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Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2020 Dec 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004732


Biomaterials have been the subject of numerous studies to pursue potential therapeutic interventions for a wide variety of disorders and diseases. The physical and chemical properties of various materials have been explored to develop natural, synthetic, or semi-synthetic materials with distinct advantages for use as drug delivery systems for the central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS diseases. In this review, an overview of popular biomaterials as drug delivery systems for neurogenerative diseases is provided, balancing the potential and challenges associated with the CNS drug delivery. As an effective drug delivery system, desired properties of biomaterials are discussed, addressing the persistent challenges such as targeted drug delivery, stimuli responsiveness, and controlled drug release in vivo. Finally, we discuss the prospects and limitations of incorporating extracellular vesicles (EVs) as a drug delivery system and their use for biocompatible, stable, and targeted delivery with limited immunogenicity, as well as their ability to be delivered via a non-invasive approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Drug Delivery Systems , Animals , Clinical Studies as Topic , Drug Delivery Systems/adverse effects , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Extracellular Vesicles/chemistry , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Humans , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry
Rev Neurosci ; 32(2): 235-247, 2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947988


The coronavirus disease (COVID-19), identified in Wuhan, China, on December 2019, was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization, on March, 2020. Since then, efforts have been gathered to describe its clinical course and to determine preventive measures and treatment strategies. Adults older than 65 years of age are more susceptible to serious clinical symptoms and present higher mortality rates. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a major receptor for some coronavirus infection, including SARS-COV-2, but is also a crucial determinant in anti-inflammation processes during the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) functioning - converting angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7. The decline in ACE2 expression that occurs with aging has been associated to the higher morbidity and mortality rates in older adults. These observations highlight the importance of investigating the association between COVID-19 and age-related neurodegenerative disorders, i.e., Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. A possible option to reduce the risk of COVID-19 is vitamin D supplementation, due to its anti-inflammatory and immune-system-modulating effects. It has also been suggested that vitamin D supplementation plays a role in slowing progression of Parkinson and Alzheimer. The present study is a literature review of articles published on the theme COVID-19, Parkinson and Alzheimer's diseases, and the role played by vitamin D. PUBMED, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases were consulted. Results confirm neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory effects of COVID-19, aggravated in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's patients, and the important role of vitamin D as a possible therapeutic strategy. Nevertheless, randomized controlled trials and large population studies are still warranted.

COVID-19/drug therapy , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Age Distribution , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
Biomolecules ; 10(8)2020 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-823584


Neurodegenerative diseases are the second most common cause of death and characterized by progressive impairments in movement or mental functioning in the central or peripheral nervous system. The prevention of neurodegenerative disorders has become an emerging public health challenge for our society. Melatonin, a pineal hormone, has various physiological functions in the brain, including regulating circadian rhythms, clearing free radicals, inhibiting biomolecular oxidation, and suppressing neuroinflammation. Cumulative evidence indicates that melatonin has a wide range of neuroprotective roles by regulating pathophysiological mechanisms and signaling pathways. Moreover, melatonin levels are decreased in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the regulation, molecular mechanisms and biological functions of melatonin in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, vascular dementia and multiple sclerosis. We also discuss the clinical application of melatonin in neurodegenerative disorders. This information will lead to a better understanding of the regulation of melatonin in the brain and provide therapeutic options for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases.

Circadian Rhythm , Melatonin/physiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/metabolism , Animals , Circadian Rhythm/drug effects , Dementia, Vascular/metabolism , Humans , Huntington Disease/metabolism , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Parkinson Disease/metabolism