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Rev Neurosci ; 32(4): 427-442, 2021 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069660


As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to be a multidimensional threat to humanity, more evidence of neurological involvement associated with it has emerged. Neuroimmune interaction may prove to be important not only in the pathogenesis of neurological manifestations but also to prevent systemic hyperinflammation. In this review, we summarize reports of COVID-19 cases with neurological involvement, followed by discussion of possible routes of entry, immune responses against coronavirus infection in the central nervous system and mechanisms of nerve degeneration due to viral infection and immune responses. Possible mechanisms for neuroprotection and virus-associated neurological consequences are also discussed.

COVID-19/complications , Central Nervous System/virology , Nervous System Diseases/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/immunology , Central Nervous System/immunology , Humans , Immunity/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Neuroprotection/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
Brain Behav Immun ; 91: 649-667, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064858


For the last two decades, researchers have placed hopes in a new era in which a combination of reperfusion and neuroprotection would revolutionize the treatment of stroke. Nevertheless, despite the thousands of papers available in the literature showing positive results in preclinical stroke models, randomized clinical trials have failed to show efficacy. It seems clear now that the existing data obtained in preclinical research have depicted an incomplete picture of stroke pathophysiology. In order to ameliorate bench-to-bed translation, in this review we first describe the main actors on stroke inflammatory and immune responses based on the available preclinical data, highlighting the fact that the link between leukocyte infiltration, lesion volume and neurological outcome remains unclear. We then describe what is known on neuroinflammation and immune responses in stroke patients, and summarize the results of the clinical trials on immunomodulatory drugs. In order to understand the gap between clinical trials and preclinical results on stroke, we discuss in detail the experimental results that served as the basis for the summarized clinical trials on immunomodulatory drugs, focusing on (i) experimental stroke models, (ii) the timing and selection of outcome measuring, (iii) alternative entry routes for leukocytes into the ischemic region, and (iv) factors affecting stroke outcome such as gender differences, ageing, comorbidities like hypertension and diabetes, obesity, tobacco, alcohol consumption and previous infections like Covid-19. We can do better for stroke treatment, especially when targeting inflammation following stroke. We need to re-think the design of stroke experimental setups, notably by (i) using clinically relevant models of stroke, (ii) including both radiological and neurological outcomes, (iii) performing long-term follow-up studies, (iv) conducting large-scale preclinical stroke trials, and (v) including stroke comorbidities in preclinical research.

Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Stroke/immunology , Stroke/physiopathology , Animals , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Comorbidity , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunity/immunology , Immunity/physiology , Inflammation/immunology , Neuroprotection/immunology , Neuroprotection/physiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Reperfusion/methods , Reperfusion/trends
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1866(10): 165823, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133265


A wide array of molecular pathways has been investigated during the past decade in order to understand the mechanisms by which the practice of physical exercise promotes neuroprotection and reduces the risk of developing communicable and non-communicable chronic diseases. While a single session of physical exercise may represent a challenge for cell homeostasis, repeated physical exercise sessions will improve immunosurveillance and immunocompetence. Additionally, immune cells from the central nervous system will acquire an anti-inflammatory phenotype, protecting central functions from age-induced cognitive decline. This review highlights the exercise-induced anti-inflammatory effect on the prevention or treatment of common chronic clinical and experimental settings. It also suggests the use of pterins in biological fluids as sensitive biomarkers to follow the anti-inflammatory effect of physical exercise.

Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Exercise/physiology , Immune System/drug effects , Immune System/immunology , Animals , Biomarkers , Blood-Brain Barrier/immunology , Chronic Disease , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Cytokines , Databases, Factual , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Neopterin/pharmacology , Neuroprotection/immunology