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1.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 27(1): 10, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753103

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread worldwide, and finding a safe therapeutic strategy and effective vaccine is critical to overcoming severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therefore, elucidation of pathogenesis mechanisms, especially entry routes of SARS-CoV-2 may help propose antiviral drugs and novel vaccines. Several receptors have been demonstrated for the interaction of spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 with host cells, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2), ephrin ligands and Eph receptors, neuropilin 1 (NRP-1), P2X7, and CD147. The expression of these entry receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) may make the CNS prone to SARS-CoV-2 invasion, leading to neurodegenerative diseases. The present review provides potential pathological mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the CNS, including entry receptors and cytokines involved in neuroinflammatory conditions. Moreover, it explains several neurodegenerative disorders associated with COVID-19. Finally, we suggest inflammasome and JaK inhibitors as potential therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Inflammasomes/drug effects , Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Basigin/genetics , Basigin/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Central Nervous System/virology , Ephrins/genetics , Ephrins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Inflammasomes/genetics , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/genetics , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/genetics , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/virology , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7/genetics , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction
2.
Adv Biol (Weinh) ; 6(5): e2200007, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706513

ABSTRACT

In humans, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can cause medical complications across various tissues and organs. Despite the advances to understanding the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, its tissue tropism and interactions with host cells have not been fully understood. Existing clinical data have revealed disordered calcium and phosphorus metabolism in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, suggesting possible infection or damage in the human skeleton system by SARS-CoV-2. Herein, SARS-CoV-2 infection in mouse models with wild-type and beta strain (B.1.351) viruses is investigated, and it is found that bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) can be efficiently infected in vivo. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) analyses of infected BMMs identify distinct clusters of susceptible macrophages, including those related to osteoblast differentiation. Interestingly, SARS-CoV-2 entry on BMMs is dependent on the expression of neuropilin-1 (NRP1) rather than the widely recognized receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The loss of NRP1 expression during BMM-to-osteoclast differentiation or NRP1 neutralization and knockdown can significantly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection in BMMs. Importantly, it is found that authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection impedes BMM-to-osteoclast differentiation. Collectively, this study provides evidence for NRP1-mediated SARS-CoV-2 infection in BMMs and establishes a potential link between disturbed osteoclast differentiation and disordered skeleton metabolism in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Osteoclasts/metabolism
3.
Epigenomics ; 14(3): 153-162, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622527

ABSTRACT

Smoking could predispose individuals to a more severe COVID-19 by upregulating a particular gene known as mdig, which is mediated through a number of well-known histone modifications. Smoking might regulate the transcription-activating H3K4me3 mark, along with the transcription-repressing H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 marks, in a way to favor SARS-CoV-2 entry by enhancing the expression of ACE2, NRP1 and NRP2, AT1R, CTSD and CTSL, PGE2 receptors 2-4, SLC6A20 and IL-6, all of which interact either directly or indirectly with important receptors, facilitating viral entry in COVID-19.


Lay abstract The role of smoking in development of several respiratory diseases has been clearly established. A significant proportion of these deleterious effects is mediated through epigenetic mechanisms, particularly histone modifications. Recent evidence indicates that smoking induces the expression of a mediator known as mdig, which in turn alters the transcription of several key proteins that have been implicated in development of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Dioxygenases/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Histone Demethylases/genetics , Histones/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Smoking/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cathepsin D/genetics , Cathepsin D/metabolism , Cathepsin L/genetics , Cathepsin L/metabolism , Dioxygenases/metabolism , Histone Demethylases/metabolism , Histones/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Methylation , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Neuropilin-2/genetics , Neuropilin-2/metabolism , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Protein Isoforms/genetics , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/genetics , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , Receptors, Prostaglandin E/genetics , Receptors, Prostaglandin E/metabolism , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Smoking/metabolism , Smoking/pathology , Virus Internalization
4.
Int J Mol Med ; 49(2)2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594678

ABSTRACT

The pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) is mainly dependent on the underlying mechanisms that mediate the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) into the host cells of the various human tissues/organs. Recent studies have indicated a higher order of complexity of the mechanisms of infectivity, given that there is a wide­repertoire of possible cell entry mediators that appear to co­localise in a cell­ and tissue­specific manner. The present study provides an overview of the 'canonical' SARS­CoV­2 mediators, namely angiotensin converting enzyme 2, transmembrane protease serine 2 and 4, and neuropilin­1, expanding on the involvement of novel candidates, including glucose­regulated protein 78, basigin, kidney injury molecule­1, metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2, ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17 (also termed tumour necrosis factor­α convertase) and Toll­like receptor 4. Furthermore, emerging data indicate that changes in microRNA (miRNA/miR) expression levels in patients with COVID­19 are suggestive of further complexity in the regulation of these viral mediators. An in silico analysis revealed 160 candidate miRNAs with potential strong binding capacity in the aforementioned genes. Future studies should concentrate on elucidating the association between the cellular tropism of the SARS­CoV­2 cell entry mediators and the mechanisms through which they might affect the clinical outcome. Finally, the clinical utility as a biomarker or therapeutic target of miRNAs in the context of COVID­19 warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , /metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Viral Tropism
5.
Obes Facts ; 15(1): 90-98, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571513

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Neuropilin 1 (NRP-1) is a novel co-receptor promoting SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. Animal data indicate a role in trans-endothelial lipid transport and storage. As human data are sparse, we aimed to assess the role of NRP-1 in 2 metabolic active tissues in human obesity and in the context of weight loss-induced short- and long-term metabolic changes. METHODS: After a standardized 12-week weight reduction program, 143 subjects (age >18; body mass index ≥27 kg/m2, 78% female) were randomized to a 12-month lifestyle intervention or a control group using a stratified randomization scheme. This was followed by 6-month follow-up without any intervention. Phenotyping was performed before and after weight loss, after 12-month intervention and after subsequent 6 months of follow-up. Tissue-specific insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA-IR (whole body and mostly driven by liver), insulin sensitivity index (ISI)Clamp (predominantly skeletal muscle), and free fatty acid (FFA) suppression during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (FFASupp) (predominantly adipose tissue). NRP-1 mRNA expression was measured in subcutaneous adipose tissue (NRP-1AT) and skeletal muscle (NRP-1SM) before and after weight loss. RESULTS: NRP-1 was highly expressed in adipose tissue (7,893 [7,303-8,536] counts), but neither NRP-1AT nor NRP-1SM were related to estimates of obesity. Higher NRP-1AT was associated with stronger FFASupp (r = -0.343, p = 0.003) and a tendency to higher ISIClamp (r = 0.202, p = 0.085). Weight loss induced a decline of NRP-1AT but not NRP-1SM. This was more pronounced in subjects with stronger reduction of adipose ACE-2 mRNA expression (r = 0.250; p = 0.032) but was not associated with short- and long-term improvement of FFASupp and ISIClamp. CONCLUSION: NRP-1AT is related to adipose insulin sensitivity in obesity. Weight loss-induced decline of NRP-1AT seems not to be involved in metabolic short- and long-term improvements after weight loss. However, weight loss-induced reduction of both NRP-1AT and ACE-2AT indicates a lower susceptibility of adipose tissue for SARS-CoV-2 after body weight reduction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Insulin Resistance , Adipose Tissue , Female , Humans , Male , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Obesity/genetics , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Weight Loss
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3172, 2021 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550281

ABSTRACT

Secreted class 3 semaphorins (Sema3s) form tripartite complexes with the plexin receptor and neuropilin coreceptor, which are both transmembrane proteins that together mediate semaphorin signal for neuronal axon guidance and other processes. Despite extensive investigations, the overall architecture of and the molecular interactions in the Sema3/plexin/neuropilin complex are incompletely understood. Here we present the cryo-EM structure of a near intact extracellular region complex of Sema3A, PlexinA4 and Neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) at 3.7 Å resolution. The structure shows a large symmetric 2:2:2 assembly in which each subunit makes multiple interactions with others. The two PlexinA4 molecules in the complex do not interact directly, but their membrane proximal regions are close to each other and poised to promote the formation of the intracellular active dimer for signaling. The structure reveals a previously unknown interface between the a2b1b2 module in Nrp1 and the Sema domain of Sema3A. This interaction places the a2b1b2 module at the top of the complex, far away from the plasma membrane where the transmembrane regions of Nrp1 and PlexinA4 embed. As a result, the region following the a2b1b2 module in Nrp1 must span a large distance to allow the connection to the transmembrane region, suggesting an essential role for the long non-conserved linkers and the MAM domain in neuropilin in the semaphorin/plexin/neuropilin complex.


Subject(s)
Nerve Tissue Proteins/ultrastructure , Neuropilin-1/ultrastructure , Receptors, Cell Surface/ultrastructure , Semaphorin-3A/ultrastructure , Animals , COS Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cryoelectron Microscopy , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mutation , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/isolation & purification , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/isolation & purification , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Protein Binding/genetics , Protein Domains/genetics , Protein Multimerization/genetics , Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics , Receptors, Cell Surface/isolation & purification , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/ultrastructure , Semaphorin-3A/genetics , Semaphorin-3A/isolation & purification , Semaphorin-3A/metabolism
7.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 187, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 uses the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and neuropilin-1 (NRP1) receptors for entry into cells, and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. Inhibition of protease activity or the engagement with ACE2 and NRP1 receptors has been shown to be an effective strategy for blocking infectivity and viral spreading. Valproic acid (VPA; 2-propylpentanoic acid) is an epigenetic drug approved for clinical use. It produces potent antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects through its function as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. Here, we propose VPA as a potential candidate to tackle COVID-19, in which rapid viral spread and replication, and hyperinflammation are crucial elements. RESULTS: We used diverse cell lines (HK-2, Huh-7, HUVEC, Caco-2, and BEAS-2B) to analyze the effect of VPA and other HDAC inhibitors on the expression of the ACE-2 and NRP-1 receptors and their ability to inhibit infectivity, viral production, and the inflammatory response. Treatment with VPA significantly reduced expression of the ACE2 and NRP1 host proteins in all cell lines through a mechanism mediated by its HDAC inhibitory activity. The effect is maintained after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Consequently, the treatment of cells with VPA before infection impairs production of SARS-CoV-2 infectious viruses, but not that of other ACE2- and NRP1-independent viruses (VSV and HCoV-229E). Moreover, the addition of VPA 1 h post-infection with SARS-CoV-2 reduces the production of infectious viruses in a dose-dependent manner without significantly modifying the genomic and subgenomic messenger RNAs (gRNA and sg mRNAs) or protein levels of N protein. The production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) induced by TNF-α and SARS-CoV-2 infection is diminished in the presence of VPA. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that VPA blocks three essential processes determining the severity of COVID-19. It downregulates the expression of ACE2 and NRP1, reducing the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2; it decreases viral yields, probably because it affects virus budding or virions stability; and it dampens the triggered inflammatory response. Thus, administering VPA could be considered a safe treatment for COVID-19 patients until vaccines have been rolled out across the world.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epigenesis, Genetic/physiology , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Receptors, Virus/drug effects , Valproic Acid/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics , Humans , Neuropilin-1/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 740260, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506482

ABSTRACT

Increased left ventricular fibrosis has been reported in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is unclear whether this fibrosis is a consequence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or a risk factor for severe disease progression. We observed increased fibrosis in the left ventricular myocardium of deceased COVID-19 patients, compared with matched controls. We also detected increased mRNA levels of soluble interleukin-1 receptor-like 1 (sIL1-RL1) and transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1) in the left ventricular myocardium of deceased COVID-19 patients. Biochemical analysis of blood sampled from patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) with COVID-19 revealed highly elevated levels of TGF-ß1 mRNA in these patients compared to controls. Left ventricular strain measured by echocardiography as a marker of pre-existing cardiac fibrosis correlated strongly with blood TGF-ß1 mRNA levels and predicted disease severity in COVID-19 patients. In the left ventricular myocardium and lungs of COVID-19 patients, we found increased neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) RNA levels, which correlated strongly with the prevalence of pulmonary SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid. Cardiac and pulmonary fibrosis may therefore predispose these patients to increased cellular viral entry in the lung, which may explain the worse clinical outcome observed in our cohort. Our study demonstrates that patients at risk of clinical deterioration can be identified early by echocardiographic strain analysis and quantification of blood TGF-ß1 mRNA performed at the time of first medical contact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Fibrosis , Heart Ventricles/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein/genetics , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardium/metabolism , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Pulmonary Fibrosis/immunology , Risk , Severity of Illness Index , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Viral Load
9.
Mol Syst Biol ; 17(9): e10079, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406892

ABSTRACT

We modeled 3D structures of all SARS-CoV-2 proteins, generating 2,060 models that span 69% of the viral proteome and provide details not available elsewhere. We found that ˜6% of the proteome mimicked human proteins, while ˜7% was implicated in hijacking mechanisms that reverse post-translational modifications, block host translation, and disable host defenses; a further ˜29% self-assembled into heteromeric states that provided insight into how the viral replication and translation complex forms. To make these 3D models more accessible, we devised a structural coverage map, a novel visualization method to show what is-and is not-known about the 3D structure of the viral proteome. We integrated the coverage map into an accompanying online resource (https://aquaria.ws/covid) that can be used to find and explore models corresponding to the 79 structural states identified in this work. The resulting Aquaria-COVID resource helps scientists use emerging structural data to understand the mechanisms underlying coronavirus infection and draws attention to the 31% of the viral proteome that remains structurally unknown or dark.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral/chemistry , Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral/genetics , Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology/methods , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins/chemistry , Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Molecular Mimicry , Neuropilin-1/chemistry , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Interaction Mapping/methods , Protein Multimerization , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/chemistry , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(12): 15770-15784, 2021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282781

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and is highly contagious and pathogenic. TMPRSS2 and Neuropilin-1, the key components that facilitate SARS-CoV-2 infection, are potential targets for treatment of COVID-19. Here we performed a comprehensive analysis on NRP1 and TMPRSS2 in lung to provide information for treating comorbidity of COVID-19 with lung cancer. NRP1 is widely expressed across all the human tissues while TMPRSS2 is expressed in a restricted pattern. High level of NRP1 associates with worse prognosis in multiple cancers, while high level of TMPRSS2 is associated with better survival of Lung Adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Moreover, NRP1 positively correlates with the oncogenic Cancer Associated Fibroblast (CAF), macrophage and endothelial cells infiltration, negatively correlates with infiltration of CD8+ T cell, the tumor killer cell in Lung Squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). TMPRSS2 shows negative correlation with the oncogenic events in LUAD. RNA-seq data show that NRP1 level is slightly decreased in peripheral blood of ICU admitted COVID-19 patients, unaltered in lung, while TMPRSS2 level is significantly decreased in lung of COVID-19 patients. Our analysis suggests NRP1 as a potential therapeutic target, while sets an alert on targeting TMPRSS2 for treating comorbidity of COVID-19 and lung cancers.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma of Lung/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Neuropilin-1/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/mortality , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts/metabolism , Computer Simulation , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , Macrophages/metabolism , Neuropilin-1/genetics , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
11.
J Biol Chem ; 297(1): 100847, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246014

ABSTRACT

The zoonotic transmission of highly pathogenic coronaviruses into the human population is a pressing concern highlighted by the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Recent work has helped to illuminate much about the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 entry into the cell, which determines host- and tissue-specific tropism, pathogenicity, and zoonotic transmission. Here we discuss current findings on the factors governing SARS-CoV-2 entry. We first reviewed key features of the viral spike protein (S) mediating fusion of the viral envelope and host cell membrane through binding to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. We then examined the roles of host proteases including transmembrane protease serine 2 and cathepsins in processing S for virus entry and the impact of this processing on endosomal and plasma membrane virus entry routes. We further discussed recent work on several host cofactors that enhance SARS-CoV-2 entry including Neuropilin-1, CD147, phosphatidylserine receptors, heparan sulfate proteoglycans, sialic acids, and C-type lectins. Finally, we discussed two key host restriction factors, i.e., interferon-induced transmembrane proteins and lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus E, which can disrupt SARS-CoV-2 entry. The features of SARS-CoV-2 are presented in the context of other human coronaviruses, highlighting unique aspects. In addition, we identify the gaps in understanding of SARS-CoV-2 entry that will need to be addressed by future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization , Animals , Basigin/genetics , Basigin/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lectins, C-Type/genetics , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1065-1076, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236184

ABSTRACT

A main clinical parameter of COVID-19 pathophysiology is hypoxia. Here we show that hypoxia decreases the attachment of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the S1 subunit (S1) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 to epithelial cells. In Vero E6 cells, hypoxia reduces the protein levels of ACE2 and neuropilin-1 (NRP1), which might in part explain the observed reduction of the infection rate. In addition, hypoxia inhibits the binding of the spike to NCI-H460 human lung epithelial cells by decreasing the cell surface levels of heparan sulfate (HS), a known attachment receptor of SARS-CoV-2. This interaction is also reduced by lactoferrin, a glycoprotein that blocks HS moieties on the cell surface. The expression of syndecan-1, an HS-containing proteoglycan expressed in lung, is inhibited by hypoxia on a HIF-1α-dependent manner. Hypoxia or deletion of syndecan-1 results in reduced binding of the RBD to host cells. Our study indicates that hypoxia acts to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, suggesting that the hypoxia signalling pathway might offer therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Cell Hypoxia/physiology , Heparitin Sulfate/metabolism , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Syndecan-1/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Heparitin Sulfate/genetics , Humans , Neuropilin-1/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Syndecan-1/genetics , Vero Cells , Virus Attachment/drug effects
13.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 107(1): 95-97, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection is typically mild in children. Lower expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors in the nasal epithelia have been described in children compared with adults. However, data from newborns are lacking. We compared nasal expression of four SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors between term and preterm newborns and adults. METHODS: Nasal scrape samples were obtained from 28 newborns (17 term and 11 preterm) and 10 adults. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR was used to measure mRNA expression of ACE2, transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), neuropilin 1 (NRP1) and neuropilin 2 (NRP2) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R). RESULTS: Expression levels of ACE2, TMPRSS2, NRP1 and NRP2 were lower in term and preterm newborns and IGF1R lower in term newborns compared with adults (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Both term and preterm newborns, compared with adults, have lower expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors in nasal epithelium.


Subject(s)
Nasal Mucosa/metabolism , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Middle Aged , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Neuropilin-2/genetics , Neuropilin-2/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptor, IGF Type 1/genetics , Receptor, IGF Type 1/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
14.
Arch Virol ; 166(8): 2089-2108, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209235

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has become one of the most serious health concerns globally. Although multiple vaccines have recently been approved for the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an effective treatment is still lacking. Our knowledge of the pathogenicity of this virus is still incomplete. Studies have revealed that viral factors such as the viral load, duration of exposure to the virus, and viral mutations are important variables in COVID-19 outcome. Furthermore, host factors, including age, health condition, co-morbidities, and genetic background, might also be involved in clinical manifestations and infection outcome. This review focuses on the importance of variations in the host genetic background and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. We will discuss the significance of polymorphisms in the ACE-2, TMPRSS2, vitamin D receptor, vitamin D binding protein, CD147, glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4), neuropilin-1, heme oxygenase, apolipoprotein L1, vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1), and immune system genes for the clinical outcome of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Apolipoprotein L1/genetics , Basigin/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Heme Oxygenase-1/genetics , Humans , Immunity/genetics , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Patient Outcome Assessment , Polymorphism, Genetic , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Vitamin D-Binding Protein/genetics , Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases/genetics
16.
Science ; 370(6518): 861-865, 2020 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883300

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), uses the viral spike (S) protein for host cell attachment and entry. The host protease furin cleaves the full-length precursor S glycoprotein into two associated polypeptides: S1 and S2. Cleavage of S generates a polybasic Arg-Arg-Ala-Arg carboxyl-terminal sequence on S1, which conforms to a C-end rule (CendR) motif that binds to cell surface neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and NRP2 receptors. We used x-ray crystallography and biochemical approaches to show that the S1 CendR motif directly bound NRP1. Blocking this interaction by RNA interference or selective inhibitors reduced SARS-CoV-2 entry and infectivity in cell culture. NRP1 thus serves as a host factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection and may potentially provide a therapeutic target for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Amino Acid Motifs , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , COVID-19 , Caco-2 Cells , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Crystallography, X-Ray , Furin/metabolism , HeLa Cells , Humans , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Neuropilin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Neuropilin-1/chemistry , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Pandemics , Peptide Fragments/chemistry , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , RNA Interference , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
17.
Science ; 370(6518): 856-860, 2020 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883299

ABSTRACT

The causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). For many viruses, tissue tropism is determined by the availability of virus receptors and entry cofactors on the surface of host cells. In this study, we found that neuropilin-1 (NRP1), known to bind furin-cleaved substrates, significantly potentiates SARS-CoV-2 infectivity, an effect blocked by a monoclonal blocking antibody against NRP1. A SARS-CoV-2 mutant with an altered furin cleavage site did not depend on NRP1 for infectivity. Pathological analysis of olfactory epithelium obtained from human COVID-19 autopsies revealed that SARS-CoV-2 infected NRP1-positive cells facing the nasal cavity. Our data provide insight into SARS-CoV-2 cell infectivity and define a potential target for antiviral intervention.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Caco-2 Cells , Female , HEK293 Cells , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Male , Metal Nanoparticles , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mutation , Neuropilin-1/chemistry , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/immunology , Neuropilin-2/metabolism , Olfactory Mucosa/metabolism , Olfactory Mucosa/virology , Pandemics , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
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