in addition to respiratory symptoms. Controlling the epidemic is only a phased victory, and the complication and sequelae of COVID-19 will need more attention in the post-epidemic era. We collected general information from over 1000 articles published in 2020 after the COVID-19 outbreak and systematically analyzed the complication and sequelae associated with eight major systems in COVID-19 patients caused by ACE2 intervention in the RAS regulatory axis. The autoimmune response induced by 2019-nCoV attacks and damages the normal tissues and organs of the body. Our research will help medical workers worldwide address COVID-19 complication and sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Endocrine System Diseases/pathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Urologic Diseases/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Disease Progression , Endocrine System Diseases/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Urologic Diseases/virology
8.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390541

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 presents with a wide range of clinical neurological manifestations. It has been recognized that SARS-CoV-2 infection affects both the central and peripheral nervous system, leading to smell and taste disturbances; acute ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease; encephalopathies and seizures; and causes most surviving patients to have long lasting neurological symptoms. Despite this, typical neuropathological features associated with the infection have still not been identified. Studies of post-mortem examinations of the cerebral cortex are obtained with difficulty due to laboratory safety concerns. In addition, they represent cases with different neurological symptoms, age or comorbidities, thus a larger number of brain autoptic data from multiple institutions would be crucial. Histopathological findings described here are aimed to increase the current knowledge on neuropathology of COVID-19 patients. We report post-mortem neuropathological findings of ten COVID-19 patients. A wide range of neuropathological lesions were seen. The cerebral cortex of all patients showed vascular changes, hyperemia of the meninges and perivascular inflammation in the cerebral parenchyma with hypoxic neuronal injury. Perivascular lymphocytic inflammation of predominantly CD8-positive T cells mixed with CD68-positive macrophages, targeting the disrupted vascular wall in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and pons were seen. Our findings support recent reports highlighting a role of microvascular injury in COVID-19 neurological manifestations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cerebral Cortex/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , Brain Diseases/pathology , Brain Diseases/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Cerebral Cortex/virology , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Macrophages/pathology , Male , Microvessels/pathology , Microvessels/virology , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
9.
Brain Pathol ; 31(6): e13013, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354468

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), the new coronavirus responsible for the pandemic disease in the last year, is able to affect the central nervous system (CNS). Compared with its well-known pulmonary tropism and respiratory complications, little has been studied about SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism and pathogenesis of its neurological manifestations, but also about postmortem histopathological findings in the CNS of patients who died from COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). We present a systematic review, carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review standards, of the neuropathological features of COVID-19. We found 21 scientific papers, the majority of which refer to postmortem examinations; the total amount of cases is 197. Hypoxic changes are the most frequently reported alteration of brain tissue, followed by ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions and reactive astrogliosis and microgliosis. These findings do not seem to be specific to SARS-CoV-2 infection, they are more likely because of systemic inflammation and coagulopathy caused by COVID-19. More studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis and to detect other possible alterations of neural tissue. Brain examination of patients dead from COVID-19 should be included in a protocol of standardized criteria to perform autopsies on these subjects.


Subject(s)
Brain/physiology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Brain/physiopathology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System/physiology , Central Nervous System/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Pandemics
10.
Immunol Res ; 69(6): 553-557, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345196

ABSTRACT

The persistence of neurological symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as the presence of late axonal damage, is still unknown. We performed extensive systemic and neurological follow-up evaluations in 107 out of 193 consecutive patients admitted to the COVID-19 medical unit, University Hospital of Verona, Italy between March and June 2020. We analysed serum neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels in all cases including a subgroup (n = 29) of patients with available onset samples. Comparisons between clinical and biomarker data were then performed. Neurological symptoms were still present in a significant number (n = 49) of patients over the follow-up. The most common reported symptoms were hyposmia (n = 11), fatigue (n = 28), myalgia (n = 14), and impaired memory (n = 11) and were more common in cases with severe acute COVID-19. Follow-up serum NfL values (15.2 pg/mL, range 2.4-62.4) were within normal range in all except 5 patients and did not differentiate patients with vs without persistent neurological symptoms. In patients with available onset and follow-up samples, a significant (p < 0.001) decrease of NfL levels was observed and was more evident in patients with a severe acute disease. Despite the common persistence of neurological symptoms, COVID-19 survivors do not show active axonal damage, which seems a peculiar feature of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Axons/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/pathology , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/pathology , Anosmia/virology , Axons/virology , Disease Progression , Fatigue/pathology , Fatigue/virology , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Memory Disorders/pathology , Memory Disorders/virology , Middle Aged , Myalgia/pathology , Myalgia/virology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Neurofilament Proteins/blood , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Arch Dis Child ; 107(2): 175-179, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338847

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the optic nerve and macular parameters of children who recovered from COVID-19 compared with healthy children using optical coherence tomography (OCT). DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid. PATIENTS: Children between 6 and 18 years old who recovered from COVID-19 with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and historical controls were included. INTERVENTIONS: All patients underwent an ophthalmological examination, including macular and optic nerve OCT. Demographic data, medical history and COVID-19 symptoms were noted. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, macular retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, macular ganglion cell layer thickness and retinal thickness. RESULTS: 90 patients were included: 29 children who recovered from COVID-19 and 61 controls. Patients with COVID-19 presented an increase in global peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (mean difference 7.7; 95% CI 3.4 to 12.1), temporal superior (mean difference 11.0; 95% CI 3.3 to 18.6), temporal inferior (mean difference 15.6; 95% CI 6.5 to 24.7) and nasal (mean difference 9.8; 95% CI 2.9 to 16.7) sectors. Macular retinal nerve fibre layer analysis showed decreased thickness in the nasal outer (p=0.011) and temporal inner (p=0.036) sectors in patients with COVID-19, while macular ganglion cell layer thickness increased in these sectors (p=0.001 and p=0.015, respectively). No differences in retinal thickness were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Children with recent history of COVID-19 present significant changes in peripapillary and macular OCT analyses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nerve Fibers/pathology , Optic Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Retinal Ganglion Cells/pathology , Adolescent , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Cohort Studies , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Macula Lutea/cytology , Macula Lutea/diagnostic imaging , Macula Lutea/immunology , Macula Lutea/pathology , Male , Nerve Fibers/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Optic Nerve/immunology , Optic Nerve/pathology , Organ Size , Retinal Ganglion Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tomography, Optical Coherence/statistics & numerical data
12.
J Mol Cell Biol ; 13(10): 705-711, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319184

ABSTRACT

The prevailing coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has presented some neurological manifestations including hyposmia, hypogeusia, headache, stroke, encephalitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, and some neuropsychiatric disorders. Although several cell types in the brain express angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), the main SARS-CoV-2 receptor, and other related proteins, it remains unclear whether the observed neurological manifestations are attributed to virus invasion into the brain or just comorbidities caused by dysregulation of systemic factors. Here, we briefly review the neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2, summarize recent evidence for the potential neurotropism of SARS-CoV-2, and discuss the potential mechanisms of COVID-19-associated neurological diseases.


Subject(s)
Brain/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Brain/immunology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
13.
Fluids Barriers CNS ; 18(1): 32, 2021 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311251

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2, a coronavirus (CoV), is known to cause acute respiratory distress syndrome, and a number of non-respiratory complications, particularly in older male patients with prior health conditions, such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension. These prior health conditions are associated with vascular dysfunction, and the CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19) complications include multiorgan failure and neurological problems. While the main route of entry into the body is inhalation, this virus has been found in many tissues, including the choroid plexus and meningeal vessels, and in neurons and CSF. MAIN BODY: We reviewed SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19, ACE2 distribution and beneficial effects, the CNS vascular barriers, possible mechanisms by which the virus enters the brain, outlined prior health conditions (obesity, hypertension and diabetes), neurological COVID-19 manifestation and the aging cerebrovascualture. The overall aim is to provide the general reader with a breadth of information on this type of virus and the wide distribution of its main receptor so as to better understand the significance of neurological complications, uniqueness of the brain, and the pre-existing medical conditions that affect brain. The main issue is that there is no sound evidence for large flux of SARS-CoV-2 into brain, at present, compared to its invasion of the inhalation pathways. CONCLUSIONS: While SARS-CoV-2 is detected in brains from severely infected patients, it is unclear on how it gets there. There is no sound evidence of SARS-CoV-2 flux into brain to significantly contribute to the overall outcomes once the respiratory system is invaded by the virus. The consensus, based on the normal route of infection and presence of SARS-CoV-2 in severely infected patients, is that the olfactory mucosa is a possible route into brain. Studies are needed to demonstrate flux of SARS-CoV-2 into brain, and its replication in the parenchyma to demonstrate neuroinvasion. It is possible that the neurological manifestations of COVID-19 are a consequence of mainly cardio-respiratory distress and multiorgan failure. Understanding potential SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion pathways could help to better define the non-respiratory neurological manifestation of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Prognosis , Risk Factors
14.
J Neurosci ; 41(25): 5338-5349, 2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282334

ABSTRACT

Clinical reports suggest that the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus-2 (CoV-2) has not only taken millions of lives, but has also created a major crisis of neurologic complications that persist even after recovery from the disease. Autopsies of patients confirm the presence of the coronaviruses in the CNS, especially in the brain. The invasion and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the CNS is not clearly defined, but, because the endocytic pathway has become an important target for the development of therapeutic strategies for COVID-19, it is necessary to understand endocytic processes in the CNS. In addition, mitochondria and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways play a critical role in the antiviral immune response, and may also be critical for endocytic activity. Furthermore, dysfunctions of mitochondria and mTOR signaling pathways have been associated with some high-risk conditions such as diabetes and immunodeficiency for developing severe complications observed in COVID-19 patients. However, the role of these pathways in SARS-CoV-2 infection and spread are largely unknown. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 entry into the CNS and how mitochondria and mTOR pathways might regulate endocytic vesicle-mitochondria interactions and dynamics during SARS-CoV-2 infection. The mechanisms that plausibly account for severe neurologic complications with COVID-19 and potential treatments with Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs targeting mitochondria and the mTOR pathways are also addressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Neurons/virology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mitochondria/metabolism , Mitochondria/virology , Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Neurons/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
15.
Brain Pathol ; 31(5): e12997, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273078

ABSTRACT

The actual role of SARS-CoV-2 in brain damage remains controversial due to lack of matched controls. We aim to highlight to what extent is neuropathology determined by SARS-CoV-2 or by pre-existing conditions. Findings of 9 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and 6 matched non-COVID controls (mean age 79 y/o) were compared. Brains were analyzed through immunohistochemistry to detect SARS-CoV-2, lymphocytes, astrocytes, endothelium, and microglia. A semi-quantitative scoring was applied to grade microglial activation. Thal-Braak stages and the presence of small vessel disease were determined in all cases. COVID-19 cases had a relatively short clinical course (0-32 days; mean: 10 days), and did not undergo mechanical ventilation. Five patients with neurocognitive disorder had delirium. All COVID-19 cases showed non-SARS-CoV-2-specific changes including hypoxic-agonal alterations, and a variable degree of neurodegeneration and/or pre-existent SVD. The neuroinflammatory picture was dominated by ameboid CD68 positive microglia, while only scant lymphocytic presence and very few traces of SARS-CoV-2 were detected. Microglial activation in the brainstem was significantly greater in COVID-19 cases (p = 0.046). Instead, microglial hyperactivation in the frontal cortex and hippocampus was clearly associated to AD pathology (p = 0.001), regardless of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. In COVID-19 cases complicated by delirium (all with neurocognitive disorders), there was a significant enhancement of microglia in the hippocampus (p = 0.048). Although higher in cases with both Alzheimer's pathology and COVID-19, cortical neuroinflammation is not related to COVID-19 per se but mostly to pre-existing neurodegeneration. COVID-19 brains seem to manifest a boosting of innate immunity with microglial reinforcement, and adaptive immunity suppression with low number of brain lymphocytes probably related to systemic lymphopenia. Thus, no neuropathological evidence of SARS-CoV-2-specific encephalitis is detectable. The microglial hyperactivation in the brainstem, and in the hippocampus of COVID-19 patients with delirium, appears as a specific topographical phenomenon, and probably represents the neuropathological basis of the "COVID-19 encephalopathic syndrome" in the elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Dementia/virology , Microglia/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Astrocytes/pathology , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/psychology , Case-Control Studies , Dementia/pathology , Dementia/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 653786, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226977

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Although acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is a rare neurological condition (1.34-4.6 cases per million/year) COVID-19-associated ATM cases have occurred during the pandemic. Case-finding methods: We report a patient from Panama with SARS-CoV-2 infection complicated by ATM and present a comprehensive clinical review of 43 patients with COVID-19-associated ATM from 21 countries published from March 2020 to January 2021. In addition, 3 cases of ATM were reported as serious adverse events during the clinical trials of the COVID-19 vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222). Results: All patients had typical features of ATM with acute onset of paralysis, sensory level and sphincter deficits due to spinal cord lesions demonstrated by imaging. There were 23 males (53%) and 20 females (47%) ranging from ages 21- to 73- years-old (mean age, 49 years), with two peaks at 29 and 58 years, excluding 3 pediatric cases. The main clinical manifestations were quadriplegia (58%) and paraplegia (42%). MRI reports were available in 40 patients; localized ATM lesions affected ≤3 cord segments (12 cases, 30%) at cervical (5 cases) and thoracic cord levels (7 cases); 28 cases (70%) had longitudinally-extensive ATM (LEATM) involving ≥4 spinal cord segments (cervicothoracic in 18 cases and thoracolumbar-sacral in 10 patients). Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) occurred in 8 patients, mainly women (67%) ranging from 27- to 64-years-old. Three ATM patients also had blindness from myeloneuritis optica (MNO) and two more also had acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN). Conclusions: We found ATM to be an unexpectedly frequent neurological complication of COVID-19. Most cases (68%) had a latency of 10 days to 6 weeks that may indicate post-infectious neurological complications mediated by the host's response to the virus. In 32% a brief latency (15 hours to 5 days) suggested a direct neurotropic effect of SARS-CoV-2. The occurrence of 3 reported ATM adverse effects among 11,636 participants in the AZD1222 vaccine trials is extremely high considering a worldwide incidence of 0.5/million COVID-19-associated ATM cases found in this report. The pathogenesis of ATM remains unknown, but it is conceivable that SARS-CoV-2 antigens -perhaps also present in the AZD1222 COVID-19 vaccine or its chimpanzee adenovirus adjuvant- may induce immune mechanisms leading to the myelitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Myelitis, Transverse/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myelitis, Transverse/diagnosis , Myelitis, Transverse/pathology , Myelitis, Transverse/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spinal Cord/diagnostic imaging , Spinal Cord/pathology , Spinal Cord/physiopathology , Viral Tropism , Young Adult
17.
Folia Neuropathol ; 59(1): 1-16, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222274

ABSTRACT

This article constitutes a summary of the knowledge on the involvement of the nervous system in COVID-19, concerning its general pathobiology, clinical presentation and neuropathological features as well as the future directions of investigation. Variable definitions, selection bias, mainly retrospective analyses of hospitalized patients and different methodologies are implemented in the research of this new disease. Central nervous system (CNS) pathology presents most frequently features of non-specific neuroinflammation with microglial activation and lymphoid infiltrations, ischemic/hypoxic encephalopathy, acute cerebrovascular disease, and microthrombi. Some brain specimens remain unaffected or show only non-specific changes of the critical status. Interpretations of the neuropathological findings are not always balanced in a clinical context and discrepant in consequence. Designing of longitudinal neuropathological studies, more frequent autopsies, and building of COVID-19 brain banks, together with neuroimaging analyses is essential. Genetic predispositions or immunological factors corresponding to the disease profile as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or serum biomarkers of COVID-19, the impact of different virus variants and influence of the therapy need to be identified. The mechanisms causing neuroCOVID and cognitive impairment - whether they are infectious, toxic, vascular or metabolic - create other aspects under research. There are also many existential questions about post-COVID and delayed sequelae of the infection. The fight with pandemic is a challenge for the global society, with neuropathologists and neuroscientists as important allies in struggle for understanding and conquering COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Time Factors
18.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 1983-1998, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217384

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection manifest mainly respiratory symptoms. However, clinical observations frequently identified neurological symptoms and neuropsychiatric disorders related to COVID-19 (Neuro-SARS2). Accumulated robust evidence indicates that Neuro-SARS2 may play an important role in aggravating the disease severity and mortality. Understanding the neuropathogenesis and cellular mechanisms underlying Neuro-SARS2 is crucial for both basic research and clinical practice to establish effective strategies for early detection/diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. In this review, we comprehensively examine current evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in various neural cells including neurons, microglia/macrophages, astrocytes, pericytes/endothelial cells, ependymocytes/choroid epithelial cells, and neural stem/progenitor cells. Although significant progress has been made in studying Neuro-SARS2, much remains to be learned about the neuroinvasive routes (transneuronal and hematogenous) of the virus and the cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying the development/progression of this disease. Future and ongoing studies require the establishment of more clinically relevant and suitable neural cell models using human induced pluripotent stem cells, brain organoids, and postmortem specimens.


Subject(s)
Brain/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Neuroglia/virology , Neurons/virology , Animals , Brain/pathology , Cell Line , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Neural Stem Cells , Neuroglia/pathology , Neurons/pathology
19.
Curr Opin Neurol ; 34(3): 417-422, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183108

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the course of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, it has become increasingly clear that there is a high prevalence of neurological complications in people infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). RECENT FINDINGS: Studies of central nervous system (CNS) tissue in brain model systems and from adults with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection have begun to uncover potential mechanisms for neurological damage during COVID-19. These studies suggest that direct viral invasion of the CNS occurs in a subset of cases but does not frequently cause overt viral meningoencephalitis. Vascular abnormalities including microvascular thrombi and endothelial activation, as well as parainfectious processes, including CNS specific immune responses, may contribute to neurological symptoms during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. SUMMARY: Neuroimmune perturbations and vascular inflammation observed in people with COVID-19 may warrant investigation of immune-modulating interventions to ameliorate neurological complications associated with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. These therapies may also impact the trajectory of potential long-term complications of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Humans , Immunotherapy , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Vasculitis/etiology , Vasculitis/immunology
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