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Glycobiology ; 32(9): 791-802, 2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873912


Sialic acids are used as a receptor by several viruses and variations in the linkage type or C-5 modifications affect the binding properties. A species barrier for multiple viruses is present due to α2,3- or α2,6-linked sialic acids. The C-5 position of the sialic acid can be modified to form N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) or N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), which acts as a determinant for host susceptibility for pathogens such as influenza A virus, rotavirus, and transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus. Neu5Gc is present in most mammals such as pigs and horses but is absent in humans, ferrets, and dogs. However, little is known about C-5 content in wildlife species or how many C-5 modified sialic acids are present on N-linked glycans or glycolipids. Using our previously developed tissue microarray system, we investigated how 2 different lectins specific for Neu5Gc can result in varying detection levels of Neu5Gc glycans. We used these lectins to map Neu5Gc content in wild Suidae, Cervidae, tigers, and European hedgehogs. We show that Neu5Gc content is highly variable among different species. Furthermore, the removal of N-linked glycans reduces the binding of both Neu5Gc lectins while retention of glycolipids by omitting methanol treatment of tissues increases lectin binding. These findings highlight the importance of using multiple Neu5Gc lectins as the rich variety in which Neu5Gc is displayed can hardly be detected by a single lectin.

Sialic Acids , Viruses , Animals , Animals, Domestic/metabolism , Dogs , Ferrets/metabolism , Glycolipids , Horses , Humans , Lectins , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/metabolism , Neuraminic Acids , Polysaccharides , Sialic Acids/metabolism , Swine
ACS Infect Dis ; 8(5): 1041-1050, 2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788265


A panel of O-acetylated N-glycolylneuraminic acid oligosaccharides has been prepared by diversification of common synthetic precursors by regioselective de-O-acetylation by coronaviral hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) combined with C7-to-C9 acetyl ester migration. The resulting compound library was printed on streptavidin-coated glass slides to give a microarray to investigate receptor binding specificities of viral envelope glycoproteins, including spike proteins and HEs from animal and human coronaviruses. It was found that the binding patterns of the viral proteins for N-glycolylated sialosides differ considerable from those of the previously synthesized N-acetylated counterparts. Generally, the spike proteins tolerate N-glycolyl modification, but selectivities differ among viruses targeting different hosts. On the other hand, the lectin domain of the corresponding HEs showed a substantial decrease or loss of binding of N-glycolylated sialosides. MD simulations indicate that glycolyl recognition by HE is mediated by polar residues in a loop region (109-119) that interacts with the 5-N-glycolyl moiety. Collectively, the results indicate that coronaviruses have adjusted their receptor fine specificities to adapt to the sialoglycome of their host species.

Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Animals , Glycoproteins , Neuraminic Acids , Oligosaccharides , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus