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1.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 41(4): 452-460, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522456

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To review the literature and provide a summary of COVID-19-related neurologic and neuro-ophthalmic complications. METHODS: The currently available literature was reviewed on PubMed and Google Scholar using the following keywords for searches: CNS, Neuro-Ophthalmology, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, coronavirus, optic neuritis, pseudotumor cerebri, Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), meningitis, encephalitis, acute necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalopathy, and Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes. RESULTS: Neuroradiologic findings of neurologic and neuro-ophthalmologic complications in relationship to COVID-19 infection were reviewed. Afferent visual pathway-related disorders with relevant imaging manifestations included fundus nodules on MRI, papilledema and pseudotumor cerebri syndrome, optic neuritis, Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, vascular injury with thromboembolism and infarct, leukoencephalopathy, gray matter hypoxic injury, hemorrhage, infectious meningitis/encephalitis, acute necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalopathy, and PRES. Efferent visual pathway-related complications with relevant imaging manifestations were also reviewed, including orbital abnormalities, cranial neuropathy, Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes, and nystagmus and other eye movement abnormalities related to rhombencephalitis. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 can cause central and peripheral nervous system disease, including along both the afferent and efferent components of visual axis. Manifestations of disease and long-term sequela continue to be studied and described. Familiarity with the wide variety of neurologic, ophthalmic, and neuroradiologic presentations can promote prompt and appropriate treatment and continue building a framework to understand the underlying mechanism of disease.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Eye/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging/methods , Optic Neuritis/etiology , Papilledema/etiology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Optic Neuritis/diagnostic imaging , Papilledema/diagnostic imaging
2.
Brain Connect ; 11(7): 502-504, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412259
3.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(6): 2850-2860, 2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380008

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: The aim of this current study was to describe the neuroimaging findings among patients with COVID-19 and to compare them with thorax CT imaging findings and clinicobiological profiles. Materials and methods: Between the period March 11 and December 31, 2020, we evaluated brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images of patients with COVID-19. A total of 354 patients (mean age 65.2 ± 16.6, 52% female, 42% male) who had brain imaging were included in the study. Of this total sample, 218 had thorax CT scanning (65.5%). Neuroimaging and thorax CT findings, clinical course, neurologic findings, and laboratory data were evaluated. White matter lesions (WML) and thorax CT scans were scored. Participants were divided according to whether or not they had an infarction. Results: The neuroimaging findings indicated infarcts, parenchymal hemorrhage, encephalitis, cortical signal abnormality, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), and cranial nerve involvement. WML significantly positively correlated with age (p < 0.01) but not with sex (p > 0.05). Thorax CT findings did not demonstrate significant correlations with infarcts, WML, or hemorrhages (p> 0.05). D-dimer and ferritin levels were significantly higher among patients with infarcts (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Immune-mediated prothrombic state and cytokine storm appear to be more responsible for etiopathogenesis than direct viral neurotropism. Neuroimaging and thorax CT findings were not correlated among patients with COVID-19 in our study. These results suggest that neurological manifestations may occur independently of pulmonary involvement and age.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Infarction , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 217(4): 959-974, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365501

ABSTRACT

Neurologic involvement is well-recognized in COVID-19. This article reviews the neuroimaging manifestations of COVID-19 on CT and MRI, presenting cases from the New York City metropolitan region encountered by the authors during the first surge of the pandemic. The most common neuroimaging manifestations are acute infarcts with large clot burden and intracranial hemorrhage, including microhemorrhages. However, a wide range of additional imaging patterns occur, including leukoencephalopathy, global hypoxic injury, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum, olfactory bulb involvement, cranial nerve enhancement, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The described CNS abnormalities largely represent secondary involvement from immune activation that leads to a prothrombotic state and cytokine storm; evidence for direct neuroinvasion is scant. Comorbidities such as hypertension, complications of prolonged illness and hospitalization, and associated supportive treatments also contribute to the CNS involvement in COVID-19. Routine long-term neurologic follow-up may be warranted, given emerging evidence of long-term microstructural and functional changes on brain imaging after COVID-19 recovery.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/complications , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Neuroimaging/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 2013371, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358934

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was aimed at revealing neuroimaging findings in COVID-19 patients and at discussing their relationship with epidemiological data and some laboratory parameters. Materials and Method. This study included 436 cases of COVID-19 and 40 cases of non-COVID-19 acute/subacute thromboembolism who underwent at least one neuroimaging procedure due to neurological symptoms between April 2020 and December 2020. The group of COVID-19-positive acute/subacute thromboembolism cases was compared with both the group of normal brain imaging cases and the non-COVID-19 acute/subacute thromboembolism group in terms of demographic data and laboratory parameters. RESULTS: When the acute/subacute thromboembolism group and neuroimaging findings were compared in terms of negative group, presence of comorbid disease, D-dimer level, and lymphocyte count in COVID-19 patients, a statistically significant difference was found (p = 0.047, 0.014, and <0.001, respectively). COVID-19-positive and COVID-19-negative acute/subacute thromboembolism cases that were compared in terms of gender, neuroimaging reason, C-reactive protein, D-dimer level and lymphocyte count, a statistically significant difference was found (p = 0.003, <0.001, 0.005, 0.02, and <0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: Acute thromboembolic events are common in patients with COVID-19 due to a potentially increased procoagulant process. Neurological evaluation and, if necessary, detailed neuroimaging should be performed, especially in cases with high D-dimer levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/blood , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occipital Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Young Adult
6.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 45(4): 592-599, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284963

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to aggregate neuroradiological findings in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the brain, head and neck, and spine to identify trends and unique patterns. METHODS: A retrospective review of neuroimaged COVID-19 patients during a 6-week surge in our 8-hospital campus was performed. The brain imaging with reported acute or subacute infarction, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and all neck examinations were reinterpreted by 2 reviewers. RESULTS: Six hundred seventy-one patients met criteria and were reviewed. Acute or subacute infarction was seen in 39 (6%), intraparenchymal hemorrhage in 14 (2%), corpus callosum involvement in 7, and thalamus in 5 patients. In spine and neck studies, lung opacities and adenopathy were seen in 46 and 4 patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Infarction followed by intraparenchymal hemorrhage was the most common acute findings in the brain with frequent involvement of the corpus callosum and thalami. In the neck, lung abnormalities were frequently present, and adenopathy was almost always associated with a second pathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Central Nervous System Diseases/complications , Central Nervous System Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Central Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Head/diagnostic imaging , Head/pathology , Humans , Infant , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Neck/diagnostic imaging , Neck/pathology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spine/diagnostic imaging , Spine/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Young Adult
7.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 82(3): 883-898, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259331

ABSTRACT

Cognitive impairment following SARS-CoV-2 infection is being increasingly recognized as an acute and possibly also long-term sequela of the disease. Direct viral entry as well as systemic mechanisms such as cytokine storm are thought to contribute to neuroinflammation in these patients. Biomarkers of COVID-19-induced cognitive impairment are currently lacking, but there is some limited evidence that SARS-CoV-2 could preferentially target the frontal lobes, as suggested by behavioral and dysexecutive symptoms, fronto-temporal hypoperfusion on MRI, EEG slowing in frontal regions, and frontal hypometabolism on 18F-FDG-PET. Possible confounders include cognitive impairment due to hypoxia and mechanical ventilation and post-traumatic stress disorder. Conversely, patients already suffering from dementia, as well as their caregivers, have been greatly impacted by the disruption of their care caused by COVID-19. Patients with dementia have experienced worsening of cognitive, behavioral, and psychological symptoms, and the rate of COVID-19-related deaths is disproportionately high among cognitively impaired people. Multiple factors, such as difficulties in remembering and executing safeguarding procedures, age, comorbidities, residing in care homes, and poorer access to hospital standard of care play a role in the increased morbidity and mortality. Non-pharmacological interventions and new technologies have shown a potential for the management of patients with dementia, and for the support of their caregivers.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Brain , COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Biomarkers/analysis , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/metabolism , Brain/physiopathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/immunology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Comorbidity , Humans , Neuroimaging/methods , Neuroimmunomodulation/immunology , Patient Care , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224253

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 can require radiological examination, with chest CT being more frequent than neuro-imaging. The objective is to identify epidemiological, clinical and radiological factors considered as predictors of neurological involvement in patients with COVID-19 assessed by neuroimaging and to describe the neuroimaging findings. This retrospective study was performed with 232 consecutive confirmed COVID-19 patients, from two radiological units, which were divided into two groups: (1) those who underwent a brain CT/MRI scan (n = 35) versus (2) those who did not undergo the brain CT/MRI scan, but underwent only chest CT (n = 197). There was a statistically significant difference with associations regarding the COVID-19 brain scan group for: admission to ICU, greater severity of lung injuries, the use of a mechanical ventilator and sepsis. Statistical tendency was found for chronic renal failure and systemic arterial hypertension. Forty-percent of COVID-19 patients from the brain scan group were abnormal on brain CT and/or brain MRI (22.9% of the cases with bleeding or microbleeding, 8.6% with restricted diffusion lesions). One ischemic stroke case was associated with irregularity at the M1 segment of the right middle cerebral artery. There was a case of left facial nerve palsy with enhancement of the left geniculate ganglia. An analysis of the olfactory bulbs was possible in 12 brain MRIs and 100% had enhancement and/or microbleeding. In conclusion, a more severe COVID-19 disease from ICU, a more severe form of lung disease, the use of mechanical ventilator and sepsis were associated to the COVID-19 patients with neurological involvement who had undergone brain scans. Microvascular phenomenon was a frequent finding in the brain and olfactory bulbs evaluated by neuroimaging.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging/methods , Adult , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
9.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1127): 20210149, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207615

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the literature to describe outcomes associated with abnormal neuroimaging findings among adult COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review using PubMed and Embase databases. We included all studies reporting abnormal neuroimaging findings among hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 and outcomes. Data elements including patient demographics, neuroimaging findings, acuity of neurological symptoms and/or imaging findings relative to COVID-19 onset (acute, subacute, chronic), and patient outcomes were recorded and summarized. RESULTS: After review of 775 unique articles, a total of 39 studies comprising 884 COVID-19 patients ≥ 18 years of age with abnormal neuroimaging findings and reported outcomes were included in our analysis. Ischemic stroke was the most common neuroimaging finding reported (49.3%, 436/884) among patients with mortality outcomes data. Patients with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) had the highest all-cause mortality (49.7%, 71/143), followed by patients with imaging features consistent with leukoencephalopathy (38.5%, 5/13), and ischemic stroke (30%, 131/436). There was no mortality reported among COVID-19 patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis without necrosis (0%, 0/8) and leptomeningeal enhancement alone (0%, 0/12). Stroke was a common acute or subacute neuroimaging finding, while leukoencephalopathy was a common chronic finding. CONCLUSION: Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with abnormal neuroimaging findings, those with ICH had the highest all-cause mortality; however, high mortality rates were also seen among COVID-19 patients with ischemic stroke in the acute/subacute period and leukoencephalopathy in the chronic period. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Specific abnormal neuroimaging findings may portend differential mortality outcomes, providing a potential prognostic marker for hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees , Brain Diseases/complications , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Inpatients , Neuroimaging/methods , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Humans , North America , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical
10.
Can Assoc Radiol J ; 73(1): 179-186, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197333

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been associated with neurologic sequelae and neuroimaging abnormalities in several case series previously. In this study, the neuroimaging findings and clinical course of adult patients admitted with COVID-19 to a tertiary care hospital network in Canada were characterized. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study conducted at a tertiary hospital network in Ontario, Canada. All adult patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 admitted from February 1, 2020 to July 22, 2020 who received neuroimaging related to their COVID-19 admission were included. CT and MR images were reviewed and categorized by fellowship-trained neuroradiologists. Demographic and clinical data were collected and correlated with imaging findings. RESULTS: We identified 422 patients admitted with COVID-19 during the study period. 103 (24.4%) met the inclusion criteria and were included: 30 ICU patients (29.1%) and 73 non-ICU patients (70.9%). A total of 198 neuroimaging studies were performed: 177 CTs and 21 MRIs. 17 out of 103 imaged patients (16.8%) had acute abnormalities on neuroimaging: 10 had macrohemorrhages (58.8%), 9 had acute ischemia (52.9%), 4 had SWI abnormalities (23.5%), and 1 had asymmetric sulcal effacement suggesting possible focal encephalitis (5.8%). ICU patients were more likely to have positive neuroimaging findings, more specifically acute ischemia and macrohemorrhages (P < 0.05). Macrohemorrhages were associated with increased mortality (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Macrohemorrhages, acute ischemia and SWI abnormalities were the main neuroimaging abnormalities in our cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Acute ischemia and hemorrhage were associated with worse clinical status.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/complications , Neuroimaging/methods , Adult , Canada , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
World J Pediatr ; 17(2): 171-179, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141519

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We collected neonatal neurological, clinical, and imaging data to study the neurological manifestations and imaging characteristics of neonates with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This case-control study included newborns diagnosed with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China from January 2020 to July 2020. All included newborns had complete neurological evaluations and head magnetic resonance imaging. We normalized the extracted T2-weighted imaging data to a standard neonate template space, and segmented them into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. The comparison of gray matter volume was conducted between the two groups. RESULTS: A total of five neonates with COVID-19 were included in this study. The median reflex scores were 2 points lower in the infected group than in the control group (P = 0.0094), and the median orientation and behavior scores were 2.5 points lower in the infected group than in the control group (P = 0.0008). There were also significant differences between the two groups in the total scale score (P = 0.0426). The caudate nucleus, parahippocampal gyrus, and thalamus had the strongest correlations with the Hammersmith neonatal neurologic examination (HNNE) score, and the absolute correlation coefficients between the gray matter volumes and each part of the HNNE score were all almost greater than 0.5. CONCLUSIONS: We first compared the neurological performance of neonates with and without COVID-19 by quantitative neuroimaging and neurological examination methods. Considering the limited numbers of patients, more studies focusing on the structural or functional aspects of the virus in the central nervous system in different age groups will be carried out in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Child Development , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Male , Neurologic Examination , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(1): S42-S45, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112949

ABSTRACT

The aim of this retrospective observational study was to describe the neuroimaging manifestations of patients with COVID-19. This study was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan from March to July 2020. COVID-19 patients with neurological symptoms and positive neuroimaging were included after confirmation of COVID-19 by polymerase chain reaction test (PCR). In the 12 included patients, seizures and altered mentation were predominant neurological manifestations. Three cases had acute watershed infarcts (25%), two cases had posterior cerebral artery territorial infarcts (16.7%), two cases had periventricular corona radiata infarcts (16.7%), three cases had hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (25%), two cases had posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (16.7%), and there was one case each of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, pontine infarct, and bithalamic lesions (8.3%). This study highlights the diagnostic approaches in COVID-19-associated encephalopathy and the variable imaging features that clinicians and neuroradiologists should be aware of, as the pandemic progresses.  Key Words: COVID-19, Neuroimaging, Encephalopathy, Magnetic resonance imaging, Coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Neuroimaging/methods , Pandemics , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(3): 4713-4730, 2021 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084188

ABSTRACT

The peculiar features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), are challenging the current biological knowledge. Early in Feb, 2020, we suggested that SARS-CoV-2 may possess neuroinvasive potential similar to that of many other coronaviruses. Since then, a variety of neurological manifestations have been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, which was supported in some patients with neuroimaging and/or cerebrospinal fluid tests. To date, at least 27 autopsy studies on the brains of COVID-19 patients can be retrieved through PubMed/MEDLINE, among which neuropathological alterations were observed in the brainstem in 78 of 134 examined patients, and SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid and viral proteins were detected in the brainstem in 16/49 (32.7%) and 18/71 (25.3%) cases, respectively. To shed some light on the peculiar respiratory manifestations of COVID-19 patients, this review assessed the existing evidence about the neurogenic mechanism underlying the respiratory failure induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Acknowledging the neurological involvement has important guiding significance for the prevention, treatment, and prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Neuroimaging/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
14.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 130(11): 1228-1235, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute neurological sequela in patients with COVID-19 infection include acute thromboembolic infarcts related to cytokine storm and post infectious immune activation resulting in a prothrombotic state. Radiologic imaging studies of the sinonasal tract and mastoid cavity in patients with COVID-19 infection are sparse and limited to case series. In this report, we investigate the radiologic involvement of nasal cavity, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, and mastoid cavity in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who presented with acute neurological symptoms. METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records and neuroradiologic imaging in patients diagnosed with acute COVID-19 infection who presented with acute neurological symptoms to assess radiologic prevalence of sinus and mastoid disease and its correlation to upper respiratory tract symptoms. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients, 23 (42%) had partial sinus opacification, with no evidence for complete sinus opacification. The ethmoid sinus was the most commonly affected (16/55 or 29%). An air fluid level was noted in 6/55 (11%) patients, most commonly in the maxillary sinus. Olfactory recess and mastoid opacification were uncommon. There was no evidence of bony destruction in any of the studies, Cough, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, and sore throat were not significantly associated with any radiological findings. CONCLUSION: In patients who present with acute neurological symptoms, COVID-19 infection is characterized by limited and mild mucosal disease within the sinuses, nasopharynx and mastoid cavity. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Mastoid/diagnostic imaging , Nasopharynx/diagnostic imaging , Paranasal Sinuses/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Correlation of Data , Diagnostic Techniques, Neurological , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging/methods , Neurologic Examination/methods , New York/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Symptom Assessment/methods
15.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 42(5): 831-837, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Severe respiratory distress in patients with COVID-19 has been associated with higher rate of neurologic manifestations. Our aim was to investigate whether the severity of chest imaging findings among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) correlates with the risk of acute neuroimaging findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included all patients with COVID-19 who received care at our hospital between March 3, 2020, and May 6, 2020, and underwent chest imaging within 10 days of neuroimaging. Chest radiographs were assessed using a previously validated automated neural network algorithm for COVID-19 (Pulmonary X-ray Severity score). Chest CTs were graded using a Chest CT Severity scoring system based on involvement of each lobe. Associations between chest imaging severity scores and acute neuroimaging findings were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Twenty-four of 93 patients (26%) included in the study had positive acute neuroimaging findings, including intracranial hemorrhage (n = 7), infarction (n = 7), leukoencephalopathy (n = 6), or a combination of findings (n = 4). The average length of hospitalization, prevalence of intensive care unit admission, and proportion of patients requiring intubation were significantly greater in patients with acute neuroimaging findings than in patients without them (P < .05 for all). Compared with patients without acute neuroimaging findings, patients with acute neuroimaging findings had significantly higher mean Pulmonary X-ray Severity scores (5.0 [SD, 2.9] versus 9.2 [SD, 3.4], P < .001) and mean Chest CT Severity scores (9.0 [SD, 5.1] versus 12.1 [SD, 5.0], P = .041). The pulmonary x-ray severity score was a significant predictor of acute neuroimaging findings in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 and acute neuroimaging findings had more severe findings on chest imaging on both radiographs and CT compared with patients with COVID-19 without acute neuroimaging findings. The severity of findings on chest radiography was a strong predictor of acute neuroimaging findings in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Aged , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
16.
Eur J Radiol ; 133: 109393, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060227

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To comprehensively evaluate the incidences of abnormal neuroimaging findings in patients with COVID-19 via a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHOD: PubMed-MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for original articles reporting imaging findings of the brain in adult patients with COVID-19 between January 1, 2020 and October 9, 2020. Abnormal neuroimaging findings were categorized as (1) cerebral microhemorrhages, (2) acute spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), (3) acute to subacute infarcts, and (4) encephalitis or encephalopathy. Pooled incidences of neuroimaging findings were assessed using random-effects modeling. Between-study heterogeneity was explored by using the χ2 statistic for pooled incidences and the inconsistency index I2. The quality of the studies was evaluated using the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomized Studies. Subgroup meta-regression analysis was performed to identify potential sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: Twenty-one eligible papers, including 2125 patients, were identified. The pooled incidences of cerebral microhemorrhages, acute spontaneous ICH, acute/subacute infarcts, and encephalitis/encephalopathy were 6.9 % (95 % confidence interval [CI], 4.9 %-8.9 %), 5.4 % (95 % CI, 3.1 %-7.6 %), 24.0 % (95 % CI, 16.1 %-31.8 %), and 3.3 % (95 % CI, 1.9 %-4.7 %), respectively. Substantial heterogeneities were noted for all neuroimaging findings (I2 = 87 %-97 %). Significant publication biases were present in the pooled incidences. In the subgroup meta-regression analysis, patients with mean or median ages over 65 years showed a significantly lower incidence of encephalitis/encephalopathy (P < 0.001). Furthermore, studies reported that patients in ICU had significantly higher incidences of cerebral microhemorrhages (P < 0.001) and encephalitis/encephalopathy (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Considerable incidences of abnormal neuroimaging findings have been reported in patients with COVID-19. Acute to subacute cerebral infarction was the most prevalent neuroimaging finding.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Neuroimaging/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Humans
18.
Radiology ; 297(3): E324-E334, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042719

ABSTRACT

Background Neurologic complications in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been described, but the understanding of their pathophysiologic causes and neuroanatomical correlates remains limited. Purpose To report on the frequency and type of neuroradiological findings in COVID-19. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, all consecutive adult hospitalized patients with polymerase chain reaction positivity for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and who underwent neuroimaging at Karolinska University Hospital between March 2 and May 24, 2020, were included. All examinations were systematically re-evaluated by 12 readers. Summary descriptive statistics were calculated. Results A total of 185 patients with COVID-19 (62 years ± 14 [standard deviation]; 138 men) underwent neuroimaging. In total, 222 brain CT, 47 brain MRI, and seven spinal MRI examinations were performed. Intra-axial susceptibility abnormalities were the most common finding (29 of 39; 74%, 95% CI: 58, 87) in patients who underwent brain MRI, often with an ovoid shape suggestive of microvascular pathology and with a predilection for the corpus callosum (23 of 39; 59%; 95% CI: 42, 74) and juxtacortical areas (14 of 39; 36%; 95% CI: 21, 53). Ischemic and macrohemorrhagic manifestations were also observed, but vascular imaging did not demonstrate overt abnormalities. Dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI in 19 patients did not reveal consistent asymmetries between hemispheres or regions. Many patients (18 of 41; 44%; 95% CI: 28, 60) had leukoencephalopathy and one patient had a cytotoxic lesion of the corpus callosum. Other findings included olfactory bulb signal abnormalities (seven of 37; 19%), prominent optic nerve subarachnoid spaces (20 of 36; 56%), and enhancement of the parenchyma (three of 20; 15%), leptomeninges (three of 20; 15%), cranial nerves (two of 20; 10%), and spinal nerves (two of four; 50%). At MRI follow-up, regression of leukoencephalopathy and progressive leptomeningeal enhancement was observed in one patient each, respectively, which is suggestive of dynamic processes. Conclusion Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 had a wide spectrum of vascular and inflammatory involvement of both the central and peripheral nervous system. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Nervous System Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Betacoronavirus , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spine/diagnostic imaging
19.
Neuroradiol J ; 34(4): 308-312, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033523

ABSTRACT

The disease caused by the new coronavirus, initially described in China in December 2019, became known as coronavirus disease 2019 and quickly spread to countries on all continents, becoming a pandemic with an important global impact. Despite being a virus that typically affects the respiratory tract, some studies have already described neurological manifestations associated with this infection, including acute ischaemic vascular insult. We report a case series including 30 patients, who presented with neurological symptoms during admission to our service, being diagnosed with ischaemic stroke and, concomitantly, coronavirus disease 2019. In the subgroup of patients analysed, a state of hypercoagulability and pro thrombosis was observed through laboratory tests, probably related to the cytokine storm syndrome associated with infection by this virus. With that, we discussed the possibility of this finding being an aggravating factor in the occurrence of stroke in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Neuroimaging/methods , Adult , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Brazil , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 42(3): 429-434, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to decreases in neuroimaging volume. Our aim was to quantify the change in acute or subacute ischemic strokes detected on CT or MR imaging during the pandemic using natural language processing of radiology reports. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 32,555 radiology reports from brain CTs and MRIs from a comprehensive stroke center, performed from March 1 to April 30 each year from 2017 to 2020, involving 20,414 unique patients. To detect acute or subacute ischemic stroke in free-text reports, we trained a random forest natural language processing classifier using 1987 randomly sampled radiology reports with manual annotation. Natural language processing classifier generalizability was evaluated using 1974 imaging reports from an external dataset. RESULTS: The natural language processing classifier achieved a 5-fold cross-validation classification accuracy of 0.97 and an F1 score of 0.74, with a slight underestimation (-5%) of actual numbers of acute or subacute ischemic strokes in cross-validation. Importantly, cross-validation performance stratified by year was similar. Applying the classifier to the complete study cohort, we found an estimated 24% decrease in patients with acute or subacute ischemic strokes reported on CT or MR imaging from March to April 2020 compared with the average from those months in 2017-2019. Among patients with stroke-related order indications, the estimated proportion who underwent neuroimaging with acute or subacute ischemic stroke detection significantly increased from 16% during 2017-2019 to 21% in 2020 (P = .01). The natural language processing classifier performed worse on external data. CONCLUSIONS: Acute or subacute ischemic stroke cases detected by neuroimaging decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, though a higher proportion of studies ordered for stroke were positive for acute or subacute ischemic strokes. Natural language processing approaches can help automatically track acute or subacute ischemic stroke numbers for epidemiologic studies, though local classifier training is important due to radiologist reporting style differences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Natural Language Processing , Neuroimaging/methods , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , Radiology/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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