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1.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 129(5-6): 557-562, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894646

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurological disorder marked by characteristic poverty and dysfunction in movement. There are many mechanisms and factors which have been postulated to be associated with the neurodegenerative pathway(s) resulting in distinctive loss of neurons in the substantia nigra. Subsequently, the neuropathology is more widespread and exhibited in other areas of the brain, and enteric nervous system. Aggregates of misfolded α-synuclein or Lewy bodies are the hallmark of the illness and appear to be central in the whole cascade of cell destruction. There are many processes implicated in neuronal destruction including: oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, an imbalance in protein homeostasis and neuroinflammation. Interesting, inflammation induced by pathogens (including, bacteria and viruses) has been associated in the pathogenesis of the disease. Bacteria such as Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter suis appear to colonise the gut, and elicit systemic immune responses, which is them transmitted via the gut-axis to the brain, where cytotoxic cytokines induce neuroinflammation and cell death. This conforms to the bottom-top hypothesis proposed by Braak. The gut is also implicated in two other theories postulated in the development and progression of the disorder, namely, the top-down and the threshold. There is a possibility that these theories may be inter-linked and operate together to certain degree. Ultimately specific trigger factors or conditions may govern the occurrences of these processes in genetically predisposed individuals. Nevertheless, the importance of pathogen-related gut infections cannot be overlooked, since it can result in dysbiosis of gut microbes, which may orchestrate α-synuclein pathology and eventually cell destruction.


Subject(s)
Parkinson Disease , alpha-Synuclein , Humans , Lewy Bodies/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Substantia Nigra/metabolism , alpha-Synuclein/metabolism
2.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884379

ABSTRACT

The numerous neurological syndromes associated with COVID-19 implicate an effect of viral pathogenesis on neuronal function, yet reports of direct SARS-CoV-2 infection in the brain are conflicting. We used a well-established organotypic brain slice culture to determine the permissivity of hamster brain tissues to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found levels of live virus waned after inoculation and observed no evidence of cell-to-cell spread, indicating that SARS-CoV-2 infection was non-productive. Nonetheless, we identified a small number of infected cells with glial phenotypes; however, no evidence of viral infection or replication was observed in neurons. Our data corroborate several clinical studies that have assessed patients with COVID-19 and their association with neurological involvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Brain , Cricetinae , Humans , Neuroglia , Neurons
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884204

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex chronic disease of the brain characterized by several neurodegenerative mechanisms and is responsible for most dementia cases in the elderly. Declining immunity during ageing is often associated with peripheral chronic inflammation, and chronic neuroinflammation is a constant component of AD brain pathology. In the Special Issue published in 2021 eight papers were collected regarding different aspects of neurodegeneration associated with AD. Five papers presented and discussed infectious agents involved in brain AD pathology and three discussed data regarding receptors regulation and possible treatment of the disease. Below I will discuss and further elaborate on topics related to infections, inflammation, and neurodegenerative pathways in AD and brain senescence. The topic presented here may contribute to early intervention protocols for preventing or slowing the progression of cognitive deterioration in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Cognition Disorders , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Neurons/metabolism
4.
Molecules ; 27(10)2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875718

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: A novel bioreactor platform of neuronal cell cultures using low-magnitude, low-frequency (LMLF) vibrational stimulation was designed to discover vibration influence and mimic the dynamic environment of the in vivo state. To better understand the impact of 40 Hz and 100 Hz vibration on cell differentiation, we join biotechnology and advanced medical technology to design the nano-vibration system. The influence of vibration on the development of nervous tissue on the selected cell line SH-SY5Y (experimental research model in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's) was investigated. (2) Methods: The vibration stimulation of cell differentiation and elongation of their neuritis were monitored. We measured how vibrations affect the morphology and differentiation of nerve cells in vitro. (3) Results: The highest average length of neurites was observed in response to the 40 Hz vibration on the collagen surface in the differentiating medium, but cells response did not increase with vibration frequency. Also, vibrations at a frequency of 40 Hz or 100 Hz did not affect the average density of neurites. 100 Hz vibration increased the neurites density significantly with time for cultures on collagen and non-collagen surfaces. The exposure of neuronal cells to 40 Hz and 100 Hz vibration enhanced cell differentiation. The 40 Hz vibration has the best impact on neuronal-like cell growth and differentiation. (4) Conclusions: The data demonstrated that exposure to neuronal cells to 40 Hz and 100 Hz vibration enhanced cell differentiation and proliferation. This positive impact of vibration can be used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. It is planned to optimize the processes and study its molecular mechanisms concerning carrying out the research.


Subject(s)
Neurons , Vibration , Cell Cycle , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation
5.
Reprod Toxicol ; 111: 34-48, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819592

ABSTRACT

The possible neurodevelopmental consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection are presently unknown. In utero exposure to SARS-CoV-2 has been hypothesized to affect the developing brain, possibly disrupting neurodevelopment of children. Spike protein interactors, such as ACE2, have been found expressed in the fetal brain, and could play a role in potential SARS-CoV-2 fetal brain pathogenesis. Apart from the possible direct involvement of SARS-CoV-2 or its specific viral components in the occurrence of neurological and neurodevelopmental manifestations, we recently reported the presence of toxin-like peptides in plasma, urine and fecal samples specifically from COVID-19 patients. In this study, we investigated the possible neurotoxic effects elicited upon 72-hour exposure to human relevant levels of recombinant spike protein, toxin-like peptides found in COVID-19 patients, as well as a combination of both in 3D human iPSC-derived neural stem cells differentiated for either 2 weeks (short-term) or 8 weeks (long-term, 2 weeks in suspension + 6 weeks on MEA) towards neurons/glia. Whole transcriptome and qPCR analysis revealed that spike protein and toxin-like peptides at non-cytotoxic concentrations differentially perturb the expression of SPHK1, ELN, GASK1B, HEY1, UTS2, ACE2 and some neuronal-, glia- and NSC-related genes critical during brain development. Additionally, exposure to spike protein caused a decrease of spontaneous electrical activity after two days in long-term differentiated cultures. The perturbations of these neurodevelopmental endpoints are discussed in the context of recent knowledge about the key events described in Adverse Outcome Pathways relevant to COVID-19, gathered in the context of the CIAO project (https://www.ciao-covid.net/).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Brain/metabolism , Child , Humans , Neuroglia , Neurons/metabolism , Peptides , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
6.
Cells ; 11(9)2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809731

ABSTRACT

The epidemiological observations suggest that respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms caused by severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are accompanied by short- and long-term neurological manifestations. There is increasing evidence that the neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to its capacity to interact with cell membrane sialome. Given the wide expression of sialylated compounds of cell membranes in the brain, the interplay between cell membrane sialoglycans and the virus is crucial for its attachment and cell entry, transport, neuronal damage and brain immunity. Here, we focus on the significance of the brain sialome in the progress of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and SARS-CoV-2-induced neuropathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Brain , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neurons , SARS-CoV-2
7.
EBioMedicine ; 79: 103999, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurological symptoms such as cognitive decline and depression contribute substantially to post-COVID-19 syndrome, defined as lasting symptoms several weeks after initial SARS-CoV-2 infection. The pathogenesis is still elusive, which hampers appropriate treatment. Neuroinflammatory responses and neurodegenerative processes may occur in absence of overt neuroinvasion. METHODS: Here we determined whether intranasal SARS-CoV-2 infection in male and female syrian golden hamsters results in persistent brain pathology. Brains 3 (symptomatic) or 14 days (viral clearance) post infection versus mock (n = 10 each) were immunohistochemically analyzed for viral protein, neuroinflammatory response and accumulation of tau, hyperphosphorylated tau and alpha-synuclein protein. FINDINGS: Viral protein in the nasal cavity led to pronounced microglia activation in the olfactory bulb beyond viral clearance. Cortical but not hippocampal neurons accumulated hyperphosphorylated tau and alpha-synuclein, in the absence of overt inflammation and neurodegeneration. Importantly, not all brain regions were affected, which is in line with selective vulnerability. INTERPRETATION: Thus, despite the absence of virus in brain, neurons develop signatures of proteinopathies that may contribute to progressive neuronal dysfunction. Further in depth analysis of this important mechanism is required. FUNDING: Federal Ministry of Health (BMG; ZMV I 1-2520COR501), Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF 01KI1723G), Ministry of Science and Culture of Lower Saxony in Germany (14 - 76103-184 CORONA-15/20), German Research Foundation (DFG; 398066876/GRK 2485/1), Luxemburgish National Research Fund (FNR, Project Reference: 15686728, EU SC1-PHE-CORONAVIRUS-2020 MANCO, no > 101003651).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Brain , COVID-19/complications , Cricetinae , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Neurons , Viral Proteins , alpha-Synuclein
8.
Cell Res ; 32(3): 229-230, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783973

Subject(s)
Macrophages , Neurons
9.
Neurobiol Dis ; 168: 105715, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763913

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is responsible for 267 million infections and over 5 million deaths globally. COVID-19 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a single-stranded RNA beta-coronavirus, which causes a systemic inflammatory response, multi-organ damage, and respiratory failure requiring intubation in serious cases. SARS-CoV-2 can also trigger neurological conditions and syndromes, which can be long-lasting and potentially irreversible. Since COVID-19 infections continue to mount, the burden of SARS-CoV-2-induced neurologic sequalae will rise in parallel. Therefore, understanding the spectrum of neurological clinical presentations in SARS-CoV-2 is needed to manage COVID-19 patients, facilitate diagnosis, and expedite earlier treatment to improve outcomes. Furthermore, a deeper knowledge of the neurological SARS-CoV-2 pathomechanisms could uncover potential therapeutic targets to prevent or mitigate neurologic damage secondary to COVID-19 infection. Evidence indicates a multifaceted pathology involving viral neurotropism and direct neuroinvasion along with cytokine storm and neuroinflammation leading to nerve injury. Importantly, pathological processes in neural tissue are non-cell autonomous and occur through a concerted breakdown in neuron-glia homeostasis, spanning neuron axonal damage, astrogliosis, microgliosis, and impaired neuron-glia communication. A clearer mechanistic and molecular picture of neurological pathology in SARS-CoV-2 may lead to effective therapies that prevent or mitigate neural damage in patients contracting and developing severe COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Disease Progression , Homeostasis , Humans , Neuroglia , Neurons , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 826091, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731778

ABSTRACT

Neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent stem cells that reside in the fetal and adult mammalian brain, which can self-renew and differentiate into neurons and supporting cells. Intrinsic and extrinsic cues, from cells in the local niche and from distant sites, stringently orchestrates the self-renewal and differentiation competence of NSCs. Ample evidence supports the important role of NSCs in neuroplasticity, aging, disease, and repair of the nervous system. Indeed, activation of NSCs or their transplantation into injured areas of the central nervous system can lead to regeneration in animal models. Viral invasion of NSCs can negatively affect neurogenesis and synaptogenesis, with consequent cell death, impairment of cell cycle progression, early differentiation, which cause neural progenitors depletion in the cortical layer of the brain. Herein, we will review the current understanding of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection of the fetal brain and the NSCs, which are the preferential population targeted by ZIKV. Furthermore, the potential neurotropic properties of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which may cause direct neurological damage, will be discussed.


Subject(s)
Brain/virology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Neurogenesis/physiology , Neurons/virology , Zika Virus Infection/pathology , Zika Virus Infection/virology , Animals , Humans , Neural Stem Cells/virology
11.
J Virol ; 96(4): e0196921, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702819

ABSTRACT

Unlike SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV, infection with SARS-CoV-2, the viral pathogen responsible for COVID-19, is often associated with neurologic symptoms that range from mild to severe, yet increasing evidence argues the virus does not exhibit extensive neuroinvasive properties. We demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 can infect and replicate in human iPSC-derived neurons and that infection shows limited antiviral and inflammatory responses but increased activation of EIF2 signaling following infection as determined by RNA sequencing. Intranasal infection of K18 human ACE2 transgenic mice (K18-hACE2) with SARS-CoV-2 resulted in lung pathology associated with viral replication and immune cell infiltration. In addition, ∼50% of infected mice exhibited CNS infection characterized by wide-spread viral replication in neurons accompanied by increased expression of chemokine (Cxcl9, Cxcl10, Ccl2, Ccl5 and Ccl19) and cytokine (Ifn-λ and Tnf-α) transcripts associated with microgliosis and a neuroinflammatory response consisting primarily of monocytes/macrophages. Microglia depletion via administration of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibitor, PLX5622, in SARS-CoV-2 infected mice did not affect survival or viral replication but did result in dampened expression of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine transcripts and a reduction in monocyte/macrophage infiltration. These results argue that microglia are dispensable in terms of controlling SARS-CoV-2 replication in in the K18-hACE2 model but do contribute to an inflammatory response through expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Collectively, these findings contribute to previous work demonstrating the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect neurons as well as emphasizing the potential use of the K18-hACE2 model to study immunological and neuropathological aspects related to SARS-CoV-2-induced neurologic disease. IMPORTANCE Understanding the immunological mechanisms contributing to both host defense and disease following viral infection of the CNS is of critical importance given the increasing number of viruses that are capable of infecting and replicating within the nervous system. With this in mind, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of microglia in aiding in host defense following experimental infection of the central nervous system (CNS) of K18-hACE2 with SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. Neurologic symptoms that range in severity are common in COVID-19 patients and understanding immune responses that contribute to restricting neurologic disease can provide important insight into better understanding consequences associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection of the CNS.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/immunology , Microglia/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Central Nervous System/immunology , Central Nervous System/virology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/genetics , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/virology , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Microglia/virology , Neurons/immunology , Neurons/virology , Virus Replication/genetics
12.
Nature ; 602(7896): 268-273, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671587

ABSTRACT

Genetic risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with hundreds of genes spanning a wide range of biological functions1-6. The alterations in the human brain resulting from mutations in these genes remain unclear. Furthermore, their phenotypic manifestation varies across individuals7,8. Here we used organoid models of the human cerebral cortex to identify cell-type-specific developmental abnormalities that result from haploinsufficiency in three ASD risk genes-SUV420H1 (also known as KMT5B), ARID1B and CHD8-in multiple cell lines from different donors, using single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis of more than 745,000 cells and proteomic analysis of individual organoids, to identify phenotypic convergence. Each of the three mutations confers asynchronous development of two main cortical neuronal lineages-γ-aminobutyric-acid-releasing (GABAergic) neurons and deep-layer excitatory projection neurons-but acts through largely distinct molecular pathways. Although these phenotypes are consistent across cell lines, their expressivity is influenced by the individual genomic context, in a manner that is dependent on both the risk gene and the developmental defect. Calcium imaging in intact organoids shows that these early-stage developmental changes are followed by abnormal circuit activity. This research uncovers cell-type-specific neurodevelopmental abnormalities that are shared across ASD risk genes and are finely modulated by human genomic context, finding convergence in the neurobiological basis of how different risk genes contribute to ASD pathology.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Neurons , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Autism Spectrum Disorder/metabolism , Autism Spectrum Disorder/pathology , Cerebral Cortex/cytology , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , GABAergic Neurons/metabolism , GABAergic Neurons/pathology , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/genetics , Humans , Neurons/classification , Neurons/metabolism , Neurons/pathology , Organoids/cytology , Proteomics , RNA-Seq , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcription Factors/genetics
13.
J Pathol ; 257(2): 198-217, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664431

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, typically manifests as a respiratory illness, although extrapulmonary involvement, such as in the gastrointestinal tract and nervous system, as well as frequent thrombotic events, are increasingly recognised. How this maps onto SARS-CoV-2 organ tropism at the histological level, however, remains unclear. Here, we perform a comprehensive validation of a monoclonal antibody against the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NP) followed by systematic multisystem organ immunohistochemistry analysis of the viral cellular tropism in tissue from 36 patients, 16 postmortem cases and 16 biopsies with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 status from the peaks of the pandemic in 2020 and four pre-COVID postmortem controls. SARS-CoV-2 anti-NP staining in the postmortem cases revealed broad multiorgan involvement of the respiratory, digestive, haematopoietic, genitourinary and nervous systems, with a typical pattern of staining characterised by punctate paranuclear and apical cytoplasmic labelling. The average time from symptom onset to time of death was shorter in positively versus negatively stained postmortem cases (mean = 10.3 days versus mean = 20.3 days, p = 0.0416, with no cases showing definitive staining if the interval exceeded 15 days). One striking finding was the widespread presence of SARS-CoV-2 NP in neurons of the myenteric plexus, a site of high ACE2 expression, the entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2, and one of the earliest affected cells in Parkinson's disease. In the bone marrow, we observed viral SARS-CoV-2 NP within megakaryocytes, key cells in platelet production and thrombus formation. In 15 tracheal biopsies performed in patients requiring ventilation, there was a near complete concordance between immunohistochemistry and PCR swab results. Going forward, our findings have relevance to correlating clinical symptoms with the organ tropism of SARS-CoV-2 in contemporary cases as well as providing insights into potential long-term complications of COVID-19. © 2022 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Megakaryocytes , Myenteric Plexus , Neurons
15.
Metab Brain Dis ; 37(3): 711-728, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606836

ABSTRACT

The overload cytosolic free Ca2+ (cCa2+) influx-mediated excessive generation of oxidative stress in the pathophysiological conditions induces neuronal and cellular injury via the activation of cation channels. TRPM2 and TRPV4 channels are activated by oxidative stress, and their specific antagonists have not been discovered yet. The antioxidant and anti-Covid-19 properties of carvacrol (CARV) were recently reported. Hence, I suspected possible antagonist properties of CARV against oxidative stress (OS)/ADP-ribose (ADPR)-induced TRPM2 and GSK1016790A (GSK)-mediated TRPV4 activations in neuronal and kidney cells. I investigated the antagonist role of CARV on the activations of TRPM2 and TRPV4 in SH-SY5Y neuronal, BV-2 microglial, and HEK293 cells. The OS/ADPR and GSK in the cells caused to increase of TRPM2/TRPV4 current densities and overload cytosolic free Ca2+ (cCa2+) influx with an increase of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytosolic (cROS), and mitochondrial (mROS) ROS. The changes were not observed in the absence of TRPM2 and TRPV4 or the presence of Ca2+ free extracellular buffer and PARP-1 inhibitors (PJ34 and DPQ). When OS-induced TRPM2 and GSK-induced TRPV4 activations were inhibited by the treatment of CARV, the increase of cROS, mROS, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis, cell death, cCa2+ concentration, caspase -3, and caspase -9 levels were restored via upregulation of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase. In conclusion, the treatment of CARV modulated the TRPM2 and TRPV4-mediated overload Ca2+ influx and may provide an avenue for protecting TRPM2 and TRPV4-mediated neurodegenerative diseases associated with the increase of mROS and cCa2+. The possible TRPM2 and TRPV4 blocker action of carvacrol (CARV) via the modulation oxidative stress and apoptosis in the SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. TRPM2 is activated by DNA damage-induced (via PARP-1 activation) ADP-ribose (ADPR) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (H2O2), although it is inhibited by nonspecific inhibitors (ACA and 2-APB). TRPV4 is activated by the treatments of GSK1016790A (GSK), although it is inhibited by a nonspecific inhibitor (ruthenium red, RuRe). The treatment of GSK induces excessive generation of ROS. The accumulation of free cytosolic Ca2+ (cCa2+) via the activations of TRPM2 and TRPV4 in the mitochondria causes the increase of mitochondrial membrane depolarization (ΔΨm). In turn, the increase of ΔΨm causes the excessive generation of ROS. The TRPM2 and TRPV4-induced the excessive generations of ROS result in the increase of apoptosis and cell death via the activations of caspase -3 (Casp-3) and caspase -9 (Casp-9) in the neuronal cells, although their oxidant actions decrease the glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) levels. The oxidant and apoptotic adverse actions of TRPM2 and TRPV4 are modulated by the treatment of CARV.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cymenes/pharmacology , TRPM Cation Channels/antagonists & inhibitors , TRPV Cation Channels/antagonists & inhibitors , Apoptosis/drug effects , Calcium/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/metabolism , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/drug effects , Microglia/drug effects , Microglia/metabolism , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species
16.
AAPS J ; 24(1): 8, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555615

ABSTRACT

Lipidoid nanoparticles (LNPs) are the delivery platform in Onpattro, the first FDA-approved siRNA drug. LNPs are also the carriers in the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. While these applications have demonstrated that LNPs effectively deliver nucleic acids to hepatic and muscle cells, it is unclear if LNPs could be used for delivery of siRNA to neural cells, which are notoriously challenging delivery targets. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if LNPs could efficiently deliver siRNA to neurons. Because of their potential delivery utility in either applications for the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system, we used both cortical neurons and sensory neurons. We prepared siRNA-LNPs using C12-200, a benchmark ionizable cationic lipidoid along with helper lipids. We demonstrated using dynamic light scattering that the inclusion of both siRNA and PEG-lipid provided a stabilizing effect to the LNP particle diameters and polydispersity indices by minimizing aggregation. We found that siRNA-LNPs were safely tolerated by primary dorsal root ganglion neurons. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that Cy5 siRNA delivered via LNPs into rat primary cortical neurons showed uptake levels similar to Lipofectamine RNAiMAX-the gold standard commercial transfection agent. However, LNPs demonstrated a superior safety profile, whereas the Lipofectamine-mediated uptake was concomitant with significant toxicity. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated a time-dependent increase in the uptake of LNP-delivered Cy5 siRNA in a human cortical neuron cell line. Overall, our results suggest that LNPs are a viable platform that can be optimized for delivery of therapeutic siRNAs to neural cells.


Subject(s)
Ganglia, Spinal/metabolism , Lipids/chemistry , Nanoparticles , Neurons/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering/administration & dosage , RNAi Therapeutics , Transfection , Animals , Carbocyanines/metabolism , Fluorescent Dyes/metabolism , Ganglia, Spinal/cytology , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Nanotechnology , Primary Cell Culture , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Rats , Time Factors
17.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1076, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550352

ABSTRACT

Lysine-selective molecular tweezers are promising drug candidates against proteinopathies, viral infection, and bacterial biofilm. Despite demonstration of their efficacy in multiple cellular and animal models, important questions regarding their mechanism of action, including cell penetrance and intracellular distribution, have not been answered to date. The main impediment to answering these questions has been the low intrinsic fluorescence of the main compound tested to date, called CLR01. Here, we address these questions using new fluorescently labeled molecular tweezers derivatives. We show that these compounds are internalized in neurons and astrocytes, at least partially through dynamin-dependent endocytosis. In addition, we demonstrate that the molecular tweezers concentrate rapidly in acidic compartments, primarily lysosomes. Accumulation of molecular tweezers in lysosomes may occur both through the endosomal-lysosomal pathway and via the autophagy-lysosome pathway. Moreover, by visualizing colocalization of molecular tweezers, lysosomes, and tau aggregates we show that lysosomes likely are the main site for the intracellular anti-amyloid activity of molecular tweezers. These findings have important implications for the mechanism of action of molecular tweezers in vivo, explaining how administration of low doses of the compounds achieves high effective concentrations where they are needed, and supporting the development of these compounds as drugs for currently cureless proteinopathies.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes/metabolism , Bridged-Ring Compounds/metabolism , Endosomes/metabolism , Lysine/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Organophosphates/metabolism , Animals , Autophagy/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
18.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 6966394, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528596

ABSTRACT

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a cerebrovascular disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. CXCR4 provides neuroprotective effects, which can alleviate brain injury and inflammation induced by stroke. Previous studies have suggested that CXCR4 reduces the pyroptosis of LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antipyroptosis effects and mechanisms of CXCR4 after SAH. SAH animal model was induced via endovascular perforation. A total of 136 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Recombinant human cysteine-X-cysteine chemokine ligand 12 (rh-CXCL-12) was administered intranasally at 1 h after SAH induction. To investigate the underlying mechanism, the inhibitor of CXCR4, AMD3100, was administered intraperitoneally at 1 h before SAH. The neurobehavior tests were assessed, followed by performing Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. The Western blot results suggested that the expressions of endogenous CXCL-12, CXCR4, and NLRP1 were increased and peaked at 24 h following SAH. Immunofluorescence staining showed that CXCR4 was expressed on neurons, microglia, and astrocytes. Rh-CXCL-12 treatment improved the neurological deficits and reduced the number of FJC-positive cells, IL-18-positive neurons, and cleaved caspase-1(CC-1)-positive neurons after SAH. Meanwhile, rh-CXCL-12 treatment increased the levels of CXCL-12 and CXCR4, and reduced the levels of NLRP1, IL-18, IL-1ß, and CC-1. Moreover, the administration of AMD3100 abolished antipyroptosis effects of CXCL-12 and its regulation of CXCR4 post-SAH. The CXCR4/NLRP1 signaling pathway may be involved in CXCL-12-mediated neuronal pyroptosis after SAH. Early administration of CXCL-12 may be a preventive and therapeutic strategy against brain injury after SAH.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries/prevention & control , Chemokine CXCL12/administration & dosage , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Pyroptosis , Receptors, CXCR4/metabolism , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Animals , Brain Injuries/etiology , Brain Injuries/metabolism , Brain Injuries/pathology , Chemokine CXCL12/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression Regulation , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/prevention & control , Male , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Neurons/pathology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, CXCR4/genetics , Signal Transduction
19.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524171

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a main receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry to the host cell. Indeed, the first step in viral entry is the binding of the viral trimeric spike (S) protein to ACE2. Abundantly present in human epithelial cells of many organs, ACE2 is also expressed in the human brain. ACE2 is a type I membrane protein with an extracellular N-terminal peptidase domain and a C-terminal collectrin-like domain that ends with a single transmembrane helix and an intracellular 44-residue segment. This C-terminal segment contains a PDZ-binding motif (PBM) targeting protein-interacting domains called PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1 (PDZ). Here, we identified the human PDZ specificity profile of the ACE2 PBM using the high-throughput holdup assay and measuring the binding intensities of the PBM of ACE2 against the full human PDZome. We discovered 14 human PDZ binders of ACE2 showing significant binding with dissociation constants' values ranging from 3 to 81 µM. NHERF, SHANK, and SNX27 proteins found in this study are involved in protein trafficking. The PDZ/PBM interactions with ACE2 could play a role in ACE2 internalization and recycling that could be of benefit for the virus entry. Interestingly, most of the ACE2 partners we identified are expressed in neuronal cells, such as SHANK and MAST families, and modifications of the interactions between ACE2 and these neuronal proteins may be involved in the neurological symptoms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , PDZ Domains , Proteins/chemistry , Proteins/metabolism , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , Humans , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/chemistry , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Nerve Tissue Proteins/chemistry , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , /metabolism , Protein Transport , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchangers/chemistry , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchangers/metabolism , Sorting Nexins/chemistry , Sorting Nexins/metabolism
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524007

ABSTRACT

The current investigations of the COVID-19 spreading model are presented through the artificial neuron networks (ANNs) with training of the Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation (LMB), i.e., ANNs-LMB. The ANNs-LMB scheme is used in different variations of the sample data for training, validation, and testing with 80%, 10%, and 10%, respectively. The approximate numerical solutions of the COVID-19 spreading model have been calculated using the ANNs-LMB and compared viably using the reference dataset based on the Runge-Kutta scheme. The obtained performance of the solution dynamics of the COVID-19 spreading model are presented based on the ANNs-LMB to minimize the values of fitness on mean square error (M.S.E), along with error histograms, regression, and correlation analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neural Networks, Computer , Humans , Neurons , SARS-CoV-2
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