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1.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 157: 83-91, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325209

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Network meta-analysis (NMA) is becoming a popular statistical tool for analyzing a network of evidence comparing more than two interventions. A particular advantage of NMA over pairwise meta-analysis is its ability to simultaneously compare multiple interventions including comparisons not previously trialed together, permitting intervention hierarchies to be created. Our aim was to develop a novel graphical display to aid interpretation of NMA to clinicians and decision-makers that incorporates ranking of interventions. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Current literature was searched, scrutinized, and provided direction for developing the novel graphical display. Ranking results were often found to be misinterpreted when presented alone and, to aid interpretation and effective communication to inform optimal decision-making, need to be displayed alongside other important aspects of the analysis including the evidence networks and relative intervention effect estimates. RESULTS: Two new ranking visualizations were developed-the 'Litmus Rank-O-Gram' and the 'Radial SUCRA' plot-and embedded within a novel multipanel graphical display programmed within the MetaInsight application, with user feedback gained. CONCLUSION: This display was designed to improve the reporting, and facilitate a holistic understanding, of NMA results. We believe uptake of the display would lead to better understanding of complex results and improve future decision-making.


Subject(s)
Computer Graphics , Data Visualization , Network Meta-Analysis , Data Interpretation, Statistical
2.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 22(1): 410-418, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319905

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based reassurances addressing vaccine-related concerns are crucial to promoting primary vaccination, completion of the primary series, and booster vaccination. By summarizing and comparing the reactogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines authorized by the European Medicines Agency, this analysis aims to support in-formed decision-making by the lay public and help overcome vaccine hesitancy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A systematic literature review identified 24 records reporting solicited adverse events for AZD1222, BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, NVX-Cov2373, and VLA2001 in individuals aged 16 or older. Network meta-analyses were conducted for each solicited adverse events reported for at least two vaccines that were not compared head-to-head but could be connected through a common comparator. RESULTS: A total of 56 adverse events were investigated through network meta-analyses within a Bayesian framework with random-effects models. Overall, the two mRNA vaccines were found to be the most reactogenic vaccines. VLA2001 had the highest likelihood of being the least reactogenic vaccine after the first and second vaccine dose, especially for systemic adverse events after the first dose. CONCLUSIONS: The reduced chance of experiencing an adverse event with some COVID-19 vaccines may help to overcome vaccine hesitancy in population groups with concerns about the side effects of vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Network Meta-Analysis , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/prevention & control
3.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1144420, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295946

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous studies have confirmed that both affect and emotion regulation strategies are closely associated with psychological capital (PsyCap) and resilience. These factors are assumed to buffer the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health, especially among males. However, these interactions have not been closely examined to date. To fill this gap, this paper explores the dimension-level relationships of these psychological constructs among Chinese males during the late stage of the COVID-19 pandemic and identified critical bridge dimensions using network analysis. Methods: A total of 1,490 Chinese males aged 21-51 years completed self-report scales assessing emotion regulation strategies, affect, PsyCap, and psychological resilience. Two regularized partial correlation networks, namely the affect and emotion regulation-PsyCap network and the affect and emotion regulation-psychological resilience network, were then constructed to examine links between the dimensions of these constructs. The bridge expected influence (BEI) index was also calculated for each node to identify important bridge nodes. Results: Positive affect, negative affect, cognitive reappraisal, and expressive suppression showed distinct and complex links to various dimensions of PsyCap or psychological resilience. In both networks, positive affect, cognitive reappraisal, and negative affect were identified as critical bridge nodes, with the first two having positive BEI values and the third having a negative value. Conclusion: The findings elucidate the specific role of the dimensions of emotion regulation or affect in relation to PsyCap and psychological resilience, which facilitates further understanding of the mechanisms underlying these interrelationships. These findings also provide implications for developing effective intervention strategies to increase PsyCap and psychological resilience.


Subject(s)
Affect , COVID-19 , East Asian People , Emotional Regulation , Men , Pandemics , Resilience, Psychological , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , East Asian People/psychology , Network Meta-Analysis , Men/psychology , Young Adult/psychology , Adult/psychology , Middle Aged/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological
4.
Psychol Med ; 53(3): 614-624, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275572

ABSTRACT

Several in-person and remote delivery formats of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for panic disorder are available, but up-to-date and comprehensive evidence on their comparative efficacy and acceptability is lacking. Our aim was to evaluate the comparative efficacy and acceptability of all CBT delivery formats to treat panic disorder. To answer our question we performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL, from inception to 1st January 2022. Pairwise and network meta-analyses were conducted using a random-effects model. Confidence in the evidence was assessed using Confidence in Network Meta-Analysis (CINeMA). The protocol was published in a peer-reviewed journal and in PROSPERO. We found a total of 74 trials with 6699 participants. Evidence suggests that face-to-face group [standardised mean differences (s.m.d.) -0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.87 to -0.07; CINeMA = moderate], face-to-face individual (s.m.d. -0.43, 95% CI -0.70 to -0.15; CINeMA = Moderate), and guided self-help (SMD -0.42, 95% CI -0.77 to -0.07; CINeMA = low), are superior to treatment as usual in terms of efficacy, whilst unguided self-help is not (SMD -0.21, 95% CI -0.58 to -0.16; CINeMA = low). In terms of acceptability (i.e. all-cause discontinuation from the trial) CBT delivery formats did not differ significantly from each other. Our findings are clear in that there are no efficacy differences between CBT delivered as guided self-help, or in the face-to-face individual or group format in the treatment of panic disorder. No CBT delivery format provided high confidence in the evidence at the CINeMA evaluation.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Panic Disorder , Humans , Panic Disorder/therapy , Network Meta-Analysis , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Health Behavior , Waiting Lists , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
5.
BMC Med ; 21(1): 110, 2023 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global spread of COVID-19 created an explosion in rapid tests with results in < 1 hour, but their relative performance characteristics are not fully understood yet. Our aim was to determine the most sensitive and specific rapid test for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Design: Rapid review and diagnostic test accuracy network meta-analysis (DTA-NMA). ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies assessing rapid antigen and/or rapid molecular test(s) to detect SARS-CoV-2 in participants of any age, suspected or not with SARS-CoV-2 infection. INFORMATION SOURCES: Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, up to September 12, 2021. OUTCOME MEASURES: Sensitivity and specificity of rapid antigen and molecular tests suitable for detecting SARS-CoV-2. Data extraction and risk of bias assessment: Screening of literature search results was conducted by one reviewer; data abstraction was completed by one reviewer and independently verified by a second reviewer. Risk of bias was not assessed in the included studies. DATA SYNTHESIS: Random-effects meta-analysis and DTA-NMA. RESULTS: We included 93 studies (reported in 88 articles) relating to 36 rapid antigen tests in 104,961 participants and 23 rapid molecular tests in 10,449 participants. Overall, rapid antigen tests had a sensitivity of 0.75 (95% confidence interval 0.70-0.79) and specificity of 0.99 (0.98-0.99). Rapid antigen test sensitivity was higher when nasal or combined samples (e.g., combinations of nose, throat, mouth, or saliva samples) were used, but lower when nasopharyngeal samples were used, and in those classified as asymptomatic at the time of testing. Rapid molecular tests may result in fewer false negatives than rapid antigen tests (sensitivity: 0.93, 0.88-0.96; specificity: 0.98, 0.97-0.99). The tests with the highest sensitivity and specificity estimates were the Xpert Xpress rapid molecular test by Cepheid (sensitivity: 0.99, 0.83-1.00; specificity: 0.97, 0.69-1.00) among the 23 commercial rapid molecular tests and the COVID-VIRO test by AAZ-LMB (sensitivity: 0.93, 0.48-0.99; specificity: 0.98, 0.44-1.00) among the 36 rapid antigen tests we examined. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid molecular tests were associated with both high sensitivity and specificity, while rapid antigen tests were mainly associated with high specificity, according to the minimum performance requirements by WHO and Health Canada. Our rapid review was limited to English, peer-reviewed published results of commercial tests, and study risk of bias was not assessed. A full systematic review is required. REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021289712.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Network Meta-Analysis , Bias , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Sensitivity and Specificity , COVID-19 Testing
6.
J Evid Based Med ; 15(3): 245-262, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284386

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Several vaccines showed a good safety profile and significant efficacy against COVID-19. Moreover, in the absence of direct head to head comparison between COVID-19 vaccines, a network meta-analysis that indirectly compares between them is needed. METHODS: Databases PubMed, CENTRAL, medRxiv, and clinicaltrials.gov were searched. Studies were included if they were placebo-controlled clinical trials and reported the safety profile and/or effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials and the Revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for nonrandomized trials. RESULTS: Forty-nine clinical trials that included 421,173 participants and assessed 28 vaccines were included in this network meta-analysis. The network meta-analysis showed that Pfizer is the most effective in preventing COVID-19 infection whereas the Sputnik Vaccine was the most effective in preventing severe COVID-19 infection. In terms of the local and systemic side, the Sinopharm and V-01 vaccines were the safest. CONCLUSION: We found that almost all of the vaccines included in this study crossed the threshold of 50% efficacy. However, some of them did not reach the previously mentioned threshold against the B.1.351 variant while the remainder have not yet investigated vaccine efficacy against this variant. Since each vaccine has its own strong and weak points, we strongly advocate continued vaccination efforts in individualized manner that recommend the best vaccine for each group in the community which is abundantly required to save lives and to avert the emergence of future variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Network Meta-Analysis , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Am J Chin Med ; 50(4): 883-925, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264676

ABSTRACT

To compare the efficacy of different traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapies for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and provide a higher level of evidence in the form of network meta-analysis (NMA) and systematic review. We searched the studies from the following databases: CNKI, VIP, WanFang, SinoMed, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science from the establishment of the respective database until December 2021. Relevant studies were screened according to the pre-established inclusion criteria. The quality of the included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) were assessed using the risk of bias (ROB) tool and the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS), respectively. R software 4.1.1 and Stata 13.1 were used for data analysis and mapping. A total of 34 studies were included in this network meta-analysis that tested 24 TCM interventions and included 3443 patients. Using cluster analysis of time to negative SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the length of hospital stay and composite events, we found that Jinyinhua oral liquid (JYH, 120 mL) + conventional Western medicine (CWM) has the highest SUCRA value at 88.64%, 85.61% and 84.24%. The traditional meta-analysis results revealed that Qingfei Paidu decoction + CWM were significantly different compared with CWM alone for the score of clinical symptoms (MD =-0.75, 95% CI [-1.04, -0.47]). Nine studies reported 57 adverse reactions (ADRs) and 3 adverse events (ADEs) in TCM + CWM groups, and eight studies reported 33 ADRs and 8 ADEs in CWM groups. In conclusion, the combination of TCM and CWM approaches may enhance the efficacy of CWM in COVID-19 patients. Based on the NMA result, JYH (120 mL) + CWM may be a more effective treatment and deserves further investigation. However, the differences in many comparisons between TCM interventions did not reach statistical significance; therefore, further high-quality studies are required to validate these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Network Meta-Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
8.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(9): e683-e692, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260057

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Specific treatments targeting Ebola virus are crucial in managing Ebola virus disease. To support the development of clinical practice guidelines on medications for Ebola virus disease, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of therapies for patients with Ebola virus disease. METHODS: In this systematic review and network meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, Global Health, African Index Medicus, World Health Organization Global Index Medicus, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, ClinicalTrials.gov, Epistemonikos, bioRxiv, medRxiv, and SSRN without language restrictions for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published between database inception and Jan 1, 2022, comparing at least one therapeutic agent for Ebola virus disease against standard care or another therapeutic agent for Ebola virus disease. Two reviewers assessed study eligibility and extracted summary data independently using a standardised form. Our outcomes of interest were mortality, adverse maternal outcomes, risk of onward transmission, duration of admission to a health-care facility, functional status after Ebola virus disease, serious adverse events from medication, adverse perinatal outcomes, time to symptom resolution, and time to viral clearance. We did frequentist network meta-analyses to estimate the effect of all interventions and applied the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach to rate the certainty of the evidence. We registered the protocol with PROSPERO, CRD42022296539. FINDINGS: We identified 7840 records through database searches, of which two RCTs with a total of 753 patients proved eligible. Only data on mortality, the duration of admission, serious adverse events, and time to viral clearance were available for meta-analysis. Compared with standard care, REGN-EB3 (relative risk [RR] 0·40, 95% CI 0·18 to 0·89; moderate certainty) and mAb114 (0·42, 0·19 to 0·93; moderate certainty) probably reduce mortality. Whether ZMapp (0·60, 0·28 to 1·26; very low certainty) and remdesivir (0·64, 0·29 to 1·39; very low certainty) reduce mortality compared with standard care is uncertain. With high certainty, REGN-EB3 reduces mortality compared with ZMapp (0·67, 0·52 to 0·88) and remdesivir (0·63, 0·49 to 0·82). With high certainty, mAb114 also reduces mortality compared with ZMapp (0·71, 0·55 to 0·91) and remdesivir (0·66, 0·52 to 0·84). Compared with standard care, REGN-EB3, mAb114, ZMapp, and remdesivir might have little or no effect on the time to viral clearance (mean difference ranged from -0·25 days to -1·14 days; low certainty). ZMapp might reduce the duration of admission compared with standard care (mean difference -2·02 days, 95% CI -4·05 to 0·01; low certainty). Findings for all comparisons suggested that there might be little or no difference in the prevalence of serious adverse events, but certainty was low or very low in all comparisons but one. INTERPRETATION: REGN-EB3 and mAb114 separately reduce mortality compared with ZMapp, remdesivir, or standard care in patients with Ebola virus disease. These findings suggest that health-care workers should prioritise the use of REGN-EB3 and mAb114 for patients with Ebola virus disease during future outbreaks. FUNDING: WHO.


Subject(s)
Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Drug Combinations , Female , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/drug therapy , Humans , Network Meta-Analysis , Pregnancy
9.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 136(1): 24-33, 2023 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on the immunogenicity and safety of heterologous immunization schedules are inconsistent. This study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of homologous and heterologous immunization schedules. METHODS: Multiple databases with relevant studies were searched with an end date of October 31, 2021, and a website including a series of Coronavirus disease 2019 studies was examined for studies before March 31, 2022. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared different heterologous and homologous regimens among adults that reported immunogenicity and safety outcomes were reviewed. Primary outcomes included neutralizing antibodies against the original strain and serious adverse events (SAEs). A network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted using a random-effects model. RESULTS: In all, 11 RCTs were included in the systematic review, and nine were ultimately included in the NMA. Among participants who received two doses of CoronaVac, another dose of mRNA or a non-replicating viral vector vaccine resulted in a significantly higher level of neutralizing antibody than a third CoronaVac 600 sino unit (SU); a dose of BNT162b2 induced the highest geometric mean ratio (GMR) of 15.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.53-24.39. Following one dose of BNT162b2 vaccination, a dose of mRNA-1273 generated a significantly higher level of neutralizing antibody than BNT162b2 alone (GMR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.06-1.64), NVX-CoV2373 (GMR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.16-2.21), or ChAdOx1 (GMR = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.25-2.59). Following one dose of ChAdOx1, a dose of mRNA-1273 was also more effective for improving antibody levels than ChAdOx1 (GMR = 11.09; 95% CI: 8.36-14.71) or NVX-CoV2373 (GMR = 2.87; 95% CI: 1.08-3.91). No significant difference in the risk for SAEs was found in any comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Relative to vaccination with two doses of CoronaVac, a dose of BNT162b2 as a booster substantially enhances immunogenicity reactions and has a relatively acceptable risk for SAEs relative to other vaccines. For primary vaccination, schedules including mRNA vaccines induce a greater immune response. However, the comparatively higher risk for local and systemic adverse events introduced by mRNA vaccines should be noted. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ ; No. CRD42021278149.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adult , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Network Meta-Analysis , Immunization Schedule , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral
10.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273733, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214750

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the European Association of Urology (EAU) recommended that courses of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy lasting more than 1 year could be safely terminated for patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Thus, we conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis according to EAU's COVID-19 recommendations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review was performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines. We conducted a network meta-analysis of recurrence rate in patients with NMIBC receiving induction therapy (M0) and those receiving maintenance therapy lasting 1 year (M1) and more than 1 year (M2). RESULTS: Nineteen studies of 3,957 patients were included for the network meta-analysis. In a node-split forest plot using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) modeling, there were no differences between the M1 and M2 groups in recurrence rate [odds ratio (OR) 0.95 (0.73-1.2)]. However, recurrence rate in the M0 group was higher than that in the M1 [OR 1.9 (1.5-2.5)] and M2 [OR 2.0 (1.7-2.4)] groups. P-score tests using frequentist inference to rank the treatments in the network demonstrated that the therapy used in the M2 group (P-score 0.8701) was superior to that used in the M1 (P-score 0.6299) and M0 groups (P-score 0). In rank-probability tests using MCMC modeling, the M2 group showed the highest rank, followed by the M1 and M0 groups. CONCLUSION: In the network meta-analysis, there were no differences between those receiving BCG maintenance therapies in terms of recurrence rate. In the rank tests, therapy lasting more than 1-year appears to be most effective. During the COVID-19 pandemic, 1-year maintenance therapy can be used, but after the COVID-19 pandemic, therapy lasting more than 1-year could be beneficial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium bovis , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Urology , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Administration, Intravesical , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , Bayes Theorem , Duration of Therapy , Humans , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Network Meta-Analysis , Pandemics , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/drug therapy
11.
Infection ; 50(6): 1453-1463, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2129441

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: As no reported randomized control trials (RCTs) directly compare the three administration doses of anticoagulants (prophylactic dose, treatment dose, and no treatment), the most recommended dose to be administered to patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of anticoagulant doses administered to patients with COVID-19, using a network meta-analysis (NMA) including high-quality studies. METHODS: All eligible trials from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and Clinicaltrials.gov were included. We included RCTs and observational studies adjusted for covariates for patients aged ≥ 18 years and hospitalized due to objectively confirmed COVID-19. The main study outcome was mortality. RESULTS: In patients with moderate COVID-19, the prophylactic (relative risk (RR) 0.64 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.80]) and treatment dose (RR 0.57 [95% CI 0.45-0.72] were associated with a lower risk of short-term mortality than that with no anticoagulant treatment. However, the prophylactic and treatment dose groups were not significantly different. The hierarchy for efficacy in reducing short-term mortality was treatment dose (P score 92.4) > prophylactic dose (57.6) > no treatment (0.0). In patients with severe COVID-19, due to the absence of trials with the no-treatment group, NMA could not be conducted. However, pairwise comparison did not show a significant difference between the prophylactic and treatment dose groups. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment and prophylactic doses of anticoagulants showed similar effects on mortality; however, the treatment dose is preferred over the prophylactic dose for patients with both moderate and severe COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER AND REGISTRATION DATES: PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42021245308, 05/21/2021).


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Humans , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Network Meta-Analysis
12.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0262776, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe pneumonia (SP) has a high mortality and is responsible for significant healthcare cost. Chinese herbal injections (CHIs) have been widely used in China as a novel and promising treatment option for SP. Therefore, this study will assess and rank the effectiveness of CHIs to provide more sights for the selection of SP treatment. METHOD: Seven databases will be searched, including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Database, and the Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP) from their inception up to October, 2021. The literatures screening, data extraction and the quality assessment of included studies will be conducted independently by two reviewers. Then Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) will be performed by WinBUGS 14.0 and STATA 14.0 software. Surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) probability values will be applied to rank the examined treatments. The risk of bias of each included study will be evaluated using the Revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials (ROB 2). Publication bias will be reflected by a funnel plot. RESULTS: The results of this NMA will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed journal publication. CONCLUSION: Our study findings maybe reveal which CHI or CHIs will be better in the treatment of SP and provide more therapy strategies for clinical practitioners and patients. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021244587. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS OF THIS STUDY: Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) can integrate direct evidence with indirect evidence of severe pneumonia treated by Chinese herbal injections to generate a clinically useful ranking of these regimens. This NMA will address Chinese herbal injections for SP and its findings may help to provide more sights for selection of SP treatment. Evidence drawn from an NMA is limited and should be interpreted with caution. We only included studies in Chinese and English languages, which may increase the publication bias.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pneumonia , Bayes Theorem , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Injections , Language , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Network Meta-Analysis , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Treatment Outcome
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(41): e30998, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, there has been little agreement on what drug is the "best" drug for treating severe COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of different medications available at present for severe COVID-19. METHODS: We searched databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to February 28, 2022, with no language restrictions, of medications recommended for patients (aged 16 years or older) with severe COVID-19 infection. We extracted data on trials and patient characteristics, and the following primary outcomes: all-cause mortality (ACM), and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). RESULTS: We identified 4021 abstracts and of these included 48 RCTs comprising 9147 participants through database searches and other sources. For decrease in ACM, we found that ivermectin/doxycycline, C-IVIG (i.e., a hyperimmune anti-COVID-19 intravenous immunoglobulin), methylprednisolone, interferon-beta/standard-of-care (SOC), interferon-beta-1b, convalescent plasma, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, immunoglobulin gamma, high dosage sarilumab (HS), auxora, and imatinib were effective when compared with placebo or SOC group. We found that colchicine and interferon-beta/SOC were only associated with the TEAEs of severe COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that ivermectin/doxycycline, C-IVIG, methylprednisolone, interferon-beta/SOC, interferon-beta-1b, convalescent plasma (CP), remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, immunoglobulin gamma, HS, auxora, and imatinib were efficacious for treating severe COVID-19 patients. We found that most medications were safe in treating severe COVID-19. More large-scale RCTs are still needed to confirm the results of this study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , Ivermectin/adverse effects , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Network Meta-Analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Serotherapy
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17561, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077116

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this work was to review and synthesise the evidence on the comparative effectiveness of neutralising monoclonal antibody (nMAB) therapies in individuals exposed to or infected with SARS-CoV-2 and at high risk of developing severe COVID-19. Outcomes of interest were mortality, healthcare utilisation, and safety. A rapid systematic review was undertaken to identify and synthesise relevant RCT evidence using a Bayesian Network Meta-Analysis. Relative treatment effects for individual nMABs (compared with placebo and one another) were estimated. Pooled effects for the nMAB class compared with placebo were estimated. Relative effects were combined with baseline natural history models to predict the expected risk reductions per 1000 patients treated. Eight articles investigating four nMABs (bamlanivimab, bamlanivimab/etesevimab, casirivimab/imdevimab, sotrovimab) were identified. All four therapies were associated with a statistically significant reduction in hospitalisation (70-80% reduction in relative risk; absolute reduction of 35-40 hospitalisations per 1000 patients). For mortality, ICU admission, and invasive ventilation, the risk was lower for all nMABs compared with placebo with moderate to high uncertainty due to small event numbers. Rates of serious AEs and infusion reactions were comparable between nMABs and placebo. Pairwise comparisons between nMABs were typically uncertain, with broadly comparable efficacy. In conclusion, nMABs are effective at reducing hospitalisation among infected individuals at high-risk of severe COVID-19, and are likely to reduce mortality, ICU admission, and invasive ventilation rates; the effect on these latter outcomes is more uncertain. Widespread vaccination and the emergence of nMAB-resistant variants make the generalisability of these results to current patient populations difficult.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Network Meta-Analysis , Bayes Theorem , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing
15.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(9): 1406-1412, 2022 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066665

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is a coronavirus-based infectious illness that was first detected at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, China. The novel virus induces severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) and has spread globally, resulting in an ongoing pandemic. There is still a lack of evidence for direct comparison of favipiravir therapy. Network meta-analysis (NMA), may incorporate direct and indirect comparisons in a pooled computation while depending on strong assumptions and premises. This study provides evidence-based recommendations on the safety of currently used clinical pharmacological treatments compared to favipiravir for COVID-19 patients. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a systematic review and Bayesian NMA. We searched the primary databases and clinical trials center for reports of short-term, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of favipiravir for COVID-19 treatment. The primary endpoints here considered were any adverse events observed or reported during the treatment cycle with estimates of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI), until November 6, 2021. RESULTS: Between January 2020 and July 2021, 908 individuals were randomly assigned to one of the seven active prescription medication regimens or placebo in this study, generating seven direct comparisons on 12 data points. The safety of favipiravir over the four clinically efficacious monotherapies or combinations including tocilizumab, arbidol, lopinavir + ritonavir, and chloroquine remained unknown due to the lack of a significant difference and the limited sample size. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, comparative rankings could assist doctors and guideline developers in decision-making. We have also concluded that the safety of favipiravir requires further attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Amides , Chloroquine , Humans , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Network Meta-Analysis , Pyrazines , Ritonavir , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
16.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 205(11): 1300-1310, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053493

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The most beneficial positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) selection strategy in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is unknown, and current practice is variable. Objectives: To compare the relative effects of different PEEP selection strategies on mortality in adults with moderate to severe ARDS. Methods: We conducted a network meta-analysis using a Bayesian framework. Certainty of evidence was evaluated using grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation methodology. Measurements and Main Results: We included 18 randomized trials (4,646 participants). Compared with a lower PEEP strategy, the posterior probability of mortality benefit from a higher PEEP without lung recruitment maneuver (LRM) strategy was 99% (risk ratio [RR], 0.77; 95% credible interval [CrI], 0.60-0.96, high certainty), the posterior probability of benefit of the esophageal pressure-guided strategy was 87% (RR, 0.77; 95% CrI, 0.48-1.22, moderate certainty), the posterior probability of benefit of a higher PEEP with brief LRM strategy was 96% (RR, 0.83; 95% CrI, 0.67-1.02, moderate certainty), and the posterior probability of increased mortality from a higher PEEP with prolonged LRM strategy was 77% (RR, 1.06; 95% CrI, 0.89-1.22, low certainty). Compared with a higher PEEP without LRM strategy, the posterior probability of increased mortality from a higher PEEP with prolonged LRM strategy was 99% (RR, 1.37; 95% CrI, 1.04-1.81, moderate certainty). Conclusions: In patients with moderate to severe ARDS, higher PEEP without LRM is associated with a lower risk of death than lower PEEP. A higher PEEP with prolonged LRM strategy is associated with increased risk of death when compared with higher PEEP without LRM.


Subject(s)
Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Bayes Theorem , Humans , Lung , Network Meta-Analysis , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 959073, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022982

ABSTRACT

Network meta-analysis of deaths from various underlying diseases after COVID-19 infection. This study included more than 10 research centers with the same level of care. In total, 1,676 subjects were included in our study, including 1,122 men and 554 women, patients diagnosed with COVID-19, and combined with underlying diseases; provided data on the number of deaths from related diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, malignant tumor, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, and respiratory disease. The comparison RR between hypertension and different diseases shows that it is (RR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.47, 3.98) compared with diabetes, compared with coronary heart disease (RR = 2.57, 95% CI: 1.5, 4.4), compared with cerebrovascular disease (RR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.87, 7.29), compared with malignant tumor (RR = 6.35, 95% CI: 3.45, 11.97), and compared with chronic kidney disease (RR = 5.53 95% CI: 3.04, 10.34), compared with chronic liver disease (RR = 15.51, 95% CI: 5.26, 50.98), compared with respiratory diseases (RR = 4.35, 95% CI: 2.37, 7.65), RR values are >1, which is statistically significant. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) showed that the ranking of disease mortality from high to low was hypertension> diabetes> heart disease> cerebrovascular disease> respiratory disease> chronic kidney disease> malignant tumor> chronic liver disease. The study that hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease are the top three risk factors for patients infected with COVID-19, and management of these patients should be strengthened to improve the prognosis of patients. Ethical approval and patient consent are not required as this study is a meta-analysis based on published studies. The results of this network meta-analysis will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for the publication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Diabetes Mellitus , Heart Diseases , Hypertension , Liver Diseases , Neoplasms , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Network Meta-Analysis
19.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273693, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021936

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Several teaching methods have been used in clinical nursing teaching to increase quality and efficiency, but disagreements over their effects persist. This study will evaluate the effects of five teaching methods in clinical nursing on nursing students' knowledge, skill scores, learning satisfaction, and patients' satisfaction. METHODS: We will conduct searches in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), China Biological literature database (CBM), Wanfang Database, and China Science and Technology Journal Database (CSTJ) up to April 2022. Relevant randomized controlled trials meeting the eligibility criteria will be included. And the study selection and data extraction will be independently screened for eligibility by two authors. The quality of evidence will be evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Pairwise meta-analysis and network meta-analysis (NMA) will be conducted using Rev Man, Stata, and R software. Statistical analyses including homogeneity tests, sensitivity analysis, transitivity tests, consistency tests, and publication bias will be completed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No formal research ethics approval is required. The results will be disseminated to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY2021120040.


Subject(s)
Research Design , China , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Network Meta-Analysis
20.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270668, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A recent prospective meta-analysis demonstrated that interleukin-6 antagonists are associated with lower all-cause mortality in hospitalised patients with COVID-19, compared with usual care or placebo. However, emerging evidence suggests that clinicians are favouring the use of tocilizumab over sarilumab. A new randomised comparison of these agents from the REMAP-CAP trial shows similar effects on in-hospital mortality. Therefore, we initiated a network meta-analysis, to estimate pairwise associations between tocilizumab, sarilumab and usual care or placebo with 28-day mortality, in COVID-19 patients receiving concomitant corticosteroids and ventilation, based on all available direct and indirect evidence. METHODS: Eligible trials randomised hospitalised patients with COVID-19 that compared tocilizumab or sarilumab with usual care or placebo in the prospective meta-analysis or that directly compared tocilizumab with sarilumab. Data were restricted to patients receiving corticosteroids and either non-invasive or invasive ventilation at randomisation. Pairwise associations between tocilizumab, sarilumab and usual care or placebo for all-cause mortality 28 days after randomisation were estimated using a frequentist contrast-based network meta-analysis of odds ratios (ORs), implementing multivariate fixed-effects models that assume consistency between the direct and indirect evidence. FINDINGS: One trial (REMAP-CAP) was identified that directly compared tocilizumab with sarilumab and supplied results on all-cause mortality at 28-days. This network meta-analysis was based on 898 eligible patients (278 deaths) from REMAP-CAP and 3710 eligible patients from 18 trials (1278 deaths) from the prospective meta-analysis. Summary ORs were similar for tocilizumab [0·82 [0·71-0·95, p = 0·008]] and sarilumab [0·80 [0·61-1·04, p = 0·09]] compared with usual care or placebo. The summary OR for 28-day mortality comparing tocilizumab with sarilumab was 1·03 [95%CI 0·81-1·32, p = 0·80]. The p-value for the global test of inconsistency was 0·28. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of either tocilizumab or sarilumab was associated with lower 28-day all-cause mortality compared with usual care or placebo. The association is not dependent on the choice of interleukin-6 receptor antagonist.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Humans , Network Meta-Analysis , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
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