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1.
Sci Adv ; 9(23): eadg2248, 2023 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239375

ABSTRACT

Numerous viruses use specialized surface molecules called fusogens to enter host cells. Many of these viruses, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), can infect the brain and are associated with severe neurological symptoms through poorly understood mechanisms. We show that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces fusion between neurons and between neurons and glia in mouse and human brain organoids. We reveal that this is caused by the viral fusogen, as it is fully mimicked by the expression of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein or the unrelated fusogen p15 from the baboon orthoreovirus. We demonstrate that neuronal fusion is a progressive event, leads to the formation of multicellular syncytia, and causes the spread of large molecules and organelles. Last, using Ca2+ imaging, we show that fusion severely compromises neuronal activity. These results provide mechanistic insights into how SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses affect the nervous system, alter its function, and cause neuropathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Neurons , Brain , Neuroglia
2.
Cells ; 12(9)2023 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315740

ABSTRACT

In the mammalian brain, neurogenesis is maintained throughout adulthood primarily in two typical niches, the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and in other nonclassic neurogenic areas (e.g., the amygdala and striatum). During prenatal and early postnatal development, neural stem cells (NSCs) differentiate into neurons and migrate to appropriate areas such as the olfactory bulb where they integrate into existing neural networks; these phenomena constitute the multistep process of neurogenesis. Alterations in any of these processes impair neurogenesis and may even lead to brain dysfunction, including cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. Here, we first summarize the main properties of mammalian neurogenic niches to describe the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurogenesis. Accumulating evidence indicates that neurogenesis plays an integral role in neuronal plasticity in the brain and cognition in the postnatal period. Given that neurogenesis can be highly modulated by a number of extrinsic and intrinsic factors, we discuss the impact of extrinsic (e.g., alcohol) and intrinsic (e.g., hormones) modulators on neurogenesis. Additionally, we provide an overview of the contribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection to persistent neurological sequelae such as neurodegeneration, neurogenic defects and accelerated neuronal cell death. Together, our review provides a link between extrinsic/intrinsic factors and neurogenesis and explains the possible mechanisms of abnormal neurogenesis underlying neurological disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neural Stem Cells , Animals , Humans , Adult , SARS-CoV-2 , Neurogenesis/physiology , Neurons , Mammals
3.
J Virol ; 97(4): e0014423, 2023 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297692

ABSTRACT

2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In addition to respiratory illness, COVID-19 patients exhibit neurological symptoms lasting from weeks to months (long COVID). It is unclear whether these neurological manifestations are due to an infection of brain cells. We found that a small fraction of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons, but not astrocytes, were naturally susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Based on the inhibitory effect of blocking antibodies, the infection seemed to depend on the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), despite very low levels of its expression in neurons. The presence of double-stranded RNA in the cytoplasm (the hallmark of viral replication), abundant synthesis of viral late genes localized throughout infected cells, and an increase in the level of viral RNA in the culture medium (viral release) within the first 48 h of infection suggested that the infection was productive. Productive entry of SARS-CoV-2 requires the fusion of the viral and cellular membranes, which results in the delivery of the viral genome into the cytoplasm of the target cell. The fusion is triggered by proteolytic cleavage of the viral surface spike protein, which can occur at the plasma membrane or from endosomes or lysosomes. We found that SARS-CoV-2 infection of human neurons was insensitive to nafamostat and camostat, which inhibit cellular serine proteases, including transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2). Inhibition of cathepsin L also did not significantly block infection. In contrast, the neuronal infection was blocked by apilimod, an inhibitor of phosphatidyl-inositol 5 kinase (PIK5K), which regulates early to late endosome maturation. IMPORTANCE COVID-19 is a disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Millions of patients display neurological symptoms, including headache, impairment of memory, seizures, and encephalopathy, as well as anatomical abnormalities, such as changes in brain morphology. SARS-CoV-2 infection of the human brain has been documented, but it is unclear whether the observed neurological symptoms are linked to direct brain infection. The mechanism of virus entry into neurons has also not been characterized. Here, we investigated SARS-CoV-2 infection by using a human iPSC-derived neural cell model and found that a small fraction of cortical-like neurons was naturally susceptible to infection. The productive infection was ACE2 dependent and TMPRSS2 independent. We also found that the virus used the late endosomal and lysosomal pathway for cell entry and that the infection could be blocked by apilimod, an inhibitor of cellular PIK5K.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/physiopathology , Endosomes/metabolism , Endosomes/virology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Neurons/virology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome/physiopathology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Phosphotransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Astrocytes/virology , Cells, Cultured
4.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 6401, 2023 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304166

ABSTRACT

Coherent activations of brain neuron networks underlie many physiological functions associated with various behavioral states. These synchronous fluctuations in the electrical activity of the brain are also referred to as brain rhythms. At the cellular level, rhythmicity can be induced by various mechanisms of intrinsic oscillations in neurons or the network circulation of excitation between synaptically coupled neurons. One specific mechanism concerns the activity of brain astrocytes that accompany neurons and can coherently modulate synaptic contacts of neighboring neurons, synchronizing their activity. Recent studies have shown that coronavirus infection (Covid-19), which enters the central nervous system and infects astrocytes, can cause various metabolic disorders. Specifically, Covid-19 can depress the synthesis of astrocytic glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid. It is also known that in the post-Covid state, patients may suffer from symptoms of anxiety and impaired cognitive functions. We propose a mathematical model of a spiking neuron network accompanied by astrocytes capable of generating quasi-synchronous rhythmic bursting discharges. The model predicts that if the release of glutamate is depressed, normal burst rhythmicity will suffer dramatically. Interestingly, in some cases, the failure of network coherence may be intermittent, with intervals of normal rhythmicity, or the synchronization can disappear.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes , COVID-19 , Humans , Astrocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , Glutamic Acid/metabolism , Models, Neurological
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269364

ABSTRACT

The central nervous system (CNS) controls and regulates the functional activities of the organ systems and maintains the unity between the body and the external environment. The advent of co-culture systems has made it possible to elucidate the interactions between neural cells in vitro and to reproduce complex neural circuits. Here, we classified the co-culture system as a two-dimensional (2D) co-culture system, a cell-based three-dimensional (3D) co-culture system, a tissue slice-based 3D co-culture system, an organoid-based 3D co-culture system, and a microfluidic platform-based 3D co-culture system. We provide an overview of these different co-culture models and their applications in the study of neural cell interaction. The application of co-culture systems in virus-infected CNS disease models is also discussed here. Finally, the direction of the co-culture system in future research is prospected.


Subject(s)
Cell Culture Techniques , Organoids , Coculture Techniques , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Neurons , Cell Communication
6.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 19(1): e1010818, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280349

ABSTRACT

Neurons regulate the activity of blood vessels through the neurovascular coupling (NVC). A detailed understanding of the NVC is critical for understanding data from functional imaging techniques of the brain. Many aspects of the NVC have been studied both experimentally and using mathematical models; various combinations of blood volume and flow, local field potential (LFP), hemoglobin level, blood oxygenation level-dependent response (BOLD), and optogenetics have been measured and modeled in rodents, primates, or humans. However, these data have not been brought together into a unified quantitative model. We now present a mathematical model that describes all such data types and that preserves mechanistic behaviors between experiments. For instance, from modeling of optogenetics and microscopy data in mice, we learn cell-specific contributions; the first rapid dilation in the vascular response is caused by NO-interneurons, the main part of the dilation during longer stimuli is caused by pyramidal neurons, and the post-peak undershoot is caused by NPY-interneurons. These insights are translated and preserved in all subsequent analyses, together with other insights regarding hemoglobin dynamics and the LFP/BOLD-interplay, obtained from other experiments on rodents and primates. The model can predict independent validation-data not used for training. By bringing together data with complementary information from different species, we both understand each dataset better, and have a basis for a new type of integrative analysis of human data.


Subject(s)
Neurovascular Coupling , Humans , Mice , Animals , Neurovascular Coupling/physiology , Neurons/physiology , Brain/physiology , Pyramidal Cells , Hemoglobins , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
7.
J Neuroimmunol ; 376: 578047, 2023 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262604

ABSTRACT

Alpha-synuclein is a neuronal protein with unclear function but is associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies. In this review, we discuss the emerging functional role of alpha-synuclein in support of the unique immune responses in the nervous system. Recent data now show that alpha-synuclein functions to support interferon signaling within neurons and is released from neurons to support chemoattraction and activation of local glial cells and infiltrating immune cells. Inflammatory activation and interferon signaling also induce post-translational modifications of alpha-synuclein that are commonly associated with Parkinson's disease pathogenesis. Taken together, emerging data implicate complex interactions between alpha-synuclein and host immune responses that may contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Additional study of the function of alpha-synuclein in the brain's immune response may provide disease-modifying therapeutic targets for Parkinson's disease in the future.


Subject(s)
Parkinson Disease , alpha-Synuclein , Humans , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism
8.
Exp Neurol ; 363: 114379, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265676

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 causes neurological damage, systemic inflammation, and immune cell abnormalities. COVID-19-induced neurological impairment may be caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which directly infects cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and exerts toxic effects. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 mutations occur constantly, and it is not well understood how the infectivity of the virus to cells of the CNS changes as the virus mutates. Few studies have examined whether the infectivity of cells of CNS - neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs), neurons, astrocytes, and microglia - varies among SARS-CoV-2 mutant strains. In this study, therefore, we investigated whether SARS-CoV-2 mutations increase infectivity to CNS cells, including microglia. Since it was essential to demonstrate the infectivity of the virus to CNS cells in vitro using human cells, we generated cortical neurons, astrocytes, and microglia from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). We added pseudotyped lentiviruses of SARS-CoV-2 to each type of cells, and then we examined their infectivity. We prepared three pseudotyped lentiviruses expressing the S protein of the original strain (the first SARS-CoV-2 discovered in the world), the Delta variant, and the Omicron variant on their envelopes and analyzed differences of their ability to infect CNS cells. We also generated brain organoids and investigated the infectivity of each virus. The viruses did not infect cortical neurons, astrocytes, or NS/PCs, but microglia were infected by the original, Delta, and Omicron pseudotyped viruses. In addition, DPP4 and CD147, potential core receptors of SARS-CoV-2, were highly expressed in the infected microglia, while DPP4 expression was deficient in cortical neurons, astrocytes, and NS/PCs. Our results suggest that DPP4, which is also a receptor for Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV), may play an essential role in the CNS. Our study is applicable to the validation of the infectivity of viruses that cause various infectious diseases in CNS cells, which are difficult to sample from humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Humans , Microglia , SARS-CoV-2 , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 , Neurons
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(3)2023 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225332

ABSTRACT

The levels of several glial and neuronal plasma biomarkers have been found to increase during the acute phase in COVID-19 patients with neurological symptoms. However, replications in patients with minor or non-neurological symptoms are needed to understand their potential as indicators of CNS injury or vulnerability. Plasma levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neurofilament light chain protein (NfL), and total Tau (T-tau) were determined by Single molecule array (Simoa) immunoassays in 45 samples from COVID-19 patients in the acute phase of infection [moderate (n = 35), or severe (n = 10)] with minor or non-neurological symptoms; in 26 samples from fully recovered patients after ~2 months of clinical follow-up [moderate (n = 23), or severe (n = 3)]; and in 14 non-infected controls. Plasma levels of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), were also determined by Western blot. Patients with COVID-19 without substantial neurological symptoms had significantly higher plasma concentrations of GFAP, a marker of astrocytic activation/injury, and of NfL and T-tau, markers of axonal damage and neuronal degeneration, compared with controls. All these biomarkers were correlated in COVID-19 patients at the acute phase. Plasma GFAP, NfL and T-tau levels were all normalized after recovery. Recovery was also observed in the return to normal values of the quotient between the ACE2 fragment and circulating full-length species, following the change noticed in the acute phase of infection. None of these biomarkers displayed differences in plasma samples at the acute phase or recovery when the COVID-19 subjects were sub-grouped according to occurrence of minor symptoms at re-evaluation 3 months after the acute episode (so called post-COVID or "long COVID"), such as asthenia, myalgia/arthralgia, anosmia/ageusia, vision impairment, headache or memory loss. Our study demonstrated altered plasma GFAP, NfL and T-tau levels in COVID-19 patients without substantial neurological manifestation at the acute phase of the disease, providing a suitable indication of CNS vulnerability; but these biomarkers fail to predict the occurrence of delayed minor neurological symptoms.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Neurons/metabolism , Neurofilament Proteins , Biomarkers/metabolism , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism
10.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 122(12): 45-49, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204268

ABSTRACT

This review addresses current issues in post-COVID syndrome with a focus on neurocognitive impairment. The results of studies on complications in patients of different ages and health statuses recovered from mild to severe COVID-19 are discussed. Current data on the pathogenetic mechanisms of the development of various post-COVID disorders are presented, including a detailed discussion of central nervous system damage. The paper summarizes data on the relationship between neurocognitive disorders and accelerated cell aging, chronic nonspecific inflammation, and reduced neuroplasticity in the central nervous system. The main pathogenetic ways to prevent COVID-related complications, including neuronal tissue damage and the prospects for managing such patients are discussed. The choice of pathogenetic therapy in patients with neurocognitive impairment in the post-COVID period is assessed. The main benefits of choline alfoscerate therapy for neurocognitive impairment in patients with post-COVID syndrome are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Humans , Neurocognitive Disorders , Neurons
11.
Biomolecules ; 13(2)2023 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is present in up to 30-50% of patients with COVID-19. The mechanism of SARS-CoV-2-induced diarrhea remains unclear. We hypothesized that enterocyte-enteric neuron interactions were important in SARS-CoV-2-induced diarrhea. SARS-CoV-2 induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in enterocytes causing the release of damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). The DAMPs then stimulate the release of enteric neurotransmitters that disrupt gut electrolyte homeostasis. METHODS: Primary mouse enteric neurons (EN) were exposed to a conditioned medium from ACE2-expressing Caco-2 colonic epithelial cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 or treated with tunicamycin (ER stress inducer). Vasoactive intestinal peptides (VIP) expression and secretion by EN were assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Membrane expression of NHE3 was determined by surface biotinylation. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection led to increased expression of BiP/GRP78, a marker and key regulator for ER stress in Caco-2 cells. Infected cells secreted the DAMP protein, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), into the culture media, as revealed by proteomic and Western analyses. The expression of VIP mRNA in EN was up-regulated after treatment with a conditioned medium of SARS-CoV-2-infected Caco-2 cells. CD91, a receptor for HSP70, is abundantly expressed in the cultured mouse EN. Tunicamycin, an inducer of ER stress, also induced the release of HSP70 and Xbp1s, mimicking SARS-CoV-2 infection. Co-treatment of Caco-2 with tunicamycin (apical) and VIP (basolateral) induced a synergistic decrease in membrane expression of Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE3), an important transporter that mediates intestinal Na+/fluid absorption. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 enterocyte infection leads to ER stress and the release of DAMPs that up-regulates the expression and release of VIP by EN. VIP in turn inhibits fluid absorption through the downregulation of brush-border membrane expression of NHE3 in enterocytes. These data highlight the role of epithelial-enteric neuronal crosstalk in COVID-19-related diarrhea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Mice , Animals , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger 3 , Tunicamycin , Caco-2 Cells , Culture Media, Conditioned , Proteomics , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchangers/genetics , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchangers/metabolism , Diarrhea , Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone BiP , Neurons/metabolism
12.
Virol J ; 19(1): 226, 2022 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV), a member of the genus Betacoronavirus, is the causative agent of neurological disease in pigs. No effective therapeutics are currently available for PHEV infection. Resveratrol has been shown to exert neuroprotective and antiviral effects. Here resveratrol was investigated for its ability to inhibit PHEV replication in nerve cells and central nervous system tissues. METHODS: Anti-PHEV effect of resveratrol was evaluated using an in vitro cell-based PHEV infection model and employing a mouse PHEV infection model. The collected cells or tissues were used for quantitative PCR analysis, western blot analysis, or indirect immunofluorescence assay. The supernatants were collected to quantify viral loads by TCID50 assay in vitro. EC50 and CC50 were determined by dose-response experiments, and the ratio (EC50/CC50) was used as a selectivity index (SI) to measure the antiviral versus cytotoxic activity. RESULTS: Our results showed that resveratrol treatment reduced PHEV titer in a dose-dependent manner, with a 50% inhibition concentration of 6.24 µM. A reduction of > 70% of viral protein expression and mRNA copy number and a 19-fold reduction of virus titer were achieved when infected cells were treated with 10 µM resveratrol in a pre-treatment assay. Quantitative PCR analysis and TCID50 assay results revealed that the addition of 10 µM resveratrol to cells after adsorption of PHEV significantly reduced 56% PHEV mRNA copy number and eightfold virus titer. 10 µM resveratrol treatment reduced 46% PHEV mRNA copy number and fourfold virus titer in virus inactivation assay. Moreover, the in vivo data obtained in this work also demonstrated that resveratrol inhibited PHEV replication, and anti-PHEV activities of resveratrol treatment via intranasal installation displayed better than oral gavage. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that resveratrol exerted antiviral effects under various drug treatment and virus infection conditions in vitro and holds promise as a treatment for PHEV infection in vivo.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1 , Mice , Swine , Animals , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Resveratrol/metabolism , Betacoronavirus 1/genetics , Betacoronavirus 1/metabolism , Neurons , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Virus Replication
13.
Brain Behav Immun ; 108: 302-308, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2158471

ABSTRACT

Persistent olfactory dysfunction (OD) is one of the most complaining and worrying complications of long COVID-19 because of the potential long-term neurological consequences. While causes of OD in the acute phases of the SARS-CoV-2 infection have been figured out, reasons for persistent OD are still unclear. Here we investigated the activity of two inflammatory pathways tightly linked with olfaction pathophysiology, namely Substance P (SP) and Prokineticin-2 (PK2), directly within the olfactory neurons (ONs) of patients to understand mechanisms of persistent post-COVID-19 OD. ONs were collected by non-invasive brushing from ten patients with persistent post-COVID-19 OD and ten healthy controls. Gene expression levels of SP, Neurokinin receptor 1, Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), PK2, PK2 receptors type 1 and 2, and Prokineticin-2-long peptide were measured in ONs by Real Time-PCR in both the groups, and correlated with residual olfaction. Immunofluorescence staining was also performed to quantify SP and PK2 proteins. OD patients, compared to controls, exhibited increased levels of both SP and PK2 in ONs, the latter proportional to residual olfaction. This work provided unprecedented, preliminary evidence that both SP and PK2 pathways may have a role in persistent post-COVID-19 OD. Namely, if the sustained activation of SP, lasting months after infection's resolution, might foster chronic inflammation and contribute to hyposmia, the PK2 expression could instead support the smell recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Neurons , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Substance P
14.
Biomolecules ; 12(11)2022 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121848

ABSTRACT

Oxytocin is a hormone secreted from definite neuroendocrine neurons located in specific nuclei in the hypothalamus (mainly from paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei), and its main known function is the contraction of uterine and/or mammary gland cells responsible for parturition and breastfeeding. Among the actions of the peripherally secreted oxytocin is the prevention of different degenerative disorders. These actions have been proven in cell culture and in animal models or have been tested in humans based on hypotheses from previous studies. This review presents the knowledge gained from the previous studies, displays the results from oxytocin intervention and/or treatment and proposes that the well described actions of oxytocin might be connected to other numerous, diverse actions of the biomolecule.


Subject(s)
Oxytocin , Supraoptic Nucleus , Humans , Animals , Oxytocin/pharmacology , Supraoptic Nucleus/physiology , Hypothalamus , Neurons
15.
Cell Rep ; 41(5): 111573, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113996

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can induce a plethora of neurological complications in some patients. However, it is still under debate whether SARS-CoV-2 directly infects the brain or whether CNS sequelae result from systemic inflammatory responses triggered in the periphery. By using high-resolution microscopy, we investigated whether SARS-CoV-2 reaches the brain and how viral neurotropism can be modulated by aging in a non-human primate model of COVID-19. Seven days after infection, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the olfactory cortex and interconnected regions and was accompanied by robust neuroinflammation and neuronal damage exacerbated in aged, diabetic animals. Our study provides an initial framework for identifying the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying SARS-CoV-2 neurological complications, which will be essential to reducing both the short- and long-term burden of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , Neurons , Primates
16.
Nature ; 609(7928): 679-680, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050293
17.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 204, 2022 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038659

ABSTRACT

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus (SFTSV) is an emerging tick-borne phlebovirus with a high fatality rate of 12-30%, which has an expanding endemic and caused thousands of infections every year. Central nervous system (CNS) manifestations are an important risk factor of SFTS outcome death. Further understanding of the process of how SFTSV invades the brain is critical for developing effective anti-SFTS encephalitis therapeutics. We obeserved changes of viral load in the brain at different time points after intraperitoneal infection of SFTSV in newborn C57/BL6 mice. The virus invaded the brain at 3 h post-infection (hpi). Notably, the viral load increased exponentially after 24 hpi. In addition, it was found that in addition to macrophages, SFTSV infected neurons and replicated in the brain. These findings provide insights into the CNS manifestations of severe SFTS, which may lead to drug development and encephalitis therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Bunyaviridae Infections , Encephalitis , Phlebovirus , Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Brain , Bunyaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Mice , Neurons , Phlebovirus/physiology , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology
18.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 93(12): 1343-1348, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess whether SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect the central nervous system, specifically neurons and glia cells, even without clinical neurological involvement. METHODS: In this single centre prospective study, serum levels of neurofilament light chain (sNfL) and glial fibrillar acidic protein (sGFAp) were assessed using SimoaTM assay Neurology 2-Plex B Assay Kit, in 148 hospitalised patients with COVID-19 without clinical neurological manifestations and compared them to 53 patients with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and 108 healthy controls (HCs). RESULTS: Age and sex-corrected sNfL levels were higher in patients with COVID-19 (median log10-sNfL 1.41; IQR 1.04-1.83) than patients with IPF (median log10-sNfL 1.18; IQR 0.98-1.38; p<0.001) and HCs (median log10-sNfL 0.89; IQR 0.72-1.14; p<0.001). Likewise, age and sex-corrected sGFAP levels were higher in patients with COVID-19 (median log10-sGFAP 2.26; IQR 2.02-2.53) in comparison with patients with IPF (median log10-sGFAP 2.15; IQR 1.94-2.30; p<0.001) and HCs (median log10-sGFAP 1.87; IQR 0.64-2.09; p<0.001). No significant difference was found between patients with HCs and IPF (p=0.388 for sNfL and p=0.251 for sGFAp). In patients with COVID-19, a prognostic model with mortality as dependent variable (26/148 patients died during hospitalisation) and sNfl, sGFAp and age as independent variables, showed an area under curve of 0.72 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.84; negative predictive value (NPV) (%):80,positive predictive value (PPV)(%): 84; p=0.0008). CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that neuronal and glial degeneration can occur in patients with COVID-19 regardless of overt clinical neurological manifestations. With age, levels of sNfl and GFAp can predict in-hospital COVID-19-associated mortality and might be useful to assess COVID-19 patient prognostic profile.


Subject(s)
Brain , COVID-19 , Neuroglia , Neurons , Humans , Biomarkers/blood , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Neurofilament Proteins/blood , Neuroglia/pathology , Neuroglia/virology , Neurons/pathology , Neurons/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Male , Female , Prognosis
19.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 84: 105449, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956358

ABSTRACT

Biocidal disinfectants (BDs) that kill microorganisms or pathogens are widely used in hospitals and other healthcare fields. Recently, the use of BDs has rapidly increased as personal hygiene has become more apparent owing to the pandemic, namely the coronavirus outbreak. Despite frequent exposure to BDs, toxicity data of their potential neurotoxicity (NT) are lacking. In this study, a human-derived SH-SY5Y/astrocyte was used as a co-culture model to evaluate the chemical effects of BDs. Automated high-content screening was used to evaluate the potential NT of BDs through neurite growth analysis. A set of 12 BD substances classified from previous reports were tested. Our study confirms the potential NT of benzalkonium chloride (BKC) and provides the first evidence of the potential NT of poly(hexamethylenebicyanoguanide-hexamethylenediamine) hydrochloride (PHMB). BKC and PHMB showed significant NT at concentrations without cytotoxicity. This test system for analyzing the potential NT of BDs may be useful in early screening studies for NT prior to starting in vivo studies.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants , Neuroblastoma , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Astrocytes , Benzalkonium Compounds/toxicity , Coculture Techniques , Disinfectants/toxicity , Humans , Neurons
20.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 129(5-6): 557-562, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894646

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurological disorder marked by characteristic poverty and dysfunction in movement. There are many mechanisms and factors which have been postulated to be associated with the neurodegenerative pathway(s) resulting in distinctive loss of neurons in the substantia nigra. Subsequently, the neuropathology is more widespread and exhibited in other areas of the brain, and enteric nervous system. Aggregates of misfolded α-synuclein or Lewy bodies are the hallmark of the illness and appear to be central in the whole cascade of cell destruction. There are many processes implicated in neuronal destruction including: oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, an imbalance in protein homeostasis and neuroinflammation. Interesting, inflammation induced by pathogens (including, bacteria and viruses) has been associated in the pathogenesis of the disease. Bacteria such as Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter suis appear to colonise the gut, and elicit systemic immune responses, which is them transmitted via the gut-axis to the brain, where cytotoxic cytokines induce neuroinflammation and cell death. This conforms to the bottom-top hypothesis proposed by Braak. The gut is also implicated in two other theories postulated in the development and progression of the disorder, namely, the top-down and the threshold. There is a possibility that these theories may be inter-linked and operate together to certain degree. Ultimately specific trigger factors or conditions may govern the occurrences of these processes in genetically predisposed individuals. Nevertheless, the importance of pathogen-related gut infections cannot be overlooked, since it can result in dysbiosis of gut microbes, which may orchestrate α-synuclein pathology and eventually cell destruction.


Subject(s)
Parkinson Disease , alpha-Synuclein , Humans , Lewy Bodies/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Substantia Nigra/metabolism , alpha-Synuclein/metabolism
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