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2.
Neurol Sci ; 43(4): 2285-2293, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739338

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 infection is associated with peripheral neuropathy. However, subclinical neurological involvement may occur anytime, and diagnostic methods that reveal this subclinical involvement are not well established. We aimed to assess the subclinical neurological involvement by visual evoked potential (VEP) measurements and nerve conduction studies (NCS) and explore the relationship between neurological electrophysiological findings and the severity of COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Seventy-six patients recovered from COVID-19 infection, and 44 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Patients were assessed for clinical and demographic parameters. NCS and VEP analyses were performed to detect any peripheral neuropathy or optic neuropathy in both groups. RESULTS: None of the COVID-19 patients had electrophysiological evidence of peripheral neuropathy. However, patients with COVID-19 pneumonia had significant abnormalities in several peripheral nerve measurements compared to patients without pneumonia. Although P100 parameters did not differ significantly between patients and controls, 12 patients with COVID-19 had prolonged P100 latencies. CONCLUSIONS: We detected subclinical afferent visual pathway abnormality evaluated by VEP analysis. In addition, we found subtle electrophysiological features in the NCS of the patients presented with COVID-19 pneumonia. However, our findings did not fortify the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy or optic neuropathy. Further studies are needed to determine the characteristics of COVID-19-related peripheral neuropathy/optic neuropathy whether it has distinct clinical features and disease course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Optic Nerve Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Humans , Neural Conduction/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Brain Behav ; 12(2): e2493, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common entrapment neuropathy of the median nerve at the wrist which causes severe symptoms. However, psychological aspects can affect patients' perception of this pain and can cause similar pain in some instances. This study aims to determine the association between symptoms severity, functional status, and nerve conduction studies (NCS) of adult patients with CTS and their anger, anxiety, and depression status. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted in clinics in Damascus, Syria. Controls were frequency matched by gender and age from a general clinic. Interviews based on questionnaires were used that included the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ-A), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Dimensions of Anger Reactions Scale-5 (DAR-5), and NCS. RESULTS: Overall, 242 patients (121 cases) were included in this study. Cases with CTS had significantly higher anxiety and depression when compared to controls, but not higher anger. Cases with higher anxiety, depression, and anger had significantly more CTS symptoms and less functional status. Anxiety was also higher in cases with normal NCS in the case group. When using regression, anxiety and depression remained significantly associated with having CTS. CONCLUSION: Anxiety and depression are more prominent with CTS. Furthermore, having anxiety and depression were associated with more CTS symptoms in the hand. Having anger was also associated with more CTS symptoms among cases. These findings emphasize the importance of psychological aspects when having hand pain or CTS symptoms as these patients might have these symptoms despite having normal NCS.


Subject(s)
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome , Psychological Distress , Adult , Carpal Tunnel Syndrome/complications , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Median Nerve , Neural Conduction/physiology , Pain/psychology , Syria
4.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(11): 3768-3773, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In its initial stages, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is difficult to identify, because diagnostic criteria may not always be fulfilled. With this retrospective study, we wanted to identify the most common electrophysiological abnormalities seen on neurophysiological examination of GBS patients and its variants in the early phases. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical records of patients admitted to our Neurology Unit with a confirmed diagnosis of GBS. The study sample was divided in two subgroups according to whether the neurophysiological examination was performed: within 7 days (very early group) or within 7-15 days (early group). H reflex, F waves, and motor and sensory conduction parameters were judged abnormal if they were outside the normal range for at least two nerves. We evaluated neurophysiological findings in Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS) separately. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 36 patients. In GBS, the most frequent abnormal neurophysiological parameter was the bilateral absence of the H reflex, followed by F wave abnormalities. Motor conduction parameters were altered in less than 50% of patients, and even less common were sensory nerve action potential reduction and the "sural-sparing" pattern. In MFS, H reflex was absent bilaterally in 100% of patients, followed by a predominant peripheral sensory involvement, whereas motor conduction parameters were frequently normal. CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral absence of the H reflex is the most sensitive parameter in early diagnosis of GBS and its variants.


Subject(s)
Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Miller Fisher Syndrome , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Heart Rate , Humans , Neural Conduction , Neurophysiology , Retrospective Studies
5.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547463

ABSTRACT

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes that affects approximately half of the diabetic population. Up to 53% of DPN patients experience neuropathic pain, which leads to a reduction in the quality of life and work productivity. Tocotrienols have been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties in preclinical and clinical studies. This study aimed to investigate the effects of tocotrienol-rich vitamin E (Tocovid SuprabioTM) on nerve conduction parameters and serum biomarkers among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 88 patients were randomized to receive 200 mg of Tocovid twice daily, or a matching placebo for 12 months. Fasting blood samples were collected for measurements of HbA1c, renal profile, lipid profile, and biomarkers. A nerve conduction study (NCS) was performed on all patients at baseline and subsequently at 2, 6, 12 months. Patients were reassessed after 6 months of washout. After 12 months of supplementation, patients in the Tocovid group exhibited highly significant improvements in conduction velocity (CV) of both median and sural sensory nerves as compared to those in the placebo group. The between-intervention-group differences (treatment effects) in CV were 1.60 m/s (95% CI: 0.70, 2.40) for the median nerve and 2.10 m/s (95% CI: 1.50, 2.90) for the sural nerve. A significant difference in peak velocity (PV) was also observed in the sural nerve (2.10 m/s; 95% CI: 1.00, 3.20) after 12 months. Significant improvements in CV were only observed up to 6 months in the tibial motor nerve, 1.30 m/s (95% CI: 0.60, 2.20). There were no significant changes in serum biomarkers, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFß-1), or vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). After 6 months of washout, there were no significant differences from baseline between groups in nerve conduction parameters of all three nerves. Tocovid at 400 mg/day significantly improve tibial motor nerve CV up to 6 months, but median and sural sensory nerve CV in up to 12 months of supplementation. All improvements diminished after 6 months of washout.


Subject(s)
Diabetic Neuropathies/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Neural Conduction/drug effects , Tocotrienols/administration & dosage , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetic Neuropathies/etiology , Diabetic Neuropathies/physiopathology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Median Nerve/drug effects , Middle Aged , Motor Neurons/drug effects , Sural Nerve/drug effects , Tibia/innervation , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/blood , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/blood
7.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(12): 3019-3024, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466232

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Neurological manifestations in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported from early features of anosmia and dysgeusia to widespread involvement of the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, as well as the neuromuscular junction and muscle. Our study objective is to evaluate the electromyography and nerve conduction study (EMG/NCS) findings among COVID-19 patients and look for possible correlations. METHODS: This is a hospital-based retrospective observational study. All COVID-19 patients between the period of 1st January 2020 to 31st December 2020 undergoing an EMG/NCS were included. RESULTS: Eighteen patients (12 male and 6 female) were included. Mean age was 55 ± 12 years. 11 patients required intubation for a mean period of 18.6 days (range: 3-37 days). Electrodiagnostic findings were consistent with a myopathy in a majority of these patients (82%). Five of them also had a concurrent axonal neuropathy. In the remaining patients who did not require intubation (n = 7), three patients had myopathic EMG changes and one had Guillain Barre syndrome. CONCLUSION: At this time, there are no neuromuscular-specific recommendations for patients who contract COVID-19. Only time and additional data will unveil the varying nature and potential neurological sequelae of COVID-19. SIGNIFICANCE: Myopathic EMG changes are commonly seen in critically ill COVID-19 patients, especially with a prolonged hospital stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Electromyography , Muscular Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Neural Conduction , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal , Retrospective Studies
8.
Neurol Sci ; 42(12): 4893-4898, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391890

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2 disease have received growing attention, but only few studies have described to date clinical and neurophysiological findings in COVID patients during their stay in intensive care units (ICUs). Here, we neurophysiologically assessed the presence of either critical illness neuropathy (CIP) or myopathy (CIM) in ICU patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients underwent a neurophysiological assessment, including bilateral examination of the median, ulnar, deep peroneal and tibial motor nerves and of the median, ulnar, radial and sural sensory nerves. Needle electromyography (EMG) was performed for both distal and proximal muscles of the lower and upper limbs. In order to differentiate CIP from CIM, Direct Muscle Stimulation (DMS) was applied either to the deltoid or tibialis anterior muscles. Peak to peak amplitudes and onset latencies of the responses evoked by DMS (DMSamp, DMSlat) or by motor nerve stimulation (MNSamp, MNSlat) were compared. The ratio MNSamp to DMSamp (NMR) and the MNSlat to DMSlat difference (NMD: MNSlat - DMSlat) were also evaluated. RESULTS: Nerve conduction studies showed a sensory-motor polyneuropathy with axonal neurogenic pattern, as confirmed by needle EMG. Both MNSamp and NMR were significantly reduced when compared to controls (p < 0.0001), whereas MNSlat and NMD were markedly increased (p = 0.0049). CONCLUSIONS: We have described COVID patients in the ICU with critical illness neuropathy (CIP). COVID-related CIP could have implications for the functional recovery and rehabilitation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Muscular Diseases , Polyneuropathies , Critical Illness , Electromyography , Humans , Neural Conduction , Polyneuropathies/complications , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Clin Neuromuscul Dis ; 23(1): 24-30, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371756

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus that emerged in 2019 and is responsible for a global pandemic. Numerous neurologic manifestations have been described in the literature regarding COVID-19, but most studies are focused on the central nervous system. The authors have noted an association between prior COVID-19 infection and the development of a systemic neuropathy that manifests with asymmetric sensorimotor loss in the peripheral nervous system. We describe 4 cases of mononeuropathy multiplex that were diagnosed after COVID-19 infection. METHODS: All patients included were treated for severe COVID-19 infection at New York Presbyterian Hospital and subsequently referred to the Columbia Peripheral Neuropathy Center for persistent neuropathy. RESULTS: Patient history, COVID-19 disease course, and mononeuropathy multiplex diagnostic evaluation of the 4 patients are recounted. CONCLUSIONS: We postulate a connection between COVID-19 and the development of mononeuropathy multiplex with implications in prognostication, rehabilitation strategies, and future treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mononeuropathies/etiology , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Electrodiagnosis , Electromyography , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Male , Middle Aged , Mononeuropathies/diagnosis , Neural Conduction , Neurologic Examination , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies
12.
Muscle Nerve ; 64(3): 361-364, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363719

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION/AIMS: The initial surge of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in early 2020 led to widespread cancellation of elective medical procedures in the United States, including nonurgent outpatient and inpatient electrodiagnostic (EDx) studies. As certain regions later showed a downtrend in daily new cases, EDx laboratories have reopened under the guidance of the American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM). In our reopening experience guided by the AANEM, we measured relevant outcomes to determine further workflow adaptations. We aimed to detail our experience and share the lessons learned. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical volumes, billing data, diagnosis distributions, and rates of COVID-19 exposure and transmission among patients and staff in our EDx laboratory during the first 6 months of reopening, starting on June 1, 2020. For context, we detailed the recent AANEM guidelines we adopted at our laboratory, supplemented by other consensus statements. RESULTS: We completed 816 outpatient studies from June 1 to December 1, 2020, reaching 97% of the total volume and 97% of total billing compared with the same time period in 2019. The average relative value units per study were similar. There were no major shifts in diagnosis distributions. We completed 10 of 12 requested inpatient studies during this period. There were no known COVID-19 transmissions between patients and staff. DISCUSSION: Our experience suggests that it is possible to safely operate an EDx laboratory under the guidance of the AANEM and other experts, with clinical volume and billing rates comparable to pre-pandemic baselines.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , Electrodiagnosis/standards , Neural Conduction/physiology , Workflow , Academic Medical Centers/methods , Academic Medical Centers/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Electrodiagnosis/methods , Electrodiagnosis/trends , Humans , Time Factors
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5432-5437, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363681

ABSTRACT

This case series describes three patients affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, who developed polyradiculoneuritis as a probable neurological complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome was made on the basis of clinical symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and electroneurography. In all of them, the therapeutic approach included the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (0.4 gr/kg for 5 days), which resulted in the improvement of neurological symptoms. Clinical neurophysiology revealed the presence of conduction block, absence of F waves, and in two cases, a significant decrease in amplitude of compound motor action potential cMAP. Due to the potential role of inflammation on symptoms development and prognosis, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 levels were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid during the acute phase, while only serum was tested after recovery. Both IL-6 and IL-8 were found increased during the acute phase, both in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid, whereas 4 months after admission (at complete recovery), only IL-8 remained elevated in the serum. These results confirm the inflammatory response that might be linked to peripheral nervous system complications and encourage the use of IL-6 and IL-8 as prognostic biomarkers in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Interleukin-6/cerebrospinal fluid , Interleukin-8/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Action Potentials/drug effects , Acute Disease , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Neural Conduction/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System/virology , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
14.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102246, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356198

ABSTRACT

Treatment related fluctuation (TRF) poses a special challenge in the treatment of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). Many cases of GBS following COVID-19 infection have been reported in literature till date, but treatment related fluctuation (TRF) in post COVID-19 GBS has not been reported till date. We report a 35-year-old male patient who developed GBS following COVID-19 infection and had TRF after intravenous immunoglobulin (IV-IG) therapy. He required ventilator support but repeat IV-IG therapy led to complete recovery. Significant proximal muscle involvement, cranial nerve palsy, no antecedent diarrhea and absence of anti-GM1 antibodies are important predictors of TRF in GBS and need to be recognized early in the course of this illness. Early recognition of TRF and differentiating it from other forms of immune mediated neuropathy such as acute onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (A-CIDP) are important for prognostication and management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Adult , Biological Variation, Individual , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Humans , India , Male , Motor Neurons/physiology , Neural Conduction/physiology , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome , Ulnar Neuropathies/diagnosis , Ulnar Neuropathies/etiology , Ulnar Neuropathies/therapy
15.
Neurol Sci ; 42(10): 3973-3979, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321760

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated to neuromuscular symptoms in up to 10.7% of hospitalized patients. Nevertheless, the extent of muscular involvement in infected subjects with no signs of myopathy has never been assessed with neurophysiological investigations. METHODS: Over a 3-week period - from April 30 through May 20, 2020 - a total of 70 patients were hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Ward of the Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico in Milan, Italy. After excluding patients who underwent invasive ventilation and steroid treatment, 12 patients were evaluated. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) included the analysis of conduction velocity, amplitude, and latency for bilateral motor tibial, ulnar nerves, and sensory sural and radial nerves. Unilateral concentric-needle electromyography (EMG) was performed evaluating at least 4 areas of 8 selected muscles. For each muscle, spontaneous activity at rest, morphology, and recruitment of motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) were evaluated. RESULTS: While nerve conduction studies were unremarkable, needle electromyography showed myopathic changes in 6 out of 12 subjects. All patients were asymptomatic for muscular involvement. Clinical features and laboratory findings did not show relevant differences between patients with and without myopathic changes. CONCLUSION: Our data show that in SARS-CoV-2 infection muscular involvement can occur despite the absence of clinical signs or symptoms and should be considered part of the disease spectrum. The application of muscle biopsy to unravel the mechanisms of myofiber damage on tissue specimens could help to clarify the pathogenesis and the treatment response of coronavirus-mediated injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Muscular Diseases , Electromyography , Humans , Neural Conduction , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5432-5437, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258081

ABSTRACT

This case series describes three patients affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, who developed polyradiculoneuritis as a probable neurological complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome was made on the basis of clinical symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and electroneurography. In all of them, the therapeutic approach included the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (0.4 gr/kg for 5 days), which resulted in the improvement of neurological symptoms. Clinical neurophysiology revealed the presence of conduction block, absence of F waves, and in two cases, a significant decrease in amplitude of compound motor action potential cMAP. Due to the potential role of inflammation on symptoms development and prognosis, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 levels were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid during the acute phase, while only serum was tested after recovery. Both IL-6 and IL-8 were found increased during the acute phase, both in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid, whereas 4 months after admission (at complete recovery), only IL-8 remained elevated in the serum. These results confirm the inflammatory response that might be linked to peripheral nervous system complications and encourage the use of IL-6 and IL-8 as prognostic biomarkers in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Interleukin-6/cerebrospinal fluid , Interleukin-8/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Action Potentials/drug effects , Acute Disease , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Neural Conduction/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System/virology , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
17.
J Clin Neuromuscul Dis ; 22(4): 228-231, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238256

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Elsberg syndrome is a rare cause of lumbosacral radiculitis with concomitant thoracic and lumbosacral myelitis that can be seen after an acute or reactivated viral infection. After the initial coronavirus surge in New York City, a 68-year-old man developed progressive lower extremity weakness and a defined sensory level at the lower abdomen. He had highly elevated SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies despite an absence of preceding COVID-19 symptoms. Serial electrodiagnostic testing revealed absent lower extremity late responses, with otherwise normal distal sensorimotor conductions. Electromyography revealed active neurogenic changes and reduced motor unit recruitment in the L3-L4 myotomes. Treatment with methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin was followed by minimal clinical improvement but re-emergence of the lower extremity late responses on electrodiagnostic testing. We report here, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of suspected COVID-19-associated Elsberg syndrome, which expands the spectrum of neuromuscular manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and sheds light on ways to approach diagnostic and treatment options for these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myelitis/etiology , Radiculopathy/etiology , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Electrodiagnosis , Electromyography , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Myelitis/diagnosis , Neural Conduction , Radiculopathy/diagnosis , Spine/diagnostic imaging , Syndrome , Treatment Outcome
18.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(8): 1974-1981, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237654

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the peripheral nerve and muscle function electrophysiologically in patients with persistent neuromuscular symptoms following Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients from a Long-term COVID-19 Clinic referred to electrophysiological examination with the suspicion of mono- or polyneuropathy were included. Examinations were performed from 77 to 255 (median: 216) days after acute COVID-19. None of the patients had received treatment at the intensive care unit. Of these, 10 patients were not even hospitalized. Conventional nerve conduction studies (NCS) and quantitative electromyography (qEMG) findings from three muscles were compared with 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. RESULTS: qEMG showed myopathic changes in one or more muscles in 11 patients (55%). Motor unit potential duration was shorter in patients compared to healthy controls in biceps brachii (10.02 ± 0.28 vs 11.75 ± 0.21), vastus medialis (10.86 ± 0.37 vs 12.52 ± 0.19) and anterior tibial (11.76 ± 0.31 vs 13.26 ± 0.21) muscles. All patients with myopathic qEMG reported about physical fatigue and 8 patients about myalgia while 3 patients without myopathic changes complained about physical fatigue. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term COVID-19 does not cause large fibre neuropathy, but myopathic changes are seen. SIGNIFICANCE: Myopathy may be an important cause of physical fatigue in long-term COVID-19 even in non-hospitalized patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electromyography/trends , Fatigue/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Muscular Diseases/diagnosis , Neural Conduction/physiology , Registries , Time Factors
19.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(11): 2032-2036, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211008

ABSTRACT

Ten patients suffering from residual symptoms after the resolution of COVID-19, which manifested as fatigue in the lower limbs, have been submitted to nerve conduction studies. Motor demyelinating neuropathy features mainly of the tibial nerves but also the peroneal, median, and ulnar nerves were objectified. These findings might be considered as new neurological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tibial Neuropathy , Humans , Neural Conduction , SARS-CoV-2 , Ulnar Nerve
20.
Skelet Muscle ; 11(1): 10, 2021 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV2 virus could be potentially myopathic. Serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) is frequently found elevated in severe SARS-CoV2 infection, which indicates skeletal muscle damage precipitating limb weakness or even ventilatory failure. CASE PRESENTATION: We addressed such a patient in his forties presented with features of severe SARS-CoV2 pneumonia and high serum CPK. He developed severe sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and received intravenous high dose corticosteroid and tocilizumab to counter SARS-CoV2 associated cytokine surge. After 10 days of mechanical ventilation (MV), weaning was unsuccessful albeit apparently clear lung fields, having additionally severe and symmetric limb muscle weakness. Ancillary investigations in addition with serum CPK, including electromyogram, muscle biopsy, and muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested acute myopathy possibly due to skeletal myositis. CONCLUSION: We wish to stress that myopathogenic medication in SARS-CoV2 pneumonia should be used with caution. Additionally, serum CPK could be a potential marker to predict respiratory failure in SARS-CoV2 pneumonia as skeletal myopathy affecting chest muscles may contribute ventilatory failure on top of oxygenation failure due to SARS-CoV2 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Creatine Kinase/blood , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology , Quadriplegia/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Electromyography , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Muscle, Skeletal/diagnostic imaging , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Muscular Diseases/blood , Muscular Diseases/diagnosis , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Neural Conduction , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Quadriplegia/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Ventilator Weaning
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