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1.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071841

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with increased incidence of neurological diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders after infection, but how it contributes to their development remains under investigation. Here, we investigate the possible relationship between COVID-19 and the development of ten neurological disorders and three neuropsychiatric disorders by exploring two pathological mechanisms: (i) dysregulation of host biological processes via virus-host protein-protein interactions (PPIs), and (ii) autoreactivity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epitopes with host "self" proteins via molecular mimicry. We also identify potential genetic risk factors which in combination with SARS-CoV-2 infection might lead to disease development. Our analysis indicated that neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) have a higher number of disease-associated biological processes that can be modulated by SARS-CoV-2 via virus-host PPIs than neuropsychiatric disorders. The sequence similarity analysis indicated the presence of several matching 5-mer and/or 6-mer linear motifs between SARS-CoV-2 epitopes with autoreactive epitopes found in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Parkinson's Disease (PD), Myasthenia Gravis (MG) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The results include autoreactive epitopes that recognize amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP), microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT), acetylcholine receptors, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neurofilament light polypeptide (NfL) and major myelin proteins. Altogether, our results suggest that there might be an increased risk for the development of NDs after COVID-19 both via autoreactivity and virus-host PPIs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Computational Biology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , Epitopes , Receptors, Cholinergic , Microtubule-Associated Proteins
2.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 34-39, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719335

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic is a significant psychological stressor in addition to its tremendous impact on every facet of individuals' lives and organizations in virtually all social and economic sectors worldwide. Fear of illness and uncertainty about the future precipitate anxiety- and stress-related disorders, and several groups have rightfully called for the creation and dissemination of robust mental health screening and treatment programs for the general public and front-line healthcare workers. However, in addition to pandemic-associated psychological distress, the direct effects of the virus itself (several acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2), and the subsequent host immunologic response, on the human central nervous system (CNS) and related outcomes are unknown. We discuss currently available evidence of COVID-19 related neuropsychiatric sequelae while drawing parallels to past viral pandemic-related outcomes. Past pandemics have demonstrated that diverse types of neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as encephalopathy, mood changes, psychosis, neuromuscular dysfunction, or demyelinating processes, may accompany acute viral infection, or may follow infection by weeks, months, or longer in recovered patients. The potential mechanisms are also discussed, including viral and immunological underpinnings. Therefore, prospective neuropsychiatric monitoring of individuals exposed to SARS-CoV-2 at various points in the life course, as well as their neuroimmune status, are needed to fully understand the long-term impact of COVID-19, and to establish a framework for integrating psychoneuroimmunology into epidemiologic studies of pandemics.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/psychology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Nervous System Diseases/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Acute Disease , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/immunology , Anxiety/psychology , Bacterial Translocation , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Demyelinating Diseases/etiology , Demyelinating Diseases/immunology , Demyelinating Diseases/physiopathology , Demyelinating Diseases/psychology , Depression/etiology , Depression/immunology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/immunology , Mental Health , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/immunology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/physiopathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Psychoneuroimmunology , Psychotic Disorders/etiology , Psychotic Disorders/immunology , Psychotic Disorders/psychology , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/immunology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
3.
Lancet Neurol ; 20(9): 753-761, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which any upper respiratory virus, including SARS-CoV-2, impairs chemosensory function are not known. COVID-19 is frequently associated with olfactory dysfunction after viral infection, which provides a research opportunity to evaluate the natural course of this neurological finding. Clinical trials and prospective and histological studies of new-onset post-viral olfactory dysfunction have been limited by small sample sizes and a paucity of advanced neuroimaging data and neuropathological samples. Although data from neuropathological specimens are now available, neuroimaging of the olfactory system during the acute phase of infection is still rare due to infection control concerns and critical illness and represents a substantial gap in knowledge. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS: The active replication of SARS-CoV-2 within the brain parenchyma (ie, in neurons and glia) has not been proven. Nevertheless, post-viral olfactory dysfunction can be viewed as a focal neurological deficit in patients with COVID-19. Evidence is also sparse for a direct causal relation between SARS-CoV-2 infection and abnormal brain findings at autopsy, and for trans-synaptic spread of the virus from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb. Taken together, clinical, radiological, histological, ultrastructural, and molecular data implicate inflammation, with or without infection, in either the olfactory epithelium, the olfactory bulb, or both. This inflammation leads to persistent olfactory deficits in a subset of people who have recovered from COVID-19. Neuroimaging has revealed localised inflammation in intracranial olfactory structures. To date, histopathological, ultrastructural, and molecular evidence does not suggest that SARS-CoV-2 is an obligate neuropathogen. WHERE NEXT?: The prevalence of CNS and olfactory bulb pathosis in patients with COVID-19 is not known. We postulate that, in people who have recovered from COVID-19, a chronic, recrudescent, or permanent olfactory deficit could be prognostic for an increased likelihood of neurological sequelae or neurodegenerative disorders in the long term. An inflammatory stimulus from the nasal olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulbs and connected brain regions might accelerate pathological processes and symptomatic progression of neurodegenerative disease. Persistent olfactory impairment with or without perceptual distortions (ie, parosmias or phantosmias) after SARS-CoV-2 infection could, therefore, serve as a marker to identify people with an increased long-term risk of neurological disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Olfaction Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfactory Mucosa/diagnostic imaging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/physiopathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Olfactory Mucosa/physiopathology , Olfactory Mucosa/virology , Prospective Studies , Smell/physiology
4.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 27(12): 1433-1436, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462759

ABSTRACT

After almost a year of COVID-19, the chronic long-COVID syndrome has been recognized as an entity in 2021. The patients with the long-COVID are presenting with ominous neurological deficits that with time are becoming persistent and are causing disabilities in the affected individuals. The mechanisms underlying the neurological syndrome in long-COVID have remained obscure and need to be actively researched to find a resolution for the patients with long-COVID. Here, the factors like site of viral load, the differential immune response, neurodegenerative changes, and inflammation as possible causative factors are debated to understand and investigate the pathogenesis of neuro-COVID in long-COVID syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/physiopathology , Viral Load
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304666

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy can be both a primary pathology and a secondary effect of many neurological conditions. Many papers show that neuroinflammation is a product of epilepsy, and that in pathological conditions characterized by neuroinflammation, there is a higher probability to develop epilepsy. However, the bidirectional mechanism of the reciprocal interaction between epilepsy and neuroinflammation remains to be fully understood. Here, we attempt to explore and discuss the relationship between epilepsy and inflammation in some paradigmatic neurological and systemic disorders associated with epilepsy. In particular, we have chosen one representative form of epilepsy for each one of its actual known etiologies. A better understanding of the mechanistic link between neuroinflammation and epilepsy would be important to improve subject-based therapies, both for prophylaxis and for the treatment of epilepsy.


Subject(s)
Disease Susceptibility , Epilepsy/etiology , Inflammation/complications , Animals , Biomarkers , Brain Neoplasms/complications , Brain Neoplasms/etiology , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Combined Modality Therapy , Disease Management , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/metabolism , Epilepsy/therapy , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/complications , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , Symptom Assessment , Treatment Outcome
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 680891, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291922

ABSTRACT

The network of tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) represents the filamentous (F)-actin rich tubular structure which is connected to the cytoplasm of the adjacent and or distant cells to mediate efficient cell-to-cell communication. They are long cytoplasmic bridges with an extraordinary ability to perform diverse array of function ranging from maintaining cellular physiology and cell survival to promoting immune surveillance. Ironically, TNTs are now widely documented to promote the spread of various pathogens including viruses either during early or late phase of their lifecycle. In addition, TNTs have also been associated with multiple pathologies in a complex multicellular environment. While the recent work from multiple laboratories has elucidated the role of TNTs in cellular communication and maintenance of homeostasis, this review focuses on their exploitation by the diverse group of viruses such as retroviruses, herpesviruses, influenza A, human metapneumovirus and SARS CoV-2 to promote viral entry, virus trafficking and cell-to-cell spread. The later process may aggravate disease severity and the associated complications due to widespread dissemination of the viruses to multiple organ system as observed in current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. In addition, the TNT-mediated intracellular spread can be protective to the viruses from the circulating immune surveillance and possible neutralization activity present in the extracellular matrix. This review further highlights the relevance of TNTs in ocular and cardiac tissues including neurodegenerative diseases, chemotherapeutic resistance, and cancer pathogenesis. Taken together, we suggest that effective therapies should consider precise targeting of TNTs in several diseases including virus infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Cytoplasm/ultrastructure , Cytoplasm/virology , Nanotubes/virology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , Virus Diseases/etiology , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cell Communication , Humans
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079664

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), remains a global challenge. Currently, there is some information on the consequences of COVID-19 infection in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, as it is a newly discovered coronavirus, but its far-reaching effects on participation in neurodegenerative diseases seem to be significant. Recent cases reports showed that SARS-CoV-2 may be responsible for initiating the demyelination process in people who previously had no symptoms associated with any nervous system disorders. It is presently known that infection of SARS-CoV-2 evokes cytokine storm syndrome, which may be one of the factors leading to the acute cerebrovascular disease. One of the substantial problems is the coexistence of cerebrovascular disease and MS in an individual's life span. Epidemiological studies showed an enhanced risk of death rate from vascular disabilities in MS patients of approximately 30%. It has been demonstrated that patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection usually show increased levels of D-dimer, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), and overactivation of blood platelets, which are essential elements of prothrombotic events. In this review, the latest knowledge gathered during an ongoing pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the neurodegeneration processes in MS is discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Multiple Sclerosis/virology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/pathology
8.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry ; 109: 110230, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989032

ABSTRACT

Exacerbation of cognitive, motor and nonmotor symptoms have been described in critically ill COVID-19 patients, indicating that, like prior pandemics, neurodegenerative sequelae may mark the aftermath of this viral infection. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19 disease, was associated with hyperferritinemia and unfavorable prognosis in older individuals, suggesting virus-induced ferrosenescence. We have previously defined ferrosenescence as an iron-associated disruption of both the human genome and its repair mechanisms, leading to premature cellular senescence and neurodegeneration. As viruses replicate more efficiently in iron-rich senescent cells, they may have developed the ability to induce this phenotype in host tissues, predisposing to both immune dysfunction and neurodegenerative disorders. In this mini-review, we summarize what is known about the SARS-CoV-2-induced cellular senescence and iron dysmetabolism. We also take a closer look at immunotherapy with natural killer cells, angiotensin II receptor blockers ("sartans"), iron chelators and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors ("gliptins") as adjunct treatments for both COVID-19 and its neurodegenerative complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cellular Senescence , Iron Metabolism Disorders/etiology , Iron Metabolism Disorders/physiopathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Iron/metabolism , Iron/physiology
9.
Rev Neurosci ; 32(2): 235-247, 2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947988

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19), identified in Wuhan, China, on December 2019, was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization, on March, 2020. Since then, efforts have been gathered to describe its clinical course and to determine preventive measures and treatment strategies. Adults older than 65 years of age are more susceptible to serious clinical symptoms and present higher mortality rates. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a major receptor for some coronavirus infection, including SARS-COV-2, but is also a crucial determinant in anti-inflammation processes during the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) functioning - converting angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7. The decline in ACE2 expression that occurs with aging has been associated to the higher morbidity and mortality rates in older adults. These observations highlight the importance of investigating the association between COVID-19 and age-related neurodegenerative disorders, i.e., Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. A possible option to reduce the risk of COVID-19 is vitamin D supplementation, due to its anti-inflammatory and immune-system-modulating effects. It has also been suggested that vitamin D supplementation plays a role in slowing progression of Parkinson and Alzheimer. The present study is a literature review of articles published on the theme COVID-19, Parkinson and Alzheimer's diseases, and the role played by vitamin D. PUBMED, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases were consulted. Results confirm neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory effects of COVID-19, aggravated in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's patients, and the important role of vitamin D as a possible therapeutic strategy. Nevertheless, randomized controlled trials and large population studies are still warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Age Distribution , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
10.
Biol Direct ; 15(1): 28, 2020 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947943

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents the world with the medical challenge associated with multifactorial nature of this pathology. Indeed COVID-19 affects several organs and systems and presents diversified clinical picture. COVID-19 affects the brain in many ways including direct infection of neural cells with SARS-CoV-2, severe systemic inflammation which floods the brain with pro-inflammatory agents thus damaging nervous cells, global brain ischaemia linked to a respiratory failure, thromboembolic strokes related to increased intravascular clotting and severe psychological stress. Often the COVID-19 is manifested by neurological and neuropsychiatric symptoms that include dizziness, disturbed sleep, cognitive deficits, delirium, hallucinations and depression. All these indicate the damage to the nervous tissue which may substantially increase the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases and promote dementia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Epidemics , Neurodegenerative Diseases/epidemiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(23): 24453-24461, 2020 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927217

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) uses the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor for infecting and spreading in humans. Studies have shown that the widespread expression of ACE2 in human tissues may be associated with organ function damage (e.g., lung, kidney, and stomach) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, in neurodegenerative diseases, whose pathogenesis is closely related to advanced age, ACE2 plays a neurotrophic and protective role by activating the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis, thus inhibiting cognitive impairment. Early reports have revealed that the elderly are more susceptible to COVID-19 and that elderly patients with COVID-19 have faster disease progression and higher mortality. Therefore, during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is crucial to understand the role of ACE2 in neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper, we review the relationship between COVID-19, neurodegenerative diseases, and ACE2, as well as provide recommendations for the protection of elderly patients with neurodegenerative diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Factors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Disease Susceptibility , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , Renin-Angiotensin System , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
13.
Mol Neurobiol ; 57(12): 5263-5275, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738570

ABSTRACT

Similar to its predecessors, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibits neurotrophic properties, which lead to progression of neurologic sequelae. Besides direct viral invasion to the central nervous system (CNS), indirect CNS involvement through viral-mediated immune response is plausible. Aberrant immune pathways such as extreme release of cytokines (cytokine storm), autoimmunity mediated by cross-reactivity between CNS components and viral particles, and microglial activation propagate CNS damage in these patients. Here, we review the currently available evidence to discuss the plausible immunologic pathways that may contribute to the development of COVID-19 neurological complications, namely Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, seizure, and brainstem involvement.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Brain Stem/physiopathology , Brain Stem/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Disease Outbreaks , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Humans , Mice , Multiple Sclerosis/etiology , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Nerve Tissue Proteins/physiology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/immunology , Neuroglia/pathology , Neuroglia/virology , Neurons/pathology , Neurons/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/immunology
14.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110212, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733695

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism has been increasingly recognized by its imaging and syndromic manifestations in the literature. The purpose of this report is to explore the limited yet salient current evidence that SARS-CoV-2's host genomic targets PTBP1 and the 14-3-3 protein isoform encoding genes YWHAE and YWHAZ may be hold the key to understanding how neurotropism triggers neurodegeneration and how it may contribute to the onset of neurodegenerative disease. Considering that PTBP1 silencing in particular has recently been shown to reverse clinical parkinsonism and induce neurogenesis, as well as the known interactions of PTBP1 and YWHAE/Z with coronaviruses - most notably 14-3-3 and SARS-CoV, recent studies reinvigorate the infectious etiology hypotheses on major neurodegenerative disease such as AD and iPD. Considering that human coronaviruses with definite neurotropism have been shown to achieve long-term latency within the mammalian CNS as a result of specific accommodating mutations, the corroboration of genomic-level evidence with neuroimaging has vast potential implications for neurodegenerative disease.


Subject(s)
14-3-3 Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/genetics , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/genetics , Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Humans , Models, Neurological , Nerve Degeneration/etiology , Nerve Degeneration/genetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
15.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(2): 763-770, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-664574

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the agent of novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), has kept the globe in disquiets due to its severe life-threatening conditions. The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, sore throat, and shortness of breath. According to the anecdotal reports from the health care workers, it has been suggested that the virus could reach the brain and can cause anosmia, hyposmia, hypogeusia, and hypopsia. Once the SARS-CoV-2 has entered the central nervous system (CNS), it can either exit in an inactive form in the tissues or may lead to neuroinflammation. Here, we aim to discuss the chronic infection of the olfactory bulb region of the brain by SARS-CoV-2 and how this could affect the nearby residing neurons in the host. We further review the probable cellular mechanism and activation of the microglia 1 phenotype possibly leading to various neurodegenerative disorders. In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 might probably infect the olfactory bulb neuron enervating the nasal epithelium accessing the CNS and might cause neurodegenerative diseases in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology
16.
J Neurol ; 268(2): 409-419, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-659027

ABSTRACT

Neurological disorders and coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are two conditions with a recent well-documented association. Intriguing evidences showed that COVID-19 infection can modify clinical spectrum of manifested neurological disorders but also it plays a crucial role in the development of future diseases as long-tem consequences. In this viewpoint review, we aimed to assess the vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2 infection and development of COVID-19 among neurological disorders. With this in mind, we tested the hypothesis that age rather than neuropathology itself could be decisive in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, whereas neuropathology rather than age may be critical in neuroimmunological diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis. Highlighting the role of potential susceptibility or protection factors from this disastrous infection, we also stratify the risk for future neurodegeneration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Immune System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Immune System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics
17.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 12(1): 69, 2020 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526712

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence suggests that infection with Sars-CoV-2 causes neurological deficits in a substantial proportion of affected patients. While these symptoms arise acutely during the course of infection, less is known about the possible long-term consequences for the brain. Severely affected COVID-19 cases experience high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and acute respiratory dysfunction and often require assisted ventilation. All these factors have been suggested to cause cognitive decline. Pathogenetically, this may result from direct negative effects of the immune reaction, acceleration or aggravation of pre-existing cognitive deficits, or de novo induction of a neurodegenerative disease. This article summarizes the current understanding of neurological symptoms of COVID-19 and hypothesizes that affected patients may be at higher risk of developing cognitive decline after overcoming the primary COVID-19 infection. A structured prospective evaluation should analyze the likelihood, time course, and severity of cognitive impairment following the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Brain/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Animals , Brain/pathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
18.
Neurologia (Engl Ed) ; 35(4): 245-251, 2020 May.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-178369

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 was first detected in December 2019 in the Chinese city of Wuhan and has since spread across the world. At present, the virus has infected over 1.7 million people and caused over 100 000 deaths worldwide. Research is currently focused on understanding the acute infection and developing effective treatment strategies. In view of the magnitude of the epidemic, we conducted a speculative review of possible medium- and long-term neurological consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection, with particular emphasis on neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases of neuroinflammatory origin, based on the available evidence on neurological symptoms of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. DEVELOPMENT: We systematically reviewed the available evidence about the pathogenic mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the immediate and lasting effects of the cytokine storm on the central nervous system, and the consequences of neuroinflammation for the central nervous system. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 is a neuroinvasive virus capable of triggering a cytokine storm, with persistent effects in specific populations. Although our hypothesis is highly speculative, the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the onset and progression of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases of neuroinflammatory origin should be regarded as the potential cause of a delayed pandemic that may have a major public health impact in the medium to long term. Cognitive and neuropsychological function should be closely monitored in COVID-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokines/physiology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/psychology , Disease Progression , Humans , Immune System/physiopathology , Immune System/virology , Inflammation , Inflammation Mediators/physiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Models, Immunological , Models, Neurological , Neurodegenerative Diseases/epidemiology , Neuroimmunomodulation/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
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