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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1275, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the association of primary acute cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) with COVID-19 vaccination through complete ascertainment of all diagnosed CVT in the population of Scotland. METHODS: Case-crossover study comparing cases of CVT recently exposed to vaccination (1-14 days after vaccination) with cases less recently exposed. Cases in Scotland from 1 December 2020 were ascertained through neuroimaging studies up to 17 May 2021 and diagnostic coding of hospital discharges up to 28 April 2021, linked to national vaccination records. The main outcome measure was primary acute CVT. RESULTS: Of 50 primary acute CVT cases, 29 were ascertained only from neuroimaging studies, 2 were ascertained only from hospital discharges, and 19 were ascertained from both sources. Of these 50 cases, 14 had received the Astra-Zeneca ChAdOx1 vaccine and 3 the Pfizer BNT162b2 vaccine. The incidence of CVT per million doses in the first 14 days after vaccination was 2.2 (95% credible interval 0.9 to 4.1) for ChAdOx1 and 1 (95% credible interval 0.1 to 2.9) for BNT162b2. The rate ratio for CVT associated with exposure to ChAdOx1 in the first 14 days compared with exposure 15-84 days after vaccination was 3.2 (95% credible interval 1.1 to 9.5). CONCLUSIONS: These findings support a causal association between CVT and the AstraZeneca vaccine. The absolute risk of post-vaccination CVT in this population-wide study in Scotland was lower than has been reported for populations in Scandinavia and Germany; the explanation for this is not clear.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Over Studies , Humans , Neuroimaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland/epidemiology , Vaccination , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
2.
Br J Radiol ; 95(1129): 20210290, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603309

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Early detection of peripheral neuropathy is extremely important as leprosy is one of the treatable causes of peripheral neuropathy. The study was undertaken to assess the role of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in ulnar neuropathy in leprosy patients. METHODS: This was a case-control study including 38 patients (72 nerves) and 5 controls (10 nerves) done between January 2017 and June 2019. Skin biopsy proven cases of leprosy, having symptoms of ulnar neuropathy (proven on nerve conduction study) were included. MRI was performed on a 3 T MR system. Mean cross-sectional area, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of ulnar nerve at cubital tunnel were calculated. Additional ancillary findings and appearance of base sequences were evaluated. RESULTS: Ulnar nerve showed thickening with altered T2W signal in all the affected nerves, having an average cross-sectional area of 0.26 cm2. Low FA with mean of 0.397 ± 0.19 and high ADC with mean of 1.28 ± 0.427 x 10 -3 mm2/s of ulnar nerve in retrocondylar groove was obtained. In the control group, mean cross-sectional area was 0.71cm2 with mean FA and ADC of 0.53 ± 0.088 and 1.03 ± 0.24 x 10 -3 mm2/s respectively. Statistically no significant difference was seen in diseased and control group. Cut-off to detect neuropathy for FA and ADC is 0.4835 and 1.1020 × 10 -3 mm2/s respectively. CONCLUSION: DTI though is challenging in peripheral nerves, however, is proving to be a powerful complementary tool for assessment of peripheral neuropathy. Our study validates its utility in infective neuropathies. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: 1. DTI is a potential complementary tool for detection of peripheral neuropathies and can be incorporated in standard MR neurography protocol.2. In leprosy-related ulnar neuropathy, altered signal intensity with thickening or abscess of the nerve is appreciated along with locoregional nodes and secondary denervation changes along with reduction of FA and rise in ADC value.3. Best cut-offs obtained in our study for FA and ADC are 0.4835 and 1.1020 × 10 -3 mm2/s respectively.


Subject(s)
Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Leprosy/complications , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Ulnar Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Neuroimaging , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/etiology
3.
Br J Radiol ; 95(1129): 20210570, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566544

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is seen as a serious delayed complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The aim of this study was to describe the most common imaging features of MIS-C associated with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: A retrospective review was made of the medical records and radiological imaging studies of 47 children (26 male, 21 female) in the age range of 25 months-15 years who were diagnosed with MIS-C between August 2020 and March 2021. Chest radiographs were available for all 47 patients, thorax ultrasound for 6, chest CT for 4, abdominal ultrasound for 42, abdomen CT for 9, neck ultrasound for 4, neck CT for 2, brain CT for 1, and brain MRI for 3. RESULTS: The most common finding on chest radiographs was perihilar-peribronchial thickening (46%). The most common findings on abdominal ultrasonography were mesenteric inflammation (42%), and hepatosplenomegaly (38%, 28%). Lymphadenopathy was determined in four patients who underwent neck ultrasound, one of whom had deep neck infection on CT. One patient had restricted diffusion and T2 hyperintensity involving the corpus callosum splenium on brain MRI, and one patient had epididymitis related with MIS-C. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary manifestations are uncommon in MIS-C. In the abdominal imaging, mesenteric inflammation, hepatosplenomegaly, periportal edema, ascites and bowel wall thickening are the most common findings. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The imaging findings of MIS-C are non-specific and can mimic many other pathologies. Radiologists should be aware that these findings may indicate the correct diagnosis of MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Neck/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging , Radiography, Abdominal , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography
4.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(8): 2603-2613, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal and neurological symptoms. Behavioral symptoms with cognitive impairment may mimic the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and other early-onset dementias. Our patients were analyzed and the literature was reviewed to delineate neurological and neuroimaging findings suggestive of NHD. METHOD: Fourteen patients carrying a pathogenic mutation in the TREM2 gene were found in our database. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological data were retrieved and analyzed. RESULTS: The presenting clinical picture was behavioral changes with cognitive decline resembling bvFTD in all patients. The mean age was 37.1 ± 4.97 years and the mean duration of the disease was 8.9 ± 3.51 years. Only two patients had typical bone cysts. Seven patients had bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia in computed tomography of the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed severe atrophy of the corpus callosum, enlargement of the ventricles, atrophy of the caudate nuclei and periventricular white matter changes in all patients. Symmetrical global atrophy of the brain mainly affecting frontoparietal and lateral temporal regions were observed in all cases, and 13 patients had atrophy of the hippocampus. Cerebrospinal fluid examination of 10 patients showed elevated protein levels in six and the presence of oligoclonal bands in four patients. CONCLUSION: A combination of white matter changes, enlarged ventricles, atrophy of the caudate nuclei and thinning of the corpus callosum in magnetic resonance imaging strongly suggests NHD in patients with FTD syndrome. Molecular genetic analysis should be performed in suspected cases, and families should receive genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Frontotemporal Dementia , Lipodystrophy , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Osteochondrodysplasias , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis , Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Frontotemporal Dementia/diagnostic imaging , Frontotemporal Dementia/genetics , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging
6.
Neuroradiology ; 63(12): 2153-2156, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473991

ABSTRACT

More than a year after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, long-term neurological manifestations of COVID-19 are increasingly being reported. The long-term sequelae of COVID-19-related leukoencephalopathy, however, remain unclear. Here, we present long-term neuroimaging follow-up in two cases of COVID-19-related leukoencephalopathy. The two cases demonstrate the utility of brain MRI for evaluating neurologic symptoms in critically ill patients with COVID-19, for diagnosis of underlying neural injury and prognostication of future recovery. The presence of leukoencephalopathy may result in chronic neurologic manifestations and may represent a poor prognosticator of neurologic recovery. The presence of leukoencephalomalacia on follow-up neuroimaging is potentially an indicator of irreversible white matter damage, which may be associated with more severe chronic deficits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukoencephalopathies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Leukoencephalopathies/chemically induced , Leukoencephalopathies/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(12): 106118, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: RCVS (Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstrictive Syndrome) is a condition associated with vasoactive agents that alter endothelial function. There is growing evidence that endothelial inflammation contributes to cerebrovascular disease in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In our study, we describe the clinical features, risk factors, and outcomes of RCVS in a multicenter case series of patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multicenter retrospective case series. We collected clinical characteristics, imaging, and outcomes of patients with RCVS and COVID-19 identified at each participating site. RESULTS: Ten patients were identified, 7 women, ages 21 - 62 years. Risk factors included use of vasoconstrictive agents in 7 and history of migraine in 2. Presenting symptoms included thunderclap headache in 5 patients with recurrent headaches in 4. Eight were hypertensive on arrival to the hospital. Symptoms of COVID-19 included fever in 2, respiratory symptoms in 8, and gastrointestinal symptoms in 1. One patient did not have systemic COVID-19 symptoms. MRI showed subarachnoid hemorrhage in 3 cases, intraparenchymal hemorrhage in 2, acute ischemic stroke in 4, FLAIR hyperintensities in 2, and no abnormalities in 1 case. Neurovascular imaging showed focal segment irregularity and narrowing concerning for vasospasm of the left MCA in 4 cases and diffuse, multifocal narrowing of the intracranial vasculature in 6 cases. Outcomes varied, with 2 deaths, 2 remaining in the ICU, and 6 surviving to discharge with modified Rankin scale (mRS) scores of 0 (n=3), 2 (n=2), and 3 (n=1). CONCLUSIONS: Our series suggests that patients with COVID-19 may be at risk for RCVS, particularly in the setting of additional risk factors such as exposure to vasoactive agents. There was variability in the symptoms and severity of COVID-19, clinical characteristics, abnormalities on imaging, and mRS scores. However, a larger study is needed to validate a causal relationship between RCVS and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Arteries/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Vasoconstriction , Vasospasm, Intracranial/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebral Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Syndrome , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States , Vasospasm, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Vasospasm, Intracranial/physiopathology , Vasospasm, Intracranial/therapy , Young Adult
8.
Brain Connect ; 11(7): 502-504, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412259
9.
Clin Imaging ; 80: 348-352, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412089

ABSTRACT

Although vaccination against Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is still occurring, several adverse effects temporally related to these vaccines are already being reported, even if through isolated case reports. In the present study, we describe the lesions seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of three patients who developed neurological symptoms after receiving the ChAdOX1 nCoV-19 vaccine (Oxford/AstraZeneca). The first patient presented with an ischemic stroke in the posterior limb of the left internal capsule, two days after vaccination. The second patient presented with a left facial nerve palsy, seven days after vaccination. The third patient presented with myelitis, eight days after receiving the vaccine. All patients presented the symptoms after the first dose of the vaccine and did not have a history of previous COVID-19. The real incidence of these types of complications is not known yet, but it is important to consider the possibility of COVID-19 vaccine complications, in patients with a recent history of vaccination and recent development of neurological symptoms, even though this association is only casual. Longitudinal studies are necessary to further analyze the incidence of the adverse effects of each vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Neuroimaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines/adverse effects
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(9)2021 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406639

ABSTRACT

A 13-year-old girl with perinatally acquired HIV infection was admitted to us with acute onset, right-sided hemiparesis of 30 days duration and right-sided myoclonic jerks of 2 days duration affecting the face, upper and lower limbs. On examination, she exhibited increased tone and a pyramidal pattern of weakness in her right upper and lower limbs, along with spontaneous multifocal myoclonic jerks in the affected area. IgG levels in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid for measles were significantly elevated. Brain MRI depicted T2-weighted-hyperintensities in the subcortical white matter. The electroencephalogram demonstrated evidence of lateralised long interval periodic discharges. This patient had no past behavioural problems or poor academic performance. This case underlines the fact that, though subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a chronic disease, a rare fulminant form of SSPE might develop acutely and atypically, with an increased proclivity for HIV-infected patients.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis , Adolescent , Electroencephalography , Female , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Neuroimaging , Paresis/etiology , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis/complications , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis/diagnosis
11.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 217(4): 959-974, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365501

ABSTRACT

Neurologic involvement is well-recognized in COVID-19. This article reviews the neuroimaging manifestations of COVID-19 on CT and MRI, presenting cases from the New York City metropolitan region encountered by the authors during the first surge of the pandemic. The most common neuroimaging manifestations are acute infarcts with large clot burden and intracranial hemorrhage, including microhemorrhages. However, a wide range of additional imaging patterns occur, including leukoencephalopathy, global hypoxic injury, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum, olfactory bulb involvement, cranial nerve enhancement, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The described CNS abnormalities largely represent secondary involvement from immune activation that leads to a prothrombotic state and cytokine storm; evidence for direct neuroinvasion is scant. Comorbidities such as hypertension, complications of prolonged illness and hospitalization, and associated supportive treatments also contribute to the CNS involvement in COVID-19. Routine long-term neurologic follow-up may be warranted, given emerging evidence of long-term microstructural and functional changes on brain imaging after COVID-19 recovery.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/complications , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Neuroimaging/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5822259, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358938

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 patients can present with neurological manifestations in the form of headache, dizziness, hyposmia, myalgia, peripheral neuropathy, acute cerebrovascular disease, and encephalopathy. Neurological involvement could be due to virus-induced brain hypoxia, brain infection, or immune reaction. We aim to describe the neurological presentation of COVID-19 patients and study their neuroimaging findings and disease outcome. Method: The study is a single-centre, retrospective, observational study in Sheikh Shakhbout Medical City (SSMC), Abu Dhabi, UAE. Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between March and May 2020 who presented with neuropathological features with or without respiratory manifestations of COVID-19 were enrolled. Electronic records were studied for age, sex, duration of hospitalization, detailed neurological presentation, history or documented concomitant fever and respiratory features of COVID-19, inflammatory markers, neuroimaging, progress, and disease outcome. Results: Thirty-three patients of 10 nationalities presented with neurological manifestations. Mean (range) age was 51.4 (21-86) years. Twenty-four had comorbidities, and 18 had no prior or concomitant respiratory symptoms. Ten patients presented with encephalopathy and exhibited altered behavior/sensorium: 7 presented with myositis, 8 with stroke, and 4 with seizures, and 4 had peripheral and cranial nerve involvement. The mean (average) duration of hospital stay was 11.4 days (1-38) with the longest observed in stroke patients. Fifteen patients (45%) died and 3 (9%) had residual weakness. Serum ferritin, CRP, and procalcitonin were higher in the severe disease group and correlated with risk of death. Twelve of 22 brain images showed abnormalities including haemorrhage, infarcts, small vessel ischemia, and oedema. Risk of death was higher in older age but did not differ based on the underlying neuropathology. Conclusion: COVID-19 patients who present with neurological involvement have a higher risk of mortality which is aggravated by older age and higher inflammatory markers. The type of neurological pathology does not seem to influence the risk of mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging , Pandemics , Prognosis , Respiratory Therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 2013371, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358934

ABSTRACT

Background: This study was aimed at revealing neuroimaging findings in COVID-19 patients and at discussing their relationship with epidemiological data and some laboratory parameters. Materials and Method. This study included 436 cases of COVID-19 and 40 cases of non-COVID-19 acute/subacute thromboembolism who underwent at least one neuroimaging procedure due to neurological symptoms between April 2020 and December 2020. The group of COVID-19-positive acute/subacute thromboembolism cases was compared with both the group of normal brain imaging cases and the non-COVID-19 acute/subacute thromboembolism group in terms of demographic data and laboratory parameters. Results: When the acute/subacute thromboembolism group and neuroimaging findings were compared in terms of negative group, presence of comorbid disease, D-dimer level, and lymphocyte count in COVID-19 patients, a statistically significant difference was found (p = 0.047, 0.014, and <0.001, respectively). COVID-19-positive and COVID-19-negative acute/subacute thromboembolism cases that were compared in terms of gender, neuroimaging reason, C-reactive protein, D-dimer level and lymphocyte count, a statistically significant difference was found (p = 0.003, <0.001, 0.005, 0.02, and <0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Acute thromboembolic events are common in patients with COVID-19 due to a potentially increased procoagulant process. Neurological evaluation and, if necessary, detailed neuroimaging should be performed, especially in cases with high D-dimer levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/blood , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occipital Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Young Adult
14.
Clin Imaging ; 79: 300-313, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347543

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has affected almost every country in the world resulting in severe morbidity, mortality and economic hardship, altering the landscape of healthcare forever. Its devastating and most frequent thoracic and cardiac manifestations have been well reported since the start of the pandemic. Its extra-thoracic manifestations are myriad and understanding them is critical in diagnosis and disease management. The role of radiology is growing in the second wave and second year of the pandemic as the multiorgan manifestations of COVID-19 continue to unfold. Musculoskeletal, neurologic and vascular disease processes account for a significant number of COVID-19 complications and understanding their frequency, clinical sequelae and imaging manifestations is vital in guiding management and improving overall survival. The authors aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the pathophysiology of the virus along with a detailed and systematic imaging review of the extra-thoracic manifestation of COVID-19. In Part I, abdominal manifestations of COVID-19 in adults and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children will be reviewed. In Part II, manifestations of COVID-19 in the musculoskeletal, central nervous and vascular systems will be reviewed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aorta , Child , Extremities , Humans , Neuroimaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
15.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 51: 100999, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340614

ABSTRACT

A major challenge in designing large-scale, multi-site studies is developing a core, scalable protocol that retains the innovation of scientific advances while also lending itself to the variability in experience and resources across sites. In the development of a common Healthy Brain and Child Development (HBCD) protocol, one of the chief questions is "is fetal MRI ready for prime-time?" While there is agreement about the value of prenatal data obtained non-invasively through MRI, questions about practicality abound. There has been rapid progress over the past years in fetal and placental MRI methodology but there is uncertainty about whether the gains afforded outweigh the challenges in supporting fetal MRI protocols at scale. Here, we will define challenges inherent in building a common protocol across sites with variable expertise and will propose a tentative framework for evaluation of design decisions. We will compare and contrast various design considerations for both normative and high-risk populations, in the setting of the post-COVID era. We will conclude with articulation of the benefits of overcoming these challenges and would lend to the primary questions articulated in the HBCD initiative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Placenta , Child , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
16.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 12(16): 2953-2955, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338519

ABSTRACT

Considering the neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), its early diagnosis is crucial. This Viewpoint aims to highlight these manifestations through multimodal neuroimaging studies reflecting neurochemical and structural impairment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Neuroimaging , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Korean J Radiol ; 22(11): 1875-1885, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315949

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Central nervous system involvement in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been increasingly reported. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the incidence of radiologically demonstrated neurologic complications and detailed neuroimaging findings associated with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE databases was performed up to September 17, 2020, and studies evaluating neuroimaging findings of COVID-19 using brain CT or MRI were included. Several cohort-based outcomes, including the proportion of patients with abnormal neuroimaging findings related to COVID-19 were evaluated. The proportion of patients showing specific neuroimaging findings was also assessed. Subgroup analyses were also conducted focusing on critically ill COVID-19 patients and results from studies that used MRI as the only imaging modality. RESULTS: A total of 1394 COVID-19 patients who underwent neuroimaging from 17 studies were included; among them, 3.4% of the patients demonstrated COVID-19-related neuroimaging findings. Olfactory bulb abnormalities were the most commonly observed (23.1%). The predominant cerebral neuroimaging finding was white matter abnormality (17.6%), followed by acute/subacute ischemic infarction (16.0%), and encephalopathy (13.0%). Significantly more critically ill patients had COVID-19-related neuroimaging findings than other patients (9.1% vs. 1.6%; p = 0.029). The type of imaging modality used did not significantly affect the proportion of COVID-19-related neuroimaging findings. CONCLUSION: Abnormal neuroimaging findings were occasionally observed in COVID-19 patients. Olfactory bulb abnormalities were the most commonly observed finding. Critically ill patients showed abnormal neuroimaging findings more frequently than the other patient groups. White matter abnormalities, ischemic infarctions, and encephalopathies were the common cerebral neuroimaging findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Clin Neuropharmacol ; 44(5): 186-188, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304025

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a systemic illness that implies neurological features and complications. Persistent (>48 hours) hiccups (ie, singultus or hiccoughs) have been recently described as a rare presentation of COVID-19. Even when considered benign, the frequency and duration of hiccup spells can be burdensome and sometimes difficult to treat. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 62-year-old man known by the treating physicians for vascular cognitive impairment, who consulted for progressive persistent hiccups that commenced 5 days earlier, about 24 hours after testing positive for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The patient could barely sleep because the hiccups reached the highest rate of 47 per minute in a spell lasting almost 72 hours. The patient initially received levomepromazine 25 mg by mouth, but sedation and delirium impeded the continuation of treatment, which only reduced the frequency of the hiccup spells by about 25%. Afterward, the patient was offered levosulpiride 25 mg thrice a day by mouth, resulting in a steady reduction in the hiccups rate, as well as the duration and daily frequency of spells, which disappeared after 3 days of levosulpiride treatment. COVID-19 pneumonia was moderate by chest computed tomography scan imaging and biomarkers, meriting continuous oxygen therapy, dexamethasone 6 mg once a day by mouth for 10 days, and enoxaparin 40 mg once a day, subcutaneously, for 7 days (due to elevated D-dimer serum concentration). Oxygen therapy was gradually withdrawn after 12 days. CONCLUSIONS: Oral levosulpiride is a suitable option in persistent hiccups that occur in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. To our knowledge, this is the fourth published case of persistent hiccups as a clinical feature of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Hiccup/etiology , Sulpiride/analogs & derivatives , Cerebrovascular Disorders/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Hiccup/diagnostic imaging , Hiccup/drug therapy , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging , Sulpiride/therapeutic use
19.
J Clin Invest ; 131(8)2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291498

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDThe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rapidly progressed to a global pandemic. Although some patients totally recover from COVID-19 pneumonia, the disease's long-term effects on the brain still need to be explored.METHODSWe recruited 51 patients with 2 subtypes of COVID-19 (19 mild and 32 severe) with no specific neurological manifestations at the acute stage and no obvious lesions on the conventional MRI 3 months after discharge. Changes in gray matter morphometry, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and white matter (WM) microstructure were investigated using MRI. The relationship between brain imaging measurements and inflammation markers was further analyzed.RESULTSCompared with healthy controls, the decrease in cortical thickness/CBF and the changes in WM microstructure were more severe in patients with severe disease than in those with mild disease, especially in the frontal and limbic systems. Furthermore, changes in brain microstructure, CBF, and tract parameters were significantly correlated (P < 0.05) with the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and interleukin 6.CONCLUSIONIndirect injury related to inflammatory storm may damage the brain, altering cerebral volume, CBF, and WM tracts. COVID-19-related hypoxemia and dysfunction of vascular endothelium may also contribute to neurological changes. The abnormalities in these brain areas need to be monitored during recovery, which could help clinicians understand the potential neurological sequelae of COVID-19.FUNDINGNatural Science Foundation of China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Brain/blood supply , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Echo-Planar Imaging , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gray Matter/diagnostic imaging , Gray Matter/pathology , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging , Pandemics , Procalcitonin/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/pathology
20.
Neurol India ; 69(2): 260-271, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290494

ABSTRACT

Background: A variety of neuroimaging abnormalities in COVID-19 have been described. Objectives: In this article, we reviewed the varied neuroimaging patterns in patients with COVID-19-associated neurological complications. Methods: We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and preprint databases (medRxiv and bioRxiv). The search terms we used were "COVID -19 and encephalitis, encephalopathy, neuroimaging or neuroradiology" and "SARS-CoV-2 and encephalitis, encephalopathy, neuroimaging or neuroradiology". Results: Neuroimaging abnormalities are common in old age and patients with comorbidities. Neuroimaging abnormalities are largely vascular in origin. COVID-19-associated coagulopathy results in large vessel occlusion and cerebral venous thrombosis. COVID-19-associated intracerebral hemorrhage resembles anticoagulant associated intracerebral hemorrhage. On neuroimaging, hypoxic-ischemic damage along with hyperimmune reaction against the SARS-COV-2 virus manifests as small vessel disease. Small vessel disease appears as diffuse leukoencephalopathy and widespread microbleeds, and subcortical white matter hyperintensities. Occasionally, gray matter hyperintensity, similar to those observed seen in autoimmune encephalitis, has been noted. In many cases, white matter lesions similar to that in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis have been described. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in COVID-19 seems to be a parainfectious event and autoimmune in origin. Many cases of acute necrotizing encephalitis resulting in extensive damage to thalamus and brain stem have been described; cytokine storm has been considered a pathogenic mechanism behind this. None of the neuroimaging abnormalities can provide a clue to the possible pathogenic mechanism. Conclusions: Periventricular white-matter MR hyperintensity, microbleeds, arterial and venous infarcts, and hemorrhages are apparently distinctive neuroimaging abnormalities in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Nervous System Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic
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