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1.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547463

ABSTRACT

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes that affects approximately half of the diabetic population. Up to 53% of DPN patients experience neuropathic pain, which leads to a reduction in the quality of life and work productivity. Tocotrienols have been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties in preclinical and clinical studies. This study aimed to investigate the effects of tocotrienol-rich vitamin E (Tocovid SuprabioTM) on nerve conduction parameters and serum biomarkers among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 88 patients were randomized to receive 200 mg of Tocovid twice daily, or a matching placebo for 12 months. Fasting blood samples were collected for measurements of HbA1c, renal profile, lipid profile, and biomarkers. A nerve conduction study (NCS) was performed on all patients at baseline and subsequently at 2, 6, 12 months. Patients were reassessed after 6 months of washout. After 12 months of supplementation, patients in the Tocovid group exhibited highly significant improvements in conduction velocity (CV) of both median and sural sensory nerves as compared to those in the placebo group. The between-intervention-group differences (treatment effects) in CV were 1.60 m/s (95% CI: 0.70, 2.40) for the median nerve and 2.10 m/s (95% CI: 1.50, 2.90) for the sural nerve. A significant difference in peak velocity (PV) was also observed in the sural nerve (2.10 m/s; 95% CI: 1.00, 3.20) after 12 months. Significant improvements in CV were only observed up to 6 months in the tibial motor nerve, 1.30 m/s (95% CI: 0.60, 2.20). There were no significant changes in serum biomarkers, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFß-1), or vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). After 6 months of washout, there were no significant differences from baseline between groups in nerve conduction parameters of all three nerves. Tocovid at 400 mg/day significantly improve tibial motor nerve CV up to 6 months, but median and sural sensory nerve CV in up to 12 months of supplementation. All improvements diminished after 6 months of washout.


Subject(s)
Diabetic Neuropathies/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Neural Conduction/drug effects , Tocotrienols/administration & dosage , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetic Neuropathies/etiology , Diabetic Neuropathies/physiopathology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Median Nerve/drug effects , Middle Aged , Motor Neurons/drug effects , Sural Nerve/drug effects , Tibia/innervation , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/blood , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/blood
2.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5432-5437, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363681

ABSTRACT

This case series describes three patients affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, who developed polyradiculoneuritis as a probable neurological complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome was made on the basis of clinical symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and electroneurography. In all of them, the therapeutic approach included the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (0.4 gr/kg for 5 days), which resulted in the improvement of neurological symptoms. Clinical neurophysiology revealed the presence of conduction block, absence of F waves, and in two cases, a significant decrease in amplitude of compound motor action potential cMAP. Due to the potential role of inflammation on symptoms development and prognosis, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 levels were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid during the acute phase, while only serum was tested after recovery. Both IL-6 and IL-8 were found increased during the acute phase, both in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid, whereas 4 months after admission (at complete recovery), only IL-8 remained elevated in the serum. These results confirm the inflammatory response that might be linked to peripheral nervous system complications and encourage the use of IL-6 and IL-8 as prognostic biomarkers in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Interleukin-6/cerebrospinal fluid , Interleukin-8/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Action Potentials/drug effects , Acute Disease , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Neural Conduction/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System/virology , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
3.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5432-5437, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258081

ABSTRACT

This case series describes three patients affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, who developed polyradiculoneuritis as a probable neurological complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome was made on the basis of clinical symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and electroneurography. In all of them, the therapeutic approach included the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (0.4 gr/kg for 5 days), which resulted in the improvement of neurological symptoms. Clinical neurophysiology revealed the presence of conduction block, absence of F waves, and in two cases, a significant decrease in amplitude of compound motor action potential cMAP. Due to the potential role of inflammation on symptoms development and prognosis, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 levels were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid during the acute phase, while only serum was tested after recovery. Both IL-6 and IL-8 were found increased during the acute phase, both in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid, whereas 4 months after admission (at complete recovery), only IL-8 remained elevated in the serum. These results confirm the inflammatory response that might be linked to peripheral nervous system complications and encourage the use of IL-6 and IL-8 as prognostic biomarkers in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Interleukin-6/cerebrospinal fluid , Interleukin-8/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Action Potentials/drug effects , Acute Disease , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Neural Conduction/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System/virology , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
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