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1.
Vaccine ; 41(29): 4267-4273, 2023 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328342

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccines have been approved for children and adolescents for protecting against SARS-CoV-2 infection. This longitudinal study aimed to compare adverse outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], autism spectrum disorder [ASD], communication disorders, intellectual disability, and tic disorders) and healthy control children. METHODS: A total of 1335 children who received the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (762 children with ND and 573 healthy controls) were recruited. All subjects were followed-up for 180 days, and outcome events were defined as outpatient department (OPD) or emergency department (ER) visits during follow-up. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to identify the potential differences in outcomes between the propensity score-matched ND group (n = 311) and the control group (n = 311), and to explore the factors associated with outcomes among all children with ND (n = 762). RESULTS: Compared with the control group, children with ND exhibited a higher likelihood of subsequent OPD or ER visits and paediatric neurology OPD visits after the first dose of vaccination. However, we found that only a small proportion of the children visited the OPD or ER because of adverse vaccination-related effects. Among all children with ND, those with communication disorders showed a higher likelihood of any OPD or ER visit. Paediatric neurology OPD visits were associated with communication disorders, intellectual disability, and methylphenidate and aripiprazole prescriptions. ADHD and ASD were not associated with adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: No specific ND diagnosis or medication use clearly increased the risk of adverse effects of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Children with ND can be reassured that the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is a safe regimen to protect themselves.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Intellectual Disability , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Adolescent , Child , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Follow-Up Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/chemically induced , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
2.
Psychiatr Danub ; 35(1): 92-96, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Investigating the outpatient clinic admissions of children and adolescents significantly affected by the pandemic is crucial in developing policy and intervention methods in the future. The aim of this study is to analyze the admissions of child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinics, during the first year since the imposed rearrangements of the COVID-19 pandemic, compared to the one year before. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study was conducted between March 2019 and March 2021 and the total number of 5833 patients referred to the hospital was 3168 in the pre-pandemic period (Pre-P) and 2665 in the pandemic (In-P) period. After excluding 78 not fulfilling inclusion criteria, these screened cases were randomized for 700 patients for Pre-P and 700 for In-P within each group. RESULTS: Externalization Disorders and Neurodevelopmental Disorders were the most represented diagnoses categories between the two time periods and showed a statistically significant decrease in admission during the pandemic (p=0.002, p=0.024, respectively). Internalization disorders and the undiagnosed group showed a statistically significant increase during the pandemic (p=0.024, p<0.001, respectively). Significant differences were also shown in the treatment plan (need for pharmacological and psychotherapy) has increased. CONCLUSIONS: This study stands out by providing data on the trend of diagnosis in a child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinic before and during the pandemic period. To dominate these trends would be important to provide a basis for policymakers to plan appropriate management methods and levels of support for children and adolescents with different mental disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Adolescent , Humans , Child , Adolescent Psychiatry , Pandemics , Ambulatory Care Facilities
3.
BMC Pediatr ; 23(1): 32, 2023 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies have estimated the real prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) in Spain and worldwide. However, there are disparate prevalence figures. We consider research in this field essential to improve early detection, secondary prevention, and health planning. METHODS: The Minikid ADHD and TICS-Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (Children's version, AQ- Child) and a protocol of general medical questions were administered for screening purposes. The PROLEXIA battery for children aged from 4 to 6 years was used for direct assessments. Parents provided information on emotional, medical, and school aspects. The final population evaluated using these tools consisted of 291 6-year-old subjects. RESULTS: The overall risk of presenting with a neurodevelopmental disorder was 55.4%. A 23.4% risk of presenting with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in any modality (inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive and combined), a 2.8% risk of developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a 30.6% risk of presenting with a learning disorder with reading difficulties, a 5.5% risk of tics and a 22.5% risk of language problems (incomprehensible language or minor language problems) were detected in the sample. The most common combination of disorders was learning and language difficulties, accounting for 6.9% of the sample. The second most frequent combination was the presence of learning and language difficulties and ADHD, accounting for 4.5% of the sample. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of risks detected in our sample seems to be consistent with national and international studies. A significant proportion of our sample had never been previously diagnosed (85%), so early detection programs are recommended.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Tics , Adolescent , Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , Autism Spectrum Disorder/diagnosis , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , Prevalence , Spain/epidemiology , Tics/complications , Tics/epidemiology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/therapy , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/diagnosis , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/epidemiology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/prevention & control , Comorbidity , Referral and Consultation , Primary Health Care
4.
PLoS Med ; 20(2): e1004072, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261753

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) restrictions decreased the use of specialist psychiatric services for children and adolescents in spring 2020. However, little is known about the pattern once restrictions eased. We compared new psychiatric diagnoses by specialist services during pandemic and pre-pandemic periods. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This national register study focused on all Finnish residents aged 0 to 17 years from January 2017 to September 2021 (approximately 1 million a year). The outcomes were new monthly diagnoses for psychiatric or neurodevelopmental disorders in specialist services. These were analyzed by sex, age, home location, and diagnostic groups. The numbers of new diagnoses from March 2020 were compared to predictive models based on previous years. The predicted and observed levels in March to May 2020 showed no significant differences, but the overall difference was 18.5% (95% confidence interval 12.0 to 25.9) higher than predicted in June 2020 to September 2021, with 3,821 more patients diagnosed than anticipated. During this period, the largest increases were among females (33.4%, 23.4 to 45.2), adolescents (34.4%, 25.0 to 45.3), and those living in areas with the highest COVID-19 morbidity (29.9%, 21.2 to 39.8). The largest increases by diagnostic groups were found for eating disorders (27.4%, 8.0 to 55.3), depression and anxiety (21.0%, 12.1 to 51.9), and neurodevelopmental disorders (9.6%, 3.0 to 17.0), but psychotic and bipolar disorders and conduct and oppositional disorders showed no significant differences and self-harm (-28.6, -41.5 to -8.2) and substance use disorders (-15.5, -26.4 to -0.7) decreased in this period. The main limitation is that data from specialist services do not allow to draw conclusions about those not seeking help. CONCLUSIONS: Following the first pandemic phase, new psychiatric diagnoses in children and adolescents increased by nearly a fifth in Finnish specialist services. Possible explanations to our findings include changes in help-seeking, referrals and psychiatric problems, and delayed service access.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Female , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Pandemics , Finland , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis
5.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 145: 105021, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270072

ABSTRACT

In recent years, there has been a great interest in utilizing technology in mental health research. The rapid technological development has encouraged researchers to apply technology as a part of a diagnostic process or treatment of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (NDDs). With the large number of studies being published comes an urgent need to inform clinicians and researchers about the latest advances in this field. Here, we methodically explore and summarize findings from studies published between August 2019 and February 2022. A search strategy led to the identification of 4108 records from PubMed and APA PsycInfo databases. 221 quantitative studies were included, covering a wide range of technologies used for diagnosis and/or treatment of NDDs, with the biggest focus on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The most popular technologies included machine learning, functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging, and neurofeedback. The results of the review indicate that technology-based diagnosis and intervention for NDD population is promising. However, given a high risk of bias of many studies, more high-quality research is needed.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Humans , Autism Spectrum Disorder/diagnosis , Autism Spectrum Disorder/therapy , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/diagnosis , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mental Health
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(1)2022 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243228

ABSTRACT

Research during the COVID-19 pandemic has shown a strong relationship between child symptoms, parental stress, and mental health challenges. The pandemic has changed family routines, worsening child symptomatology and parental burden. The aim of this study was to investigate how the magnitude of the perceived changes in child externalizing behavior, parental stress, and discontinuity of therapy-from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic-affected parental mental health during the pandemic. Moreover, we sought to compare these aspects cross-culturally between European countries and the USA. To these purposes, we asked Italian, Spanish, and U.S. parents of children with neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDD) to complete an online survey. Quantitative results showed that increased parental stress may have contributed to a worsening in parental psychological distress, regardless of culture. Moreover, they suggested an indirect effect of child externalizing behaviors on parents' psychological distress via parental stress. Qualitative analyses highlighted that the lack, or discontinuity, of therapeutic activities may have been one of the key contributors to parenting burden during the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, qualitative results highlighted resilience factors that could have decreased the risk of psychological problems during the pandemic, such as a strong sense of parental efficacy and the ability to adapt to changing family dynamics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Humans , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , Parenting/psychology , Pandemics , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/epidemiology
7.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 63(11): 1344-1346, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909414

ABSTRACT

The lockdowns during the COVID-19 pandemic had and continue to have severe and wide-ranging effects worldwide on mental health and loneliness. In this commentary, I summarise Houghton et al. (2022) who explored these effects longitudinally in adolescents in Western Australia, with and without a Neurodevelopmental Disorder (NDD), considering the strengths and weaknesses of the article and its importance to the field. Adolescents with NDD, who already had a high baseline rate of loneliness and mental health difficulties, did not find that this increased during COVID-19 lockdowns. However, adolescents without NDD, who began with a much lower baseline rate, found that this was elevated. There was variability in terms of different types of NDD, with adolescents who had ADHD reporting some positive effects of the COVID-19 lockdowns. These findings highlight the importance of support for adolescents both with NDD and those without as the world emerges out of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Adolescent , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/epidemiology , Loneliness/psychology
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 472, 2022 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779645

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The current COVID-19 pandemic interferes with family lives across the world, particularly families of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are at a greater risk for being negatively impacted by the pandemic. Together with representatives from this caregiver population the aim was to explore the interference associated with normal family life caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: This is a descriptive study using a cross-sectional design. Following a strategic network sampling strategy, a user-developed national survey was completed by a larger sample (N = 1,186) of parents and informal caregivers of children with NDDs. The survey utilized a combination of both closed and open-ended questions, and a logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess the association between family characteristics, characteristics of the child, and COVID-19 related family life interference. Before carrying out the regression an inductive content analysis of the open-ended question on `How has the isolation affected the family´ was carried out to construct the outcome variable. RESULTS: The initial analysis indicated that the COVID-19 pandemic induced a shift in everyday family life and a lack of guidance and support related to managing the challenges they were facing. Caregivers who reported that COVID-19 had significantly interfered with their family life, were more likely to report having anxious children, and to have experienced an increased number of conflicts at home. The logistic regression showed that both anxious children and increased conflicts considerably increased the risk for reporting family life interference compared to those that reported no increased conflicts or anxious children. DISCUSSION: Considering how the COVID-19 related increased conflicts at home and anxious children threaten the family life of the NDD caregiver population, as an external source of family stress, which might lead to negative impact on their mental and physical well-being, the need for further research in collaboration with user representatives is apparent. Our study suggests that more information should be provided to healthcare providers, social professionals, peers, people with NDDs, and caregivers of people with NDDs about the potential threats that a stressful life event such as the current pandemic can pose to their mental and physical health and their family life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 719640, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775833

ABSTRACT

Background: Families are integrally involved in day-to-day caregiving of children with neurodevelopmental and intellectual disabilities (NDID). Given the widespread and increasing prevalence of children with NDID and the impact of family caregiving on psychological, social, and economic implications for both the child and family, understanding and supporting these families is an important public health concern. Objective: We conducted a scoping review on peer support networks to understand their implications on families. Considering increasing prevalence of NDID's, understanding the implications of existing networks is critical to improve and nurture future support networks that can complement and reduce the burden on existing formal support systems. Design: A comprehensive search of multiple databases was conducted. Articles were screened by two reviewers and any disagreements were resolved by a third reviewer. We explored existing research on parent-to-parent peer support networks, which included networks that developed informally as well as those that involved a formal facilitator for the group interpersonal processes. There were no limits on the study design, date and setting of the articles. We included all research studies in English that included an identifier for (i) "peer support networks," (ii) "children with neurodevelopmental and intellectual disabilities" and (iii) "family caregiver outcomes." Results: We identified 36 articles. Majority of the studies were conducted in North America, and were face to face networks. They included families of children with a wide range of NDIDs. Relevant information extracted from different studies highlighted peer support network characteristics and development process, needs of family caregivers attending these networks, factors affecting caregiver participation and the impact of peer support networks on family caregivers. These networks represent a way to strengthen family caregivers, developing resilience and social interactions. Family caregivers sharing similar experiences support one another and provide critical information to each other. Although results are encouraging, future studies incorporating improved study designs are needed to better evaluate the effectiveness of peer support networks. Furthermore, studies where peer support networks develop organically while the child is supported are warranted. Conclusion: Although results obtained are encouraging, our findings support the need for further research studies of peer support networks with better designs and more detailed description of the factors involved in the development.


Subject(s)
Family , Peer Group , Social Support , Child , Family/psychology , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Neurodevelopmental Disorders
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4298, 2022 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740481

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to reveal changes in the quality of life (QOL) of children with neurodevelopmental disorders and their parents, and the interaction between their QOL and parental mental state during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Eighty-nine school-aged children and parents participated in surveys in May 2020 (T1) and May 2021 (T2). The parents completed questionnaires that assessed their QOL, depression, parenting stress, and living conditions. Children's temporary mood status was evaluated using the self-reported visual analog scale (VAS). Children's QOL and VAS at T2 were higher than their QOL at T1. Parents' QOL at T2 was lower than their QOL at T1. Severe parental depression at T1 had a synergistic effect on severe parenting stress and severe depressive state at T2. Additionally, children's high QOL at T1 had a synergistic effect on low parenting stress and children's high QOL at T2. Furthermore, children's low VAS scores and parents' low QOL at T2 were associated with deterioration of family economic status. Children and parents' QOL changed during the prolonged COVID-19 pandemic. Improvement in children's QOL was influenced by reduced maternal depressive symptoms. Public support for parental mental health is important to avoid decreasing QOL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/psychology , Parents/psychology , Quality of Life , Adult , Child , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging ; 7(5): 510-523, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729590

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women represent a uniquely vulnerable population during an infectious disease outbreak, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Although we are at the early stages of understanding the specific impact of SARS-CoV-2 exposure during pregnancy, mounting epidemiological evidence strongly supports a link between exposure to a variety of maternal infections and an increased risk for offspring neurodevelopmental disorders. Inflammatory biomarkers identified from archived or prospectively collected maternal biospecimens suggest that the maternal immune response is the critical link between infection during pregnancy and altered offspring neurodevelopment. This maternal immune activation (MIA) hypothesis has been tested in animal models by artificially activating the immune system during pregnancy and evaluating the neurodevelopmental consequences in MIA-exposed offspring. Although the vast majority of MIA model research is carried out in rodents, the nonhuman primate model has emerged in recent years as an important translational tool. In this review, we briefly summarize human epidemiological studies that have prompted the development of translationally relevant MIA models. We then highlight notable similarities between humans and nonhuman primates, including placental structure, pregnancy physiology, gestational timelines, and offspring neurodevelopmental stages, that provide an opportunity to explore the MIA hypothesis in species more closely related to humans. Finally, we provide a comprehensive review of neurodevelopmental alterations reported in current nonhuman primate models of maternal infection and discuss future directions for this promising area of research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Placenta , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 63(11): 1332-1343, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic school lockdowns on the mental health problems and feelings of loneliness of adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) is hypothesized to be greater than that of their non-NDD peers. This two and a half year longitudinal study compared changes in the mental health and loneliness of Western Australian adolescents pre-COVID-19 (November 2018 and April 2019), immediately prior to COVID-19 school lockdowns (March 2020), and post schools reopening (July/August 2020). METHODS: An age-and-gender matched sample of 476 adolescents with-or-without NDDs completed online assessments for mental health and loneliness. RESULTS: Adolescents with NDDs reported elevated levels of adverse mental health across all four waves of data collection. These young people experienced little change in mental health problems and feelings of loneliness over time, and any increase during school lockdowns returned to, or fell below pre-COVID-19 levels once schools reopened. In comparison, adolescents without NDDs experienced significant increases from a low baseline in depression symptoms, externalizing symptoms, feelings of isolation, and having a positive attitude to being alone, and evidenced a significant decline in positive mental wellbeing. Quality of friendships were unaffected by COVID-19 school lockdowns for all adolescents regardless of NDD status. Of the adolescents with NDDs, those with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder reported a significant increase in positive mental wellbeing following school lockdowns. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with NDDs emerged relatively unscathed from COVID-19 school lockdowns and the short term impacts associated with these were not maintained over time. These findings should be considered in the context of this study's geographical location and the unpredictability of school lockdowns. Learning to live with school lockdowns into the future may be a critical element for further investigation in the context of interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Adolescent , Humans , Child, Preschool , Mental Health , Loneliness/psychology , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Australia/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Schools
15.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690348

ABSTRACT

Advances in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) technology allow one to deconstruct the human body into specific disease-relevant cell types or create functional units representing various organs. hPSC-based models present a unique opportunity for the study of co-occurring disorders where "cause and effect" can be addressed. Poor neurodevelopmental outcomes have been reported in children with congenital heart diseases (CHD). Intuitively, abnormal cardiac function or surgical intervention may stunt the developing brain, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). However, recent work has uncovered several genetic variants within genes associated with the development of both the heart and brain that could also explain this co-occurrence. Given the scalability of hPSCs, straightforward genetic modification, and established differentiation strategies, it is now possible to investigate both CHD and NDD as independent events. We will first overview the potential for shared genetics in both heart and brain development. We will then summarize methods to differentiate both cardiac & neural cells and organoids from hPSCs that represent the developmental process of the heart and forebrain. Finally, we will highlight strategies to rapidly screen several genetic variants together to uncover potential phenotypes and how therapeutic advances could be achieved by hPSC-based models.


Subject(s)
Heart Defects, Congenital , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Heart Defects, Congenital/genetics , Heart Defects, Congenital/metabolism , Humans , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/genetics , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/metabolism , Organoids/metabolism , Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2140875, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595340

ABSTRACT

Importance: Longitudinal research on specific forms of electronic screen use and mental health symptoms in children and youth during COVID-19 is minimal. Understanding the association may help develop policies and interventions targeting specific screen activities to promote healthful screen use and mental health in children and youth. Objective: To determine whether specific forms of screen use (television [TV] or digital media, video games, electronic learning, and video-chatting time) were associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, conduct problems, irritability, hyperactivity, and inattention in children and youth during COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: A longitudinal cohort study with repeated measures of exposures and outcomes was conducted in children and youth aged 2 to 18 years in Ontario, Canada, between May 2020 and April 2021 across 4 cohorts of children or youth: 2 community cohorts and 2 clinically referred cohorts. Parents were asked to complete repeated questionnaires about their children's health behaviors and mental health symptoms during COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: The exposure variables were children's daily TV or digital media time, video game time, electronic-learning time, and video-chatting time. The mental health outcomes were parent-reported symptoms of child depression, anxiety, conduct problems and irritability, and hyperactivity/inattention using validated standardized tools. Results: This study included 2026 children with 6648 observations. In younger children (mean [SD] age, 5.9 [2.5] years; 275 male participants [51.7%]), higher TV or digital media time was associated with higher levels of conduct problems (age 2-4 years: ß, 0.22 [95% CI, 0.10-0.35]; P < .001; age ≥4 years: ß, 0.07 [95% CI, 0.02-0.11]; P = .007) and hyperactivity/inattention (ß, 0.07 [95% CI, 0.006-0.14]; P = .04). In older children and youth (mean [SD] age, 11.3 [3.3] years; 844 male participants [56.5%]), higher levels of TV or digital media time were associated with higher levels of depression, anxiety, and inattention; higher levels of video game time were associated with higher levels of depression, irritability, inattention, and hyperactivity. Higher levels of electronic learning time were associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, higher levels of screen use were associated poor mental health of children and youth during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings suggest that policy intervention as well as evidence-informed social supports are needed to promote healthful screen use and mental health in children and youth during the pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/diagnosis , Pandemics , Screen Time , Adolescent , Anxiety/diagnosis , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis , Child , Conduct Disorder/diagnosis , Depression/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Br J Psychiatry ; 218(1): 7-9, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556719

ABSTRACT

Children and adults with neurodevelopmental disorders make up an estimated 10% of the population. Addressing health inequalities and poorer life outcomes is essential to deliver better quality care. Two parent-carers working in national roles in England suggest ways to increase understanding and work together in coproduction to achieve this.


Subject(s)
Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Psychiatry , Adult , Caregivers , Child , England , Humans , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/therapy , Quality of Health Care
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