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2.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 6966394, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528596

ABSTRACT

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a cerebrovascular disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. CXCR4 provides neuroprotective effects, which can alleviate brain injury and inflammation induced by stroke. Previous studies have suggested that CXCR4 reduces the pyroptosis of LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antipyroptosis effects and mechanisms of CXCR4 after SAH. SAH animal model was induced via endovascular perforation. A total of 136 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Recombinant human cysteine-X-cysteine chemokine ligand 12 (rh-CXCL-12) was administered intranasally at 1 h after SAH induction. To investigate the underlying mechanism, the inhibitor of CXCR4, AMD3100, was administered intraperitoneally at 1 h before SAH. The neurobehavior tests were assessed, followed by performing Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. The Western blot results suggested that the expressions of endogenous CXCL-12, CXCR4, and NLRP1 were increased and peaked at 24 h following SAH. Immunofluorescence staining showed that CXCR4 was expressed on neurons, microglia, and astrocytes. Rh-CXCL-12 treatment improved the neurological deficits and reduced the number of FJC-positive cells, IL-18-positive neurons, and cleaved caspase-1(CC-1)-positive neurons after SAH. Meanwhile, rh-CXCL-12 treatment increased the levels of CXCL-12 and CXCR4, and reduced the levels of NLRP1, IL-18, IL-1ß, and CC-1. Moreover, the administration of AMD3100 abolished antipyroptosis effects of CXCL-12 and its regulation of CXCR4 post-SAH. The CXCR4/NLRP1 signaling pathway may be involved in CXCL-12-mediated neuronal pyroptosis after SAH. Early administration of CXCL-12 may be a preventive and therapeutic strategy against brain injury after SAH.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries/prevention & control , Chemokine CXCL12/administration & dosage , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Pyroptosis , Receptors, CXCR4/metabolism , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Animals , Brain Injuries/etiology , Brain Injuries/metabolism , Brain Injuries/pathology , Chemokine CXCL12/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression Regulation , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/prevention & control , Male , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Neurons/pathology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, CXCR4/genetics , Signal Transduction
3.
Cell Transplant ; 30: 9636897211053872, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477154

ABSTRACT

The 28th American Society for Neural Therapy and Repair (ASNTR) returned to the Sheraton Sand Key in Clearwater Beach, Florida after an 18 month hiatus. Like nearly all conferences during the pandemic, the ASNTR conference was held in person while offering a virtual option to the event. These formats are advantageous for those under travel restrictions or personal constraints, but they lack the spontaneity of in-person connections. Highlights from the meeting included the return of the Bernard Sanberg Memorial Award and the Roy Bakay Memorial lecture. The presidential lecture was given by Gabriel de Erausquin, who discussed the possibility of long-term CNS effects resulting from SARS-CoV2 infection. With both virtual and in-person events, including oral and poster presentations, the ASNTR managed to maintain the unique essence of this small important meeting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Congresses as Topic , Cell Transplantation , Florida , Humans , Hydrogels , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neurodegenerative Diseases/therapy , Neurons/pathology , Neurons/physiology , Neuropathology/methods , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , Telecommunications , United States
4.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374305

ABSTRACT

According to the neurological symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is known that the nervous system is influenced by the virus. We used pediatric human cerebral cortical cell line HCN-2 as a neuronal model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and, through transcriptomic analysis, our aim was to evaluate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 in this type of cells. Transcriptome analyses revealed impairment in TXN gene, resulting in deregulation of its antioxidant functions, as well as a decrease in the DNA-repairing mechanism, as indicated by the decrease in KAT5. Western blot analyses of SOD1 and iNOS confirmed the impairment of reduction mechanisms and an increase in oxidative stress. Upregulation of CDKN2A and a decrease in CDK4 and CDK6 point to the blocking of the cell cycle that, according to the deregulation of repairing mechanism, has apoptosis as the outcome. A high level of proapoptotic gene PMAIP1 is indeed coherent with neuronal death, as also supported by increased levels of caspase 3. The upregulation of cell-cycle-blocking genes and apoptosis suggests a sufferance state of neurons after SARS-CoV-2 infection, followed by their inevitable death, which can explain the neurological symptoms reported. Further analyses are required to deeply explain the mechanisms and find potential treatments to protect neurons from oxidative stress and prevent their death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cellular Senescence/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Neurons/pathology , Oxidative Stress/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cell Death , Cell Line , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Humans , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology
5.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 40(3): 37-49, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362158

ABSTRACT

It has now been almost a year since the emergence of the deadly SARS-CoV-2 with millions of people losing their lives due to resultant COVID-19. Apart from the well-known consequences of respiratory illnesses, it has even effortlessly mapped itself into the nervous system through routes like blood, CSF, neurons, and olfactory cells. Interestingly, the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with the nervous system cells like neurons, microglia, and astrocytes has been a factor to worsen COVID-19 through its neuroinflammatory actions. The release of cytokines due to astrocyte and microglial activation could progress towards the most anticipated cytokine storm proving to be detrimental in the management of COVID-19. Such hyper-inflammatory conditions could make the BBB vulnerable, encouraging excessive viral particles into the CNS, leading to further neurodegenerative pathologies like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and Multiple Sclerosis. Excessive neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration being the anticipated root causes of these multiple conditions, it is also essential to look into other factors that synergistically enhance the worsening of these diseases in COVID-19 patients for which additional studies are essential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Inflammation/virology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Cytokines/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Microglia/pathology , Microglia/virology , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Multiple Sclerosis/virology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/virology , Neurons/pathology , Neurons/virology
6.
EBioMedicine ; 70: 103512, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330766

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurologic manifestations are well-recognized features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the longitudinal association of biomarkers reflecting CNS impact and neurological symptoms is not known. We sought to determine whether plasma biomarkers of CNS injury were associated with neurologic sequelae after COVID-19. METHODS: Patients with confirmed acute COVID-19 were studied prospectively. Neurological symptoms were recorded during the acute phase of the disease and at six months follow-up, and blood samples were collected longitudinally. Healthy age-matched individuals were included as controls. We analysed plasma concentrations of neurofilament light-chain (NfL), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAp), and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15). FINDINGS: One hundred patients with mild (n = 24), moderate (n = 28), and severe (n = 48) COVID-19 were followed for a median (IQR) of 225 (187-262) days. In the acute phase, patients with severe COVID-19 had higher concentrations of NfL than all other groups (all p < 0·001), and higher GFAp than controls (p < 0·001). GFAp was also significantly increased in moderate disease (p < 0·05) compared with controls. NfL (r = 0·53, p < 0·001) and GFAp (r = 0·39, p < 0·001) correlated with GDF-15 during the acute phase. After six months, NfL and GFAp concentrations had normalized, with no persisting group differences. Despite this, 50 patients reported persistent neurological symptoms, most commonly fatigue (n = 40), "brain-fog" (n = 29), and changes in cognition (n = 25). We found no correlation between persistent neurological symptoms and CNS injury biomarkers in the acute phase. INTERPRETATION: The normalization of CNS injury biomarkers in all individuals, regardless of previous disease severity or persisting neurological symptoms, indicates that post COVID-19 neurological sequelae are not accompanied by ongoing CNS injury. FUNDING: The Swedish State Support for Clinical Research, SciLifeLab Sweden, and the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation have provided funding for this project.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes/pathology , Astrocytes/virology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Astrocytes/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/metabolism , Disease Progression , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Neurofilament Proteins/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Neurons/pathology , Neurons/virology , Sweden
7.
Nature ; 595(7868): 565-571, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275939

ABSTRACT

Although SARS-CoV-2 primarily targets the respiratory system, patients with and survivors of COVID-19 can suffer neurological symptoms1-3. However, an unbiased understanding of the cellular and molecular processes that are affected in the brains of patients with COVID-19 is missing. Here we profile 65,309 single-nucleus transcriptomes from 30 frontal cortex and choroid plexus samples across 14 control individuals (including 1 patient with terminal influenza) and 8 patients with COVID-19. Although our systematic analysis yields no molecular traces of SARS-CoV-2 in the brain, we observe broad cellular perturbations indicating that barrier cells of the choroid plexus sense and relay peripheral inflammation into the brain and show that peripheral T cells infiltrate the parenchyma. We discover microglia and astrocyte subpopulations associated with COVID-19 that share features with pathological cell states that have previously been reported in human neurodegenerative disease4-6. Synaptic signalling of upper-layer excitatory neurons-which are evolutionarily expanded in humans7 and linked to cognitive function8-is preferentially affected in COVID-19. Across cell types, perturbations associated with COVID-19 overlap with those found in chronic brain disorders and reside in genetic variants associated with cognition, schizophrenia and depression. Our findings and public dataset provide a molecular framework to understand current observations of COVID-19-related neurological disease, and any such disease that may emerge at a later date.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes/pathology , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Choroid Plexus/pathology , Microglia/pathology , Neurons/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain/metabolism , Brain/physiopathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cell Nucleus/genetics , Choroid Plexus/metabolism , Choroid Plexus/physiopathology , Choroid Plexus/virology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome , Virus Replication
8.
Rev Neurol ; 72(11): 397-406, 2021 06 01.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248580

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: For more than a decade, following the ECTRIMS Congress, the Post-ECTRIMS Meeting has been held in Spain, where neurologists with expertise in multiple sclerosis (MS) from all over the country meet to review the most relevant latest developments presented at the ECTRIMS congress (on this occasion held together with ACTRIMS). AIM: This article, published in two parts, summarises the presentations that took place at the Post-ECTRIMS Meeting, held online on 16 and 17 October 2020. DEVELOPMENT: This first part includes the latest results regarding the impact of the environment and lifestyle on risk of MS and its clinical course, and the role of epigenetics and genetic factors on these processes. Findings from preclinical and clinical research on the lymphocyte subtypes identified and the involvement of lymphoid follicles and meningeal involvement in the disease are discussed. Changes in brain structure are addressed at the microscopic and macroscopic levels, including results from high-resolution imaging techniques. The latest advances on biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of MS, and on the involvement of the microbiome in these patients are also reported. Finally, results from patient registries on the impact of COVID-19 in MS patients are outlined. CONCLUSIONS: There have been new data on MS risk factors, the impact of MS at the cellular and structural level, the role of the microbiome in the disease, biomarkers, and the relationship between COVID-19 and MS.


TITLE: XIII Reunión Post-ECTRIMS: revisión de las novedades presentadas en el Congreso ECTRIMS 2020 (I).Introducción. Desde hace más de una década, tras el congreso ECTRIMS, se celebra en España la reunión Post-ECTRIMS, donde neurólogos expertos en esclerosis múltiple (EM) de toda España se reúnen para revisar las principales novedades presentadas en el ECTRIMS (en esta ocasión, celebrado junto con el ACTRIMS). Objetivo. En el presente artículo, publicado en dos partes, se resumen las ponencias que tuvieron lugar en la reunión Post-ECTRIMS, celebrada los días 16 y 17 de octubre de 2020 de forma virtual. Desarrollo. En esta primera parte se incluyen los últimos resultados acerca del impacto del ambiente y el estilo de vida sobre el riesgo de EM y su curso clínico, y el papel de la epigenética y los factores genéticos sobre estos procesos. Se discuten los hallazgos en investigación preclínica y clínica sobre los subtipos de linfocitos identificados, y la implicación de los folículos linfoides y la afectación meníngea en la enfermedad. Los cambios en la estructura cerebral se abordan a nivel microscópico y macroscópico, incluyendo resultados de técnicas de imagen de alta resolución. También se presentan los últimos avances sobre biomarcadores para el diagnóstico y el pronóstico de la EM, y sobre la afectación del microbioma en estos pacientes. Por último, se esbozan los resultados de registros de pacientes sobre el impacto de la COVID-19 en los pacientes con EM. Conclusiones. Ha habido nuevos datos sobre factores de riesgo de la EM, impacto de la EM a nivel celular y estructural, papel del microbioma en la enfermedad, biomarcadores y la relación entre COVID-19 y EM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis , Biomarkers , Central Nervous System/diagnostic imaging , Comorbidity , Environmental Exposure , Epigenesis, Genetic , Europe , Gray Matter/pathology , Humans , Life Style , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Lymphoid Tissue/pathology , Meninges/pathology , Microbiota , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis/genetics , Multiple Sclerosis/microbiology , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Neuroglia/pathology , Neurology/trends , Neurons/pathology , Remyelination
9.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e933015, 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239178

ABSTRACT

Persistent comorbidities occur in patients who initially recover from acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). 'Long COVID' involves the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in neuropsychiatric symptoms and signs, including cognitive impairment or 'brain fog' and chronic fatigue syndrome. There are similarities in these persistent complications between SARS-CoV-2 and the Ebola, Zika, and influenza A viruses. Normal CNS neuronal mitochondrial function requires high oxygen levels for oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production. Recent studies have shown that the SARS-CoV-2 virus can hijack mitochondrial function. Persistent changes in cognitive functioning have also been reported with other viral infections. SARS-CoV-2 infection may result in long-term effects on immune processes within the CNS by causing microglial dysfunction. This short opinion aims to discuss the hypothesis that the pathogenesis of long-term neuropsychiatric COVID-19 involves microglia, mitochondria, and persistent neuroinflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Central Nervous System/pathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Inflammation/pathology , Microglia/pathology , Mitochondria/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/pathology , Humans , Neurons/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 65(4): 403-412, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237350

ABSTRACT

Mechanical ventilation is a known risk factor for delirium, a cognitive impairment characterized by dysfunction of the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Although IL-6 is upregulated in mechanical ventilation-induced lung injury (VILI) and may contribute to delirium, it is not known whether the inhibition of systemic IL-6 mitigates delirium-relevant neuropathology. To histologically define neuropathological effects of IL-6 inhibition in an experimental VILI model, VILI was simulated in anesthetized adult mice using a 35 cc/kg tidal volume mechanical ventilation model. There were two control groups, as follow: 1) spontaneously breathing or 2) anesthetized and mechanically ventilated with 10 cc/kg tidal volume to distinguish effects of anesthesia from VILI. Two hours before inducing VILI, mice were treated with either anti-IL-6 antibody, anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, or saline. Neuronal injury, stress, and inflammation were assessed using immunohistochemistry. CC3 (cleaved caspase-3), a neuronal apoptosis marker, was significantly increased in the frontal (P < 0.001) and hippocampal (P < 0.0001) brain regions and accompanied by significant increases in c-Fos and heat shock protein-90 in the frontal cortices of VILI mice compared with control mice (P < 0.001). These findings were not related to cerebral hypoxia, and there was no evidence of irreversible neuronal death. Frontal and hippocampal neuronal CC3 were significantly reduced with anti-IL-6 antibody (P < 0.01 and P < 0.0001, respectively) and anti-IL-6 receptor antibody (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001, respectively) compared with saline VILI mice. In summary, VILI induces potentially reversible neuronal injury and inflammation in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, which is mitigated with systemic IL-6 inhibition. These data suggest a potentially novel neuroprotective role of systemic IL-6 inhibition that justifies further investigation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Delirium/metabolism , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Neurons/metabolism , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/metabolism , Animals , Delirium/drug therapy , Delirium/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Frontal Lobe/injuries , Frontal Lobe/metabolism , Frontal Lobe/pathology , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Hippocampus/injuries , Hippocampus/metabolism , Hippocampus/pathology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Mice , Neurons/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism , Repressor Proteins/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/drug therapy , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/pathology
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 1983-1998, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217384

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection manifest mainly respiratory symptoms. However, clinical observations frequently identified neurological symptoms and neuropsychiatric disorders related to COVID-19 (Neuro-SARS2). Accumulated robust evidence indicates that Neuro-SARS2 may play an important role in aggravating the disease severity and mortality. Understanding the neuropathogenesis and cellular mechanisms underlying Neuro-SARS2 is crucial for both basic research and clinical practice to establish effective strategies for early detection/diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. In this review, we comprehensively examine current evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in various neural cells including neurons, microglia/macrophages, astrocytes, pericytes/endothelial cells, ependymocytes/choroid epithelial cells, and neural stem/progenitor cells. Although significant progress has been made in studying Neuro-SARS2, much remains to be learned about the neuroinvasive routes (transneuronal and hematogenous) of the virus and the cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying the development/progression of this disease. Future and ongoing studies require the establishment of more clinically relevant and suitable neural cell models using human induced pluripotent stem cells, brain organoids, and postmortem specimens.


Subject(s)
Brain/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Neuroglia/virology , Neurons/virology , Animals , Brain/pathology , Cell Line , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Neural Stem Cells , Neuroglia/pathology , Neurons/pathology
12.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 169, 2021 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199270

ABSTRACT

Neurological manifestations are frequently reported in the COVID-19 patients. Neuromechanism of SARS-CoV-2 remains to be elucidated. In this study, we explored the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism via our established non-human primate model of COVID-19. In rhesus monkey, SARS-CoV-2 invades the CNS primarily via the olfactory bulb. Thereafter, viruses rapidly spread to functional areas of the central nervous system, such as hippocampus, thalamus, and medulla oblongata. The infection of SARS-CoV-2 induces the inflammation possibly by targeting neurons, microglia, and astrocytes in the CNS. Consistently, SARS-CoV-2 infects neuro-derived SK-N-SH, glial-derived U251, and brain microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence of SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion in the NHP model, which provides important insights into the CNS-related pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Olfactory Bulb/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Astrocytes/metabolism , Astrocytes/pathology , Astrocytes/virology , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , Brain Diseases/pathology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Microglia/metabolism , Microglia/pathology , Microglia/virology , Neurons/metabolism , Neurons/pathology , Neurons/virology , Olfactory Bulb/pathology , Olfactory Bulb/virology
13.
Brain ; 144(9): 2696-2708, 2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1185655

ABSTRACT

Many patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection develop neurological signs and symptoms; although, to date, little evidence exists that primary infection of the brain is a significant contributing factor. We present the clinical, neuropathological and molecular findings of 41 consecutive patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections who died and underwent autopsy in our medical centre. The mean age was 74 years (38-97 years), 27 patients (66%) were male and 34 (83%) were of Hispanic/Latinx ethnicity. Twenty-four patients (59%) were admitted to the intensive care unit. Hospital-associated complications were common, including eight patients (20%) with deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism, seven (17%) with acute kidney injury requiring dialysis and 10 (24%) with positive blood cultures during admission. Eight (20%) patients died within 24 h of hospital admission, while 11 (27%) died more than 4 weeks after hospital admission. Neuropathological examination of 20-30 areas from each brain revealed hypoxic/ischaemic changes in all brains, both global and focal; large and small infarcts, many of which appeared haemorrhagic; and microglial activation with microglial nodules accompanied by neuronophagia, most prominently in the brainstem. We observed sparse T lymphocyte accumulation in either perivascular regions or in the brain parenchyma. Many brains contained atherosclerosis of large arteries and arteriolosclerosis, although none showed evidence of vasculitis. Eighteen patients (44%) exhibited pathologies of neurodegenerative diseases, which was not unexpected given the age range of our patients. We examined multiple fresh frozen and fixed tissues from 28 brains for the presence of viral RNA and protein, using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR, RNAscope® and immunocytochemistry with primers, probes and antibodies directed against the spike and nucleocapsid regions. The PCR analysis revealed low to very low, but detectable, viral RNA levels in the majority of brains, although they were far lower than those in the nasal epithelia. RNAscope® and immunocytochemistry failed to detect viral RNA or protein in brains. Our findings indicate that the levels of detectable virus in coronavirus disease 2019 brains are very low and do not correlate with the histopathological alterations. These findings suggest that microglial activation, microglial nodules and neuronophagia, observed in the majority of brains, do not result from direct viral infection of brain parenchyma, but more likely from systemic inflammation, perhaps with synergistic contribution from hypoxia/ischaemia. Further studies are needed to define whether these pathologies, if present in patients who survive coronavirus disease 2019, might contribute to chronic neurological problems.


Subject(s)
Brain Infarction/pathology , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacteremia/complications , Brain/metabolism , Brain Infarction/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Female , Humans , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/complications , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , Intracranial Hemorrhages/complications , Male , Microglia/pathology , Middle Aged , Neurons/pathology , Phagocytosis , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Renal Dialysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Survival Rate , T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/physiopathology
14.
Cell ; 184(6): 1648-1648.e1, 2021 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137352

ABSTRACT

The use of opioid drugs and related overdose deaths, which rose to epidemic proportions over the past decade, have been exacerbated by the COVID pandemic, a time of great uncertainty and isolation. Much is known about opioid pharmacology and related neural circuits that, combined with novel emerging neurobiological insights, can help guide new treatment strategies. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF.


Subject(s)
Neurobiology , Opioid-Related Disorders/pathology , Humans , Nerve Net/pathology , Neurons/pathology , Opioid-Related Disorders/therapy
15.
Cells ; 10(2)2021 02 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085116

ABSTRACT

As the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues, reports have demonstrated neurologic sequelae following COVID-19 recovery. Mechanisms to explain long-term neurological sequelae are unknown and need to be identified. Plasma from 24 individuals recovering from COVID-19 at 1 to 3 months after initial infection were collected for cytokine and antibody levels and neuronal-enriched extracellular vesicle (nEV) protein cargo analyses. Plasma cytokine IL-4 was increased in all COVID-19 participants. Volunteers with self-reported neurological problems (nCoV, n = 8) had a positive correlation of IL6 with age or severity of the sequalae, at least one co-morbidity and increased SARS-CoV-2 antibody compared to those COVID-19 individuals without neurological issues (CoV, n = 16). Protein markers of neuronal dysfunction including amyloid beta, neurofilament light, neurogranin, total tau, and p-T181-tau were all significantly increased in the nEVs of all participants recovering from COVID-19 compared to historic controls. This study suggests ongoing peripheral and neuroinflammation after COVID-19 infection that may influence neurological sequelae by altering nEV proteins. Individuals recovering from COVID-19 may have occult neural damage while those with demonstrative neurological symptoms additionally had more severe infection. Longitudinal studies to monitor plasma biomarkers and nEV cargo are warranted to assess persistent neurodegeneration and systemic effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Extracellular Vesicles/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Adult , Aged , Amyloid beta-Peptides/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Interleukin-4/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/blood , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Neurofilament Proteins/analysis , Neurogranin/analysis , Neurons/pathology , tau Proteins/analysis
16.
EMBO J ; 40(2): e107213, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068058

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is increasingly understood as a systemic disease with pathogenic manifestations beyond the respiratory tract. Recent work by Ramani et al (2020) dissects the cellular and molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2's neurotrophic properties, using viral exposure of human brain organoids. Their findings highlight neurons as primary target of cerebral SARS-CoV-2 infection and uncover its Tau-related neurotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Organoids/pathology , tau Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Neurons/pathology , Neurons/virology , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
17.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(6): 262-272, 2021 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067907

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified in 2019 in Wuhan, China. Clinically, respiratory tract symptoms as well as other organs disorders are observed in patients positively diagnosed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In addition, neurological symptoms, mainly anosmia, ageusia and headache were observed in many patients. Once in the central nervous system (CNS), the SARS-CoV-2 can reside either in a quiescent latent state, or eventually in actively state leading to severe acute encephalitis, characterized by neuroinflammation and prolonged neuroimmune activation. SRAS-CoV-2 requires angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a cell entry receptor. The expression of this receptor in endothelial cells of blood-brain barrier (BBB) shows that SRAS-CoV-2 may have higher neuroinvasive potential compared to known coronaviruses. This review summarizes available information regarding the impact of SRAS-CoV-2 in the brain and tended to identify its potential pathways of neuroinvasion. We offer also an understanding of the long-term impact of latently form of SARS-CoV-2 on the development of neurodegenerative disorders. As a conclusion, the persistent infection of SRAS-CoV-2 in the brain could be involved on human neurodegenerative diseases that evolve a gradual process, perhapes, over several decades.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/virology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/virology , Neurons/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Tropism , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/metabolism , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/pathology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , Neurons/metabolism , Neurons/pathology , Virus Latency
18.
J Exp Med ; 218(3)2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024074

ABSTRACT

Although COVID-19 is considered to be primarily a respiratory disease, SARS-CoV-2 affects multiple organ systems including the central nervous system (CNS). Yet, there is no consensus on the consequences of CNS infections. Here, we used three independent approaches to probe the capacity of SARS-CoV-2 to infect the brain. First, using human brain organoids, we observed clear evidence of infection with accompanying metabolic changes in infected and neighboring neurons. However, no evidence for type I interferon responses was detected. We demonstrate that neuronal infection can be prevented by blocking ACE2 with antibodies or by administering cerebrospinal fluid from a COVID-19 patient. Second, using mice overexpressing human ACE2, we demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion in vivo. Finally, in autopsies from patients who died of COVID-19, we detect SARS-CoV-2 in cortical neurons and note pathological features associated with infection with minimal immune cell infiltrates. These results provide evidence for the neuroinvasive capacity of SARS-CoV-2 and an unexpected consequence of direct infection of neurons by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Blocking/chemistry , COVID-19 , Cerebral Cortex , Neurons , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/pathology , Cerebral Cortex/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Middle Aged , Neurons/metabolism , Neurons/pathology , Neurons/virology , Organoids/metabolism , Organoids/pathology , Organoids/virology
19.
Cell Stem Cell ; 28(2): 331-342.e5, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009887

ABSTRACT

ApoE4, a strong genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease, has been associated with increased risk for severe COVID-19. However, it is unclear whether ApoE4 alters COVID-19 susceptibility or severity, and the role of direct viral infection in brain cells remains obscure. We tested the neurotropism of SARS-CoV2 in human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) models and observed low-grade infection of neurons and astrocytes that is boosted in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures and organoids. We then generated isogenic ApoE3/3 and ApoE4/4 hiPSCs and found an increased rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection in ApoE4/4 neurons and astrocytes. ApoE4 astrocytes exhibited enlarged size and elevated nuclear fragmentation upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. Finally, we show that remdesivir treatment inhibits SARS-CoV2 infection of hiPSC neurons and astrocytes. These findings suggest that ApoE4 may play a causal role in COVID-19 severity. Understanding how risk factors impact COVID-19 susceptibility and severity will help us understand the potential long-term effects in different patient populations.


Subject(s)
Apolipoproteins E/metabolism , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/virology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tropism/physiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Astrocytes/drug effects , Astrocytes/pathology , Astrocytes/virology , Cell Differentiation , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Nerve Degeneration/pathology , Neurites/pathology , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/pathology , Neurons/virology , Organoids/drug effects , Organoids/pathology , Organoids/virology , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Synapses/pathology , Vero Cells
20.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 1983-1998, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965664

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection manifest mainly respiratory symptoms. However, clinical observations frequently identified neurological symptoms and neuropsychiatric disorders related to COVID-19 (Neuro-SARS2). Accumulated robust evidence indicates that Neuro-SARS2 may play an important role in aggravating the disease severity and mortality. Understanding the neuropathogenesis and cellular mechanisms underlying Neuro-SARS2 is crucial for both basic research and clinical practice to establish effective strategies for early detection/diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. In this review, we comprehensively examine current evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in various neural cells including neurons, microglia/macrophages, astrocytes, pericytes/endothelial cells, ependymocytes/choroid epithelial cells, and neural stem/progenitor cells. Although significant progress has been made in studying Neuro-SARS2, much remains to be learned about the neuroinvasive routes (transneuronal and hematogenous) of the virus and the cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying the development/progression of this disease. Future and ongoing studies require the establishment of more clinically relevant and suitable neural cell models using human induced pluripotent stem cells, brain organoids, and postmortem specimens.


Subject(s)
Brain/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Neuroglia/virology , Neurons/virology , Animals , Brain/pathology , Cell Line , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Neural Stem Cells , Neuroglia/pathology , Neurons/pathology
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