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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233259

ABSTRACT

The human gut microbiome contains the largest number of bacteria in the body and has the potential to greatly influence metabolism, not only locally but also systemically. There is an established link between a healthy, balanced, and diverse microbiome and overall health. When the gut microbiome becomes unbalanced (dysbiosis) through dietary changes, medication use, lifestyle choices, environmental factors, and ageing, this has a profound effect on our health and is linked to many diseases, including lifestyle diseases, metabolic diseases, inflammatory diseases, and neurological diseases. While this link in humans is largely an association of dysbiosis with disease, in animal models, a causative link can be demonstrated. The link between the gut and the brain is particularly important in maintaining brain health, with a strong association between dysbiosis in the gut and neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases. This link suggests not only that the gut microbiota composition can be used to make an early diagnosis of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases but also that modifying the gut microbiome to influence the microbiome-gut-brain axis might present a therapeutic target for diseases that have proved intractable, with the aim of altering the trajectory of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, among others. There is also a microbiome-gut-brain link to other potentially reversible neurological diseases, such as migraine, post-operative cognitive dysfunction, and long COVID, which might be considered models of therapy for neurodegenerative disease. The role of traditional methods in altering the microbiome, as well as newer, more novel treatments such as faecal microbiome transplants and photobiomodulation, are discussed.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Microbiota , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Animals , Humans , Brain-Gut Axis , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Autism Spectrum Disorder/metabolism , Dysbiosis/metabolism , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , COVID-19/metabolism , Brain/metabolism
2.
Biomolecules ; 13(5)2023 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239134

ABSTRACT

It is estimated that, at minimum, 500 million individuals suffer from cellular metabolic dysfunction, such as diabetes mellitus (DM), throughout the world. Even more concerning is the knowledge that metabolic disease is intimately tied to neurodegenerative disorders, affecting both the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as leading to dementia, the seventh leading cause of death. New and innovative therapeutic strategies that address cellular metabolism, apoptosis, autophagy, and pyroptosis, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), growth factor signaling with erythropoietin (EPO), and risk factors such as the apolipoprotein E (APOE-ε4) gene and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can offer valuable insights for the clinical care and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders impacted by cellular metabolic disease. Critical insight into and modulation of these complex pathways are required since mTOR signaling pathways, such as AMPK activation, can improve memory retention in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and DM, promote healthy aging, facilitate clearance of ß-amyloid (Aß) and tau in the brain, and control inflammation, but also may lead to cognitive loss and long-COVID syndrome through mechanisms that can include oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, cytokine release, and APOE-ε4 if pathways such as autophagy and other mechanisms of programmed cell death are left unchecked.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Metabolic Diseases , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Humans , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Brain/metabolism
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291102

ABSTRACT

The study of protein aggregation, and amyloidosis in particular, has gained considerable interest in recent times. Several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) show a characteristic buildup of proteinaceous aggregates in several organs, especially the brain. Despite the enormous upsurge in research articles in this arena, it would not be incorrect to say that we still lack a crystal-clear idea surrounding these notorious aggregates. In this review, we attempt to present a holistic picture on protein aggregation and amyloids in particular. Using a chronological order of discoveries, we present the case of amyloids right from the onset of their discovery, various biophysical techniques, including analysis of the structure, the mechanisms and kinetics of the formation of amyloids. We have discussed important questions on whether aggregation and amyloidosis are restricted to a subset of specific proteins or more broadly influenced by the biophysiochemical and cellular environment. The therapeutic strategies and the significant failure rate of drugs in clinical trials pertaining to these neurodegenerative diseases have been also discussed at length. At a time when the COVID-19 pandemic has hit the globe hard, the review also discusses the plausibility of the far-reaching consequences posed by the virus, such as triggering early onset of amyloidosis. Finally, the application(s) of amyloids as useful biomaterials has also been discussed briefly in this review.


Subject(s)
Amyloidosis , COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Humans , Protein Aggregates , Pandemics , Amyloid/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism
4.
FASEB J ; 37(5): e22919, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306604

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes injury to multiple organ systems, including the brain. SARS-CoV-2's neuropathological mechanisms may include systemic inflammation and hypoxia, as well as direct cell damage resulting from viral infections of neurons and glia. How the virus directly causes injury to brain cells, acutely and over the long term, is not well understood. In order to gain insight into this process, we studied the neuropathological effects of open reading frame 3a (ORF3a), a SARS-CoV-2 accessory protein that is a key pathological factor of the virus. Forced ORF3a brain expression in mice caused the rapid onset of neurological impairment, neurodegeneration, and neuroinflammation-key neuropathological features found in coronavirus disease (COVID-19, which is caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection). Furthermore, ORF3a expression blocked autophagy progression in the brain and caused the neuronal accumulation of α-synuclein and glycosphingolipids, all of which are linked to neurodegenerative disease. Studies with ORF3-expressing HeLa cells confirmed that ORF3a disrupted the autophagy-lysosomal pathway and blocked glycosphingolipid degradation, resulting in their accumulation. These findings indicate that, in the event of neuroinvasion by SARS-CoV-2, ORF3a expression in brain cells may drive neuropathogenesis and be an important mediator of both short- and long-term neurological manifestations of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Humans , Animals , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/pathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , HeLa Cells , Open Reading Frames , Sphingolipids , Brain/pathology , Homeostasis , Lysosomes , Autophagy
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(5)2023 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281145

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused millions of deaths and remains a major public health burden worldwide. Previous studies found that a large number of COVID-19 patients and survivors developed neurological symptoms and might be at high risk of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to explore the shared pathways between COVID-19, AD, and PD by using bioinformatic analysis to reveal potential mechanisms, which may explain the neurological symptoms and degeneration of brain that occur in COVID-19 patients, and to provide early intervention. In this study, gene expression datasets of the frontal cortex were employed to detect common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of COVID-19, AD, and PD. A total of 52 common DEGs were then examined using functional annotation, protein-protein interaction (PPI) construction, candidate drug identification, and regulatory network analysis. We found that the involvement of the synaptic vesicle cycle and down-regulation of synapses were shared by these three diseases, suggesting that synaptic dysfunction might contribute to the onset and progress of neurodegenerative diseases caused by COVID-19. Five hub genes and one key module were obtained from the PPI network. Moreover, 5 drugs and 42 transcription factors (TFs) were also identified on the datasets. In conclusion, the results of our study provide new insights and directions for follow-up studies of the relationship between COVID-19 and neurodegenerative diseases. The hub genes and potential drugs we identified may provide promising treatment strategies to prevent COVID-19 patients from developing these disorders.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Humans , Pandemics , Protein Interaction Maps/genetics , Parkinson Disease/genetics , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Computational Biology/methods , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Regulatory Networks
6.
J Interferon Cytokine Res ; 43(2): 65-76, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265572

ABSTRACT

Although the new generation of vaccines and anti-COVID-19 treatment regimens facilitated the management of acute COVID-19 infections, concerns about post-COVID-19 syndrome or Long Covid are rising. This issue can increase the incidence and morbidity of diseases such as diabetes, and cardiovascular, and lung infections, especially among patients suffering from neurodegenerative disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and ischemia. There are numerous risk factors that cause COVID-19 patients to experience post-COVID-19 syndrome. Three potential causes attributed to this disorder include immune dysregulation, viral persistence, and autoimmunity. Interferons (IFNs) are crucial in all aspects of post-COVID-19 syndrome etiology. In this review, we discuss the critical and double-edged role of IFNs in post-COVID-19 syndrome and how innovative biomedical approaches that target IFNs can reduce the occurrence of Long Covid infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Humans , Interferons/therapeutic use , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Lung
7.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 5457, 2023 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256896

ABSTRACT

Growing evidences have suggested the association between coronavirus infection and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the molecular mechanism behind the association is complex and remains to be clarified. This study integrated human genes involved in infections of three coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV from multi-omics data, and investigated the shared genes and molecular functions between coronavirus infection and two neurodegenerative diseases, namely Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease (PD). Seven genes including HSP90AA1, ALDH2, CAV1, COMT, MTOR, IGF2R and HSPA1A, and several inflammation and stress response-related molecular functions such as MAPK signaling pathway, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, responses to oxidative or chemical stress were common to both coronavirus infection and neurodegenerative diseases. These genes were further found to interact with more than 20 other viruses. Finally, drugs targeting these genes were identified. The study would not only help clarify the molecular mechanism behind the association between coronavirus infection and neurodegenerative diseases, but also provide novel targets for the development of broad-spectrum drugs against both coronaviruses and neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy , Neurodegenerative Diseases/genetics , Drug Development , Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, Mitochondrial
8.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 8(1): 15, 2023 01 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241851

ABSTRACT

The ribosome is a multi-unit complex that translates mRNA into protein. Ribosome biogenesis is the process that generates ribosomes and plays an essential role in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, development, and transformation. The mTORC1, Myc, and noncoding RNA signaling pathways are the primary mediators that work jointly with RNA polymerases and ribosome proteins to control ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis. Activation of mTORC1 is required for normal fetal growth and development and tissue regeneration after birth. Myc is implicated in cancer development by enhancing RNA Pol II activity, leading to uncontrolled cancer cell growth. The deregulation of noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs, long noncoding RNAs, and circular RNAs is involved in developing blood, neurodegenerative diseases, and atherosclerosis. We review the similarities and differences between eukaryotic and bacterial ribosomes and the molecular mechanism of ribosome-targeting antibiotics and bacterial resistance. We also review the most recent findings of ribosome dysfunction in COVID-19 and other conditions and discuss the consequences of ribosome frameshifting, ribosome-stalling, and ribosome-collision. We summarize the role of ribosome biogenesis in the development of various diseases. Furthermore, we review the current clinical trials, prospective vaccines for COVID-19, and therapies targeting ribosome biogenesis in cancer, cardiovascular disease, aging, and neurodegenerative disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Humans , Pregnancy , Female , COVID-19 Vaccines/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/genetics , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Ribosomes/genetics , Ribosomal Proteins/genetics , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/genetics , RNA, Untranslated , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/metabolism
9.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(12): 4535-4544, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230121

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues, and SARS-CoV-2 variants continue to emerge. In addition to typical fever and respiratory symptoms, many patients with COVID-19 experience a variety of neurological complications. In this review, we analyzed and reviewed the current status and possible mechanisms between COVID-19 and several typical neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, hoping to propose the potential direction of further research and concern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic literature search of the databases (Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar). The keywords used were COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, neurodegenerative disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The retrieved relevant articles were reviewed and critically analyzed. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 is a highly neuroinvasive neurotropic virus that invades cells through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor-driven pathway. SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion, neuroinflammation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Some patients with neurodegenerative diseases have already shown more susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and significantly higher mortality due to the elderly population with underlying diseases. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 could cause damage to the central nervous system (CNS) that may substantially increase the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases and accelerate the progression of them.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Aged , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 82(4): 424-432, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230608

ABSTRACT

Neurodegenerative disorders (NDD) are chronic neurological diseases characterized by loss and/or damage to neurons along with the myelin sheath, and patients are at higher risk of severe infection with the SARS­CoV­2. A comprehensive literature search was performed using relevant terms and inclusion­exclusion criteria. Recent articles, subjects older than 50 years, and articles written in the English language were included, whereas letters to the editor and articles related to pregnant women were excluded from the review study. COVID­19 appears to damage angiotensin­II receptors which cause natural killer cells to lose the ability to clear virus­infected cells, owing to worse outcomes in patients with NDD. COVID­19 can worsen the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. In addition, COVID­19 worsens drug­responsive motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) and other symptoms like fatigue and urinary complaints. Vitamin D is essential in decreasing pro­inflammatory and increasing anti­inflammatory cytokines in ongoing COVID­19 infections and reducing angiotensin receptors and, hence, decreasing COVID­19 infection severity. Telemedicine shows promise for patients with NDD but is yet to overcome legal issues and personal barriers. COVID­19 has a significant effect on neurodegenerative conditions, which appears partly to the nature of the NDD and the neuro­invasive capabilities of the SARS­CoV­2. The protective role of vitamin D in patients with NDD further supports this hypothesis. Modifications in current health care, like the telemedicine platform, are required to address the increased risk of serious infection in this population. Further studies will be required to clarify conflicting reports in many fields.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Parkinson Disease/complications , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Alzheimer Disease/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D
11.
Neuroscience ; 512: 110-132, 2023 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235664

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has affected more than 20 million people in Brazil and caused a global health emergency. This virus has the potential to affect various parts of the body and compromise metabolic functions. The virus-mediated neural inflammation of the nervous system is due to a storm of cytokines and oxidative stress, which are the clinical features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This neurodegenerative disease is aggravated in cases involving SARS-CoV-2 and its inflammatory biomarkers, accelerating accumulation of ß-amyloid peptide, hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, and production of reactive oxygen species, which lead to homeostasis imbalance. The cholinergic system, through neurons and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), modulates various physiological pathways, such as the response to stress, sleep and wakefulness, sensory information, and the cognitive system. Patients with AD have low concentrations of ACh; hence, therapeutic methods are aimed at adjusting the ACh titers available to the body for maintaining functionality. Herein, we focused on acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, responsible for the degradation of ACh in the synaptic cleft, and muscarinic and nicotinic receptor agonists of the cholinergic system owing to the therapeutic potential of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in AD associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Humans , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Neuroimmunomodulation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Acetylcholine/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Cholinergic Agents/pharmacology
12.
Transl Neurodegener ; 12(1): 5, 2023 01 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2224309

ABSTRACT

The impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on patients with neurodegenerative diseases and the specific neurological manifestations of COVID-19 have aroused great interest. However, there are still many issues of concern to be clarified. Therefore, we review the current literature on the complex relationship between COVID-19 and neurodegenerative diseases with an emphasis on Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We summarize the impact of COVID-19 infection on symptom severity, disease progression, and mortality rate of PD and AD, and discuss whether COVID-19 infection could trigger PD and AD. In addition, the susceptibility to and the prognosis of COVID-19 in PD patients and AD patients are also included. In order to achieve better management of PD and AD patients, modifications of care strategies, specific drug therapies, and vaccines during the pandemic are also listed. At last, mechanisms underlying the link of COVID-19 with PD and AD are reviewed.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Humans , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Parkinson Disease/diagnosis , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Disease Progression
13.
Front Biosci (Elite Ed) ; 14(4): 27, 2022 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2205758

ABSTRACT

The aim of this review is to highlight the beneficial attributes of flavonoids, a diverse family of widely-distributed polyphenolic phytochemicals that have beneficial cell and tissue protective properties. Phytochemicals are widely distributed in plants, herbs and shrubs used in traditional complimentary medical formulations for centuries. The bioactive components that convey beneficial medicinal effects in these complex herbal preparations are now being identified using network pharmacology and molecular docking procedures that identify their molecular targets. Flavonoids have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial and anti-cancer properties that have inspired the development of potent multifunctional derivatised flavonoids of improved efficacy. The antiviral properties of flavonoids and the emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has resulted in a resurgence of interest in phytochemicals in the search for efficacious compounds that can prevent viral infection or replication, with many promising plant compounds identified. Promising semi-synthetic flavonoid derivatives have also been developed that inhibit multiple pathological neurodegenerative processes; these offer considerable promise in the treatment of diseases of cognitive decline. Clinical trials are currently being undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of dietary supplements rich in flavonoids for the treatment of virally-mediated diseases. Such trials are expected to identify flavonoids with cell and tissue protective properties that can be harnessed in biomedical applications that may serve as supportive adjunctive procedures to conventional anti-viral drug therapies against diseases such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Molecular Docking Simulation , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy
14.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 122(12): 32-38, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204266

ABSTRACT

Olfactory dysfunction is a serious symptom that requires careful differential diagnosis. The article presents convincing evidence that dysosmia is not only a symptom of rinological pathology, but also a manifestation of various neurodegenerative diseases. Some patients with SARS-CoV-2 have neurological symptoms. Modern studies show that olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions are significant symptoms in the clinical presentation of the COVID-19 infection. The importance of olfactory diagnostics in relatives of patients with hereditary neurodegenerative diseases for the purpose of early detection of pathology is noted. We consider the possibility of introducing new methods for the diagnosis of olfactory dysfunction, which is a promising task both in the field of neurology and otorhinolaryngology, in order to prevent the development of neurodegenerative diseases at an early stage, improve the quality of life and social adaptation of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Quality of Life , Smell
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1039427, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198887

ABSTRACT

In the past two years, the world has faced the pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which by August of 2022 has infected around 619 million people and caused the death of 6.55 million individuals globally. Although SARS-CoV-2 mainly affects the respiratory tract level, there are several reports, indicating that other organs such as the heart, kidney, pancreas, and brain can also be damaged. A characteristic observed in blood serum samples of patients suffering COVID-19 disease in moderate and severe stages, is a significant increase in proinflammatory cytokines such as interferon-α (IFN-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-18 (IL-18), as well as the presence of autoantibodies against interferon-α (IFN-α), interferon-λ (IFN-λ), C-C motif chemokine ligand 26 (CCL26), CXC motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12), family with sequence similarity 19 (chemokine (C-C motif)-like) member A4 (FAM19A4), and C-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (CCL1). Interestingly, it has been described that the chronic cytokinemia is related to alterations of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and induction of neurotoxicity. Furthermore, the generation of autoantibodies affects processes such as neurogenesis, neuronal repair, chemotaxis and the optimal microglia function. These observations support the notion that COVID-19 patients who survived the disease present neurological sequelae and neuropsychiatric disorders. The goal of this review is to explore the relationship between inflammatory and humoral immune markers and the major neurological damage manifested in post-COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Neurodegenerative Diseases , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Humans , Chemokines , COVID-19 , Immunity , Interferon-alpha , Interleukin-6 , Ligands , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome/complications , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome/immunology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/immunology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/physiopathology
16.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 983089, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198707

ABSTRACT

The gut microbiota undergoes significant alterations in response to viral infections, particularly the novel SARS-CoV-2. As impaired gut microbiota can trigger numerous neurological disorders, we suggest that the long-term neurological symptoms of COVID-19 may be related to intestinal microbiota disorders in these patients. Thus, we have gathered available information on how the virus can affect the microbiota of gastrointestinal systems, both in the acute and the recovery phase of the disease, and described several mechanisms through which this gut dysbiosis can lead to long-term neurological disorders, such as Guillain-Barre syndrome, chronic fatigue, psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety, and even neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. These mechanisms may be mediated by inflammatory cytokines, as well as certain chemicals such as gastrointestinal hormones (e.g., CCK), neurotransmitters (e.g., 5-HT), etc. (e.g., short-chain fatty acids), and the autonomic nervous system. In addition to the direct influences of the virus, repurposed medications used for COVID-19 patients can also play a role in gut dysbiosis. In conclusion, although there are many dark spots in our current knowledge of the mechanism of COVID-19-related gut-brain axis disturbance, based on available evidence, we can hypothesize that these two phenomena are more than just a coincidence and highly recommend large-scale epidemiologic studies in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Brain-Gut Axis , Dysbiosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Brain
17.
Neuron ; 111(7): 1086-1093.e2, 2023 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2181845

ABSTRACT

With recent findings connecting the Epstein-Barr virus to an increased risk of multiple sclerosis and growing concerns regarding the neurological impact of the coronavirus pandemic, we examined potential links between viral exposures and neurodegenerative disease risk. Using time series data from FinnGen for discovery and cross-sectional data from the UK Biobank for replication, we identified 45 viral exposures significantly associated with increased risk of neurodegenerative disease and replicated 22 of these associations. The largest effect association was between viral encephalitis exposure and Alzheimer's disease. Influenza with pneumonia was significantly associated with five of the six neurodegenerative diseases studied. We also replicated the Epstein-Barr/multiple sclerosis association. Some of these exposures were associated with an increased risk of neurodegeneration up to 15 years after infection. As vaccines are currently available for some of the associated viruses, vaccination may be a way to reduce some risk of neurodegenerative disease.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Multiple Sclerosis , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Biological Specimen Banks , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology
18.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278214, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197039

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Delirium is recognized as a severe complication of coronavirus-disease-2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19-associated delirium has been linked to worse patient outcomes and is considered to be of multifactorial origin. Here we sought to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of delirium in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, along with its impact on clinical outcome. METHODS: Consecutive adult COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary academic referral hospital between March 1st and December 31st, 2020 were included. Potential risk factors for delirium were evaluated, including: age, gender, disease severity (as per the highest WHO grading reached during admission), laboratory parameters for infection and renal function (as per their most extreme values), and presence of comorbidities. To assess the relative strength of risk factors for predicting the occurrence of delirium, we performed a random-forest survival analysis. RESULTS: 347 patients with positive COVID-19 PCR test and median age 68.2 [IQR 55.5, 80.5] years were included. Of those, 79 patients (22.8%) developed delirium, 81 (23.3%) were transferred to ICU, 58 (16.7%) died. 163 (73.8%) patients were discharged home, 13 (5.9%) to another hospital, 32 (14.5%) to nursing homes, 13 (5.9%) to rehabilitation with an overall median admission-to-discharge time of 53 [IQR 14, 195] days. The strongest predictors for the occurrence of delirium were blood urea nitrogen (minimal depth value (MD): 3.33), age (MD: 3.75), disease severity (as captured by WHO grading; MD: 3.93), leukocyte count (MD: 4.22), the presence of a neurodegenerative history (MD: 4.43), ferritin (MD: 4.46) and creatinine (MD: 4.59) levels. CONCLUSION: The risk of delirium in COVID-19 can be stratified based on COVID-19 disease severity and-similar to delirium associated with other respiratory infections-the factors advanced age, neurodegenerative disease history, and presence of elevated infection and renal-retention parameters. Screening for these risk factors may facilitate early identification of patients at high-risk for COVID-19-associated delirium.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delirium , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Adult , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/etiology , Retrospective Studies
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(49): e32100, 2022 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191103

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has been devastated by COVID-19 in an increasing number of countries and health care systems around the world since its announcement of a global pandemic on 11 March 2020. During the pandemic, emerging novel viral mutant variants have caused multiple outbreaks of COVID-19 around the world and are prone to genetic evolution, causing serious damage to human health. As confirmed cases of COVID-19 spread rapidly, there is evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infection involves the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS), directly or indirectly damaging neurons and further leading to neurodegenerative diseases (ND), but the molecular mechanisms of ND and CVOID-19 are unknown. We employed transcriptomic profiling to detect several major diseases of ND: Alzheimer 's disease (AD), Parkinson' s disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis (MS) common pathways and molecular biomarkers in association with COVID-19, helping to understand the link between ND and COVID-19. There were 14, 30 and 19 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between COVID-19 and Alzheimer 's disease (AD), Parkinson' s disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS), respectively; enrichment analysis showed that MAPK, IL-17, PI3K-Akt and other signaling pathways were significantly expressed; the hub genes (HGs) of DEGs between ND and COVID-19 were CRH, SST, TAC1, SLC32A1, GAD2, GAD1, VIP and SYP. Analysis of transcriptome data suggests multiple co-morbid mechanisms between COVID-19 and AD, PD, and MS, providing new ideas and therapeutic strategies for clinical prevention and treatment of COVID-19 and ND.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systems Biology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Computational Biology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/epidemiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/genetics
20.
Maturitas ; 169: 2-9, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165686

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is increasing evidence that vitamin D has widespread tissue effects. In addition to osteoporosis, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, infections and neurodegenerative disease. However, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on non-skeletal outcomes requires clarification, especially in postmenopausal women. AIM: This position statement provides an evidence-based overview of the role of vitamin D in the health of postmenopausal women based on observational and interventional studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature review and consensus of expert opinion. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D status is determined by measuring serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Concentrations <20 ng/ml (<50 nmol/l) and <10 ng/ml (<25 nmol/l) are considered to constitute vitamin D deficiency and severe deficiency, respectively. Observational data suggest an association between vitamin D deficiency and adverse health outcomes in postmenopausal women, although they cannot establish causality. The evidence from randomized controlled trials concerning vitamin D supplementation is not robust, since many studies did not consider whether people were deficient at baseline. Moreover, high heterogeneity exists in terms of the population studied, vitamin D dosage, calcium co-administration and duration of intervention. Concerning skeletal health, vitamin D deficiency is associated with low bone mass and an increased risk of fractures. Vitamin D supplementation at maintenance doses of 800-2000 IU/day (20-50 µg/day), after repletion of vitamin D status with higher weekly or daily doses, may be of benefit only when co-administered with calcium (1000-1200 mg/day), especially in the elderly populations and those with severe vitamin D deficiency. Concerning cardiovascular disease, vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, mainly metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Vitamin D deficiency, especially its severe form, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events (coronary heart disease, stroke, mortality), independently of traditional risk factors. Vitamin D supplementation may have a modestly beneficial effect on lipid profile and glucose homeostasis, especially in obese individuals or those ≥60 years old and at doses of ≥2000 IU/day (≥50 µg/day). However, it has no effect on the incidence of cardiovascular events. Concerning cancer, vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased incidence of and mortality from several types of cancer, such as colorectal, lung and breast cancer. However, the data on other types of gynecological cancer are inconsistent. Vitamin D supplementation has no effect on cancer incidence, although a modest reduction in cancer-related mortality has been observed. Concerning infections, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with acute respiratory tract infections, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Vitamin D supplementation may decrease the risk of acute respiratory tract infections and the severity of COVID-19 (not the risk of infection). Concerning menopausal symptomatology, vitamin D deficiency may have a negative impact on some aspects, such as sleep disturbances, depression, sexual function and joint pains. However, vitamin D supplementation has no effect on these, except for vulvovaginal atrophy, at relatively high doses, i.e., 40,000-60,000 IU/week (1000-1500 IU/week) orally or 1000 IU/day (25 µg/day) as a vaginal suppository.


Subject(s)
Dietary Supplements , Menopause , Vitamin D , Aged , Female , Humans , Calcium , Calcium, Dietary , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Neoplasms/complications , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
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