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2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17423, 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077097

ABSTRACT

Acute brain injuries such as intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and ischemic stroke have been reported in critically ill COVID-19 patients as well as in patients treated with veno-venous (VV)-ECMO independently of their COVID-19 status. The purpose of this study was to compare critically ill COVID-19 patients with and without VV-ECMO treatment with regard to acute neurological symptoms, pathological neuroimaging findings (PNIF) and long-term deficits. The single center study was conducted in critically ill COVID-19 patients between February 1, 2020 and June 30, 2021. Demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters were extracted from the hospital's databases. Retrospective imaging modalities included head computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Follow-up MRI and neurological examinations were performed on survivors > 6 months after the primary occurrence. Of the 440 patients, 67 patients received VV-ECMO treatment (15%). Sixty-four patients (24 with VV-ECMO) developed acute neurological symptoms (pathological levels of arousal/brain stem function/motor responses) during their ICU stay and underwent neuroimaging with brain CT as the primary modality. Critically ill COVID-19 patients who received VV-ECMO treatment had a significantly lower survival during their hospital stay compared to those without (p < 0.001). Among patients treated with VV-ECMO, 10% showed acute PNIF in one of the imaging modalities during their ICU stay (vs. 4% of patients in the overall COVID-19 ICU cohort). Furthermore, 9% showed primary or secondary ICH of any severity (vs. 3% overall), 6% exhibited severe ICH (vs. 1% overall) and 1.5% were found to have non-hemorrhagic cerebral infarctions (vs. < 1% overall). There was a weak, positive correlation between patients treated with VV-ECMO and the development of acute neurological symptoms. However, the association between the VV-ECMO treatment and acute PNIF was negligible. Two survivors (one with VV-ECMO-treatment/one without) showed innumerable microhemorrhages, predominantly involving the juxtacortical white matter. None of the survivors exhibited diffuse leukoencephalopathy. Every seventh COVID-19 patient developed acute neurological symptoms during their ICU stay, but only every twenty-fifth patient had PNIF which were mostly ICH. VV-ECMO was found to be a weak risk factor for neurological complications (resulting in a higher imaging rate), but not for PNIF. Although logistically complex, repeated neuroimaging should, thus, be considered in all critically ill COVID-19 patients since ICH may have an impact on the treatment decisions and outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Critical Illness/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Prevalence , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Neuroimaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology
3.
Neuroradiology ; 64(Suppl 1): 1-165, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075335
4.
Neuroradiology ; 64(Suppl 1): 1-165, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059794
5.
Neuroradiology ; 64(Suppl 1): 1-165, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059793
6.
Neuroradiology ; 64(Suppl 1): 1-165, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059792
7.
Neuroradiology ; 64(Suppl 1): 1-165, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059791
8.
Neuroradiology ; 64(Suppl 1): 1-165, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059790
9.
Neuroradiology ; 64(Suppl 1): 1-165, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059789
10.
Neuroradiology ; 64(Suppl 1): 1-165, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059788
11.
Neuroradiology ; 64(Suppl 1): 1-165, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059787
12.
Neuroradiology ; 64(Suppl 1): 1-165, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059786
13.
Neuroradiology ; 64(Suppl 1): 1-165, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059785
15.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 140: 104769, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914858

ABSTRACT

We performed a scientometric analysis of the scientific literature on ADHD to evaluate key themes and trends over the past decades, informing future lines of research. We conducted a systematic search in Web of Science Core Collection up to 15 November, 2021 for scientific publications on ADHD. We retrieved 28,381 publications. We identified four major research trends: 1) ADHD treatment, risks factors and evidence synthesis; 2) neurophysiology, neuropsychology and neuroimaging; 3) genetics; 4) comorbidity. In chronological order, identified clusters of themes included: tricyclic antidepressants, ADHD diagnosis/treatment, bipolar disorder, EEG, polymorphisms, sleep, executive functions, pharmacology, genetics, environmental risk factors, emotional dysregulation, neuroimaging, non-pharmacological interventions, default mode network, Tourette, polygenic risk score, sluggish cognitive tempo, evidence-synthesis, toxins/chemicals, psychoneuroimmunology, Covid-19, and physical exercise. In conclusion, research on ADHD over the past decades has been driven mainly by a medical model. Whereas the neurobiological correlates of ADHD are undeniable and crucial, we look forward to further research on relevant psychosocial aspects related to ADHD, such as societal pressure, the concept of neurodiversity, and stigma.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Executive Function , Humans , Neuroimaging
16.
Neurol Neurochir Pol ; 56(2): 118-130, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887304

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Neuropathological brain and spinal cord post mortem examination is a distinct procedure that still plays an important role in modern medicine. In front of increasing amounts of clinical and genetic data, together with important developments in the field of neuroimaging, the Polish Association of Neuropathologists have updated their recommendations regarding central nervous system (CNS) examination. These guidelines are aimed at neuropathologists, pathologists and clinicians. AIM OF THE STUDY: Presentation of the outlined recommendations as their goal is to improve the quality, informativity, and cost effectiveness of CNS post mortem examinations. A comprehensive study of the literature was conducted to provide a clinical background of neuropathological autopsy. There are numerous open questions in neuroscience, and new strategies are required to foster research in CNS diseases. These include the challenge of organizing brain banks tasked with managing and protecting detailed multidisciplinary information about their resources. Complex neuropathological analyses of post mortem series are also important to assess the effectiveness of diagnostics and therapy, identify environmental impact on the development of neurological disorders, and improve public health policy. The recommendations outline the need for collaboration between multiple specialists to establish the proper diagnosis and to broaden knowledge of neurological disorders.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Diseases , Neuropathology , Autopsy/methods , Brain/pathology , Central Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Humans , Neuroimaging
17.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 43(7): 944-950, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875347

ABSTRACT

A recent coronavirus disease 2019-related shutdown of the main production facility of iohexol in China has led to massive shortages of iodinated contrast material across the globe. This shortage has also jeopardized neuroimaging. In this article, we describe remedies to reduce iodinated contrast material use for stroke imaging, which is its primary use in neuroimaging, that we have implemented in our hospital network.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contrast Media , Humans , Intelligence , Iohexol , Neuroimaging
18.
Indian J Pediatr ; 89(11): 1110-1112, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864490

ABSTRACT

Children account for 1% to 5% of diagnosed COVID-19 infection with relatively mild presentation compared to adults. The frequency of neurological involvement in acute COVID-19 infection in children is unclear. COVID-19 is also considered to be a neurotropic virus, but so far, in the pediatric age group, very few cases with involvement of basal ganglia and no case of dentate nucleus involvement have been reported in the literature. The present paper reports two cases of acute encephalopathy with COVID-19, the first case with basal ganglia involvement and the second with dentate nucleus involvement. Both cases required aggressive management and had complete neurological recovery on follow-up. Hence, these cases are reported to make everyone aware of the neurological presentation with atypical neuroimaging finding of acute COVID-19 infection in the pediatric age group; timely management improves the outcome.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Adult , Basal Ganglia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Cerebellar Nuclei , Child , Humans , Neuroimaging
19.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cerebral complications related to the COVID-19 were documented by brain MRIs during the acute phase. The purpose of the present study was to describe the evolution of these neuroimaging findings (MRI and FDG-PET/CT) and describe the neurocognitive outcomes of these patients. METHODS: During the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak between 1 March and 31 May 2020, 112 consecutive COVID-19 patients with neurologic manifestations underwent a brain MRI at Strasbourg University hospitals. After recovery, during follow-up, of these 112 patients, 31 (initially hospitalized in intensive care units) underwent additional imaging studies (at least one brain MRI). RESULTS: Twenty-three men (74%) and eight women (26%) with a mean age of 61 years (range: 18-79) were included. Leptomeningeal enhancement, diffuse brain microhemorrhages, acute ischemic strokes, suspicion of cerebral vasculitis, and acute inflammatory demyelinating lesions were described on the initial brain MRIs. During follow-up, the evolution of the leptomeningeal enhancement was discordant, and the cerebral microhemorrhages were stable. We observed normalization of the vessel walls in all patients suspected of cerebral vasculitis. Four patients (13%) demonstrated new complications during follow-up (ischemic strokes, hypoglossal neuritis, marked increase in the white matter FLAIR hyperintensities with presumed vascular origin, and one suspected case of cerebral vasculitis). Concerning the grey matter volumetry, we observed a loss of volume of 3.2% during an average period of approximately five months. During follow-up, the more frequent FDG-PET/CT findings were hypometabolism in temporal and insular regions. CONCLUSION: A minority of initially severe COVID-19 patients demonstrated new complications on their brain MRIs during follow-up after recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vasculitis, Central Nervous System , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography
20.
Neuroradiol J ; 35(6): 713-717, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic acutely disrupted all facets of healthcare, with future implications that are expected to resonate for many years. We investigated the effect of the pandemic on neuroimaging volume, hypothesizing that all representative studies would experience a reduction in volume, with those typically performed in the inpatient setting (noncontrast enhanced CT head and CTA head/neck) taking longer to recover to pre-pandemic volumes compared to studies typically performed in the outpatient setting (MR brain with and without and MR lumbar spine without). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively queried our institution's radiology reporting system to collect weekly data for 1 year following the World Health Organization declaration of a pandemic (11 March 2020-9 March 2021) and compared them to imaging volumes from the previous year (11 March 2019-9 March 2020). We subsequently analyzed quarterly data (e.g., first quarter comparison: 3/11/2020-6/9/2020 was compared to 3/11/2019-6/9/2019). RESULTS: All studies experienced decreased volume during the first quarter of the year following onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, with noncontrast enhanced CT head failing to recover to pre-pandemic volumes. CTA head/neck actually surpassed pre-pandemic volume by the second quarter of the year. MRI brain w/wo and MRI lumbar spine without recovered to baseline volume by the second quarter. CONCLUSION: Noncontrast enhanced CT head did not recover pre-pandemic imaging volume. CTA head/neck volume initially decreased, however volume increased above pre-pandemic levels during the second quarter; this finding may be attributable to a prothrombotic state in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , New York City/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Neuroimaging
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