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1.
Neurology ; 97(10): e988-e995, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398889

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Health care delivery systems transformed rapidly at the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic to slow the spread of the virus while identifying novel methods for providing care. In many ways, the pandemic affected both persons with neurologic illness and neurologists. This study describes the perspectives and experiences of community neurologists providing care for patients with neurodegenerative illnesses during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study with 20 community neurologists from a multisite comparative-effectiveness trial of outpatient palliative care from July 23, 2020, to November 11, 2020. Participants were interviewed individually about the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on their professional and personal lives. Interviews were analyzed with matrix analysis to identify key themes. RESULTS: Four main themes illustrated the impact of the pandemic on community neurologists: (1) challenges of the current political climate, (2) lack of support for new models of care, (3) being on the frontline of suffering, and (4) clinician self-care. Taken together, the themes capture the unusual environment in which community neurologists practice, the lack of clinician trust among some patients, patient and professional isolation, and opportunities to support quality care delivery. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic and pandemic politics created an environment that made care provision challenging for community neurologists. Efforts to improve care delivery should proactively work to reduce clinician burnout while incorporating support for new models of care adopted due to the pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03076671.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurologists , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/complications , Outpatients , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Mol Neurosci ; 72(1): 25-26, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358124

ABSTRACT

Neurological symptoms in COVID-19 patients have attracted the interest of the scientific community, yet their mechanisms remain unknown. In some circumstances, the presence of neurological manifestations may result in an incidental diagnosis after a detailed investigation. In the present letter, we discuss a case published by Demir et al., in which the diagnosis of COVID-19 enabled the diagnosis of a rare neurological disorder, characterized by bilateral brain calcifications, commonly known by the eponym Fahr's syndrome. In addition, we report a case of primary brain calcifications unveiled by a suspected coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Basal Ganglia Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Neurodegenerative Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Basal Ganglia Diseases/complications , Calcinosis/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Incidental Findings , Male , Middle Aged , Neurodegenerative Diseases/complications , Seizures/etiology
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304666

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy can be both a primary pathology and a secondary effect of many neurological conditions. Many papers show that neuroinflammation is a product of epilepsy, and that in pathological conditions characterized by neuroinflammation, there is a higher probability to develop epilepsy. However, the bidirectional mechanism of the reciprocal interaction between epilepsy and neuroinflammation remains to be fully understood. Here, we attempt to explore and discuss the relationship between epilepsy and inflammation in some paradigmatic neurological and systemic disorders associated with epilepsy. In particular, we have chosen one representative form of epilepsy for each one of its actual known etiologies. A better understanding of the mechanistic link between neuroinflammation and epilepsy would be important to improve subject-based therapies, both for prophylaxis and for the treatment of epilepsy.


Subject(s)
Disease Susceptibility , Epilepsy/etiology , Inflammation/complications , Animals , Biomarkers , Brain Neoplasms/complications , Brain Neoplasms/etiology , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Combined Modality Therapy , Disease Management , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/metabolism , Epilepsy/therapy , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/complications , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , Symptom Assessment , Treatment Outcome
4.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(9): 4694-4715, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281328

ABSTRACT

The unremitting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) marked a year-long phase of public health adversaries and has severely compromised healthcare globally. Early evidence of COVID-19 noted its impact on the pulmonary and cardiovascular functions, while multiple studies in recent time shed light on its substantial neurological complications, though a comprehensive understanding of the cause(s), the mechanism(s), and their neuropathological outcomes is scarce. In the present review, we conferred evidence of neurological complications in COVID-19 patients and shed light on the SARS-CoV-2 infection routes including the hematogenous, direct/neuronal, lymphatic tissue or cerebrospinal fluid, or infiltration through infected immune cells, while the underlying mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 invasion to the central nervous system (CNS) was also discussed. In an up-to-date manner, we further reviewed the impact of COVID-19 in developing diverse neurologic manifestations associated with CNS, peripheral nervous system (PNS), skeletal muscle, and also pre-existing neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and myasthenia gravis. Furthermore, we discussed the involvement of key factors including age, sex, comorbidity, and disease severity in exacerbating the neurologic manifestations in COVID-19 patients. An outlook of present therapeutic strategies and state of existing challenges in COVID-19 management was also accessed. Conclusively, the present report provides a comprehensive review of COVID-19-related neurological complications and emphasizes the need for their early clinical management in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System/virology , Child , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Immune System/virology , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/complications , Neurons/virology , Organ Specificity , Sex Factors , Viremia/chemically induced , Viremia/immunology , Virus Internalization
5.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(5): 2379-2394, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014227

ABSTRACT

Along with emergence of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in late 2019, a myriad of neurologic symptoms, associated with structural brain changes, were reported. In this paper, we provide evidence to critically discuss the claim that the survived patients could possibly be at increased risk for neurodegenerative diseases via various mechanisms. This virus can directly invade the brain through olfactory bulb, retrograde axonal transport from peripheral nerve endings, or via hematogenous or lymphatic routes. Infection of the neurons along with peripheral leukocytes activation results in pro-inflammatory cytokine increment, rendering the brain to neurodegenerative changes. Also, occupation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) with the virus may lead to a decline in ACE-2 activity, which acts as a neuroprotective factor. Furthermore, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and septicemia induce hypoxemia and hypoperfusion, which are locally exacerbated due to the hypercoagulable state and micro-thrombosis in brain vessels, leading to oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. Common risk factors for COVID-19 and neurodegenerative diseases, such as metabolic risk factors, genetic predispositions, and even gut microbiota dysbiosis, can contribute to higher occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases in COVID-19 survivors. However, it should be considered that severity of the infection, the extent of neurologic symptoms, and the persistence of viral infection consequences are major determinants of this association. Importantly, whether this pandemic will increase the overall incidence of neurodegeneration is not clear, as a high percentage of patients with severe form of COVID-19 might probably not survive enough to develop neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Neurodegenerative Diseases/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/genetics
6.
Neurol Sci ; 41(11): 3063-3065, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-784591

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fahr's syndrome (or Fahr's disease) is a rare, neurological disorder characterized by bilateral calcification in the cerebellum, thalamus, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex as a result of calcium and phosphorus metabolism disorder. The patients may be asymptomatic and clinical symptoms represent a wide range of neurologic manifestations and nonspecific neuropsychiatric disorders. We report an unusual case of Fahr's syndrome which was asymptomatic and incidentally diagnosed by generalized tonic-clonic seizure in a patient with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pneumonia. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 68-year-old female and admitted to our emergency department suffering from cough and fatigue. After thorax computed tomography (CT) and SARS-CoV-2 PCR test, she was diagnosed as COVID-19 pneumonia. In the intensive care unit, the patient had a tonic-clonic convulsion starting from the left arm and spreading to the whole body. Fahr's syndrome was diagnosed after a cranial CT scan and blood metabolic panel test. CONCLUSIONS: As a result of the clinical, radiological, and biochemical evaluations, the patient was diagnosed incidentally as Fahr's syndrome associated with hypoparathyroidism. Seizures could be induced by hydroxychloroquine that was in the COVID-19 treatment or the inflammation caused by COVID-19 pneumonia. The association between the mortality of COVID-19 pneumonia and Fahr's syndrome is unknown which needs further research.


Subject(s)
Basal Ganglia Diseases/diagnosis , Calcinosis/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Neurodegenerative Diseases/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Seizures/etiology , Aged , Basal Ganglia Diseases/complications , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Calcinosis/complications , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Incidental Findings , Neurodegenerative Diseases/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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