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3.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 164(4): 967-972, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1640858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disruptions in global surgery educational routines by the COVID-19 pandemic have elicited demands for alternative formats for rendering qualitative neurosurgical education. This study presents application of a novel model of online neurosurgical course, the Lecture-Panel-Discussion Model (LPDM). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey of participants who attended the Swedish African Neurosurgery Collaboration (SANC)-100A course. Participants evaluated the course through an online self-administered questionnaire using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from very poor-1, poor-2, average (fair)-3, good-4, to excellent-5. SANC-100A comprises a tripod of Lectures, Panel review, and interactive case Discussion. This model (LPDM) was innovated by SANC and applied at the Enugu International Neurosurgery course in February 2021. RESULTS: There were 71 attendees, 19 were course faculty, while 52 were participants. Thirty-five attended from Nigeria, 11 from Sweden, 3 from Malawi, 2 from Senegal, and 1 from the UK. Among 44 participants who completed the questionnaire, there were 9 fellows and 35 residents. The overall median course Likert rating was 4.65 ± 0.1. The median overall rating for course events was similar between day 1 (Likert score = 4.45) and day 2 (Likert score = 4.55), U = 55, Z score = 1.10, P = 0.27. The median rating for lectures was 4.50 ± 0.2 and varied from 4.40 on day 1 to 4.55 on day 2. The median rating for panel review was 4.60 ± 0.1 and varied from 4.55 on day 1 to 4.65 on day 2. Interactive case discussions were rated 4.80 on both course days. There was a significant variability in the rating profiles of the course tripod: U = 24.5, P = 0.03. Fifty-one (98%) participants believe LPDM was COVID-19-compliant, while 90% believe the course was beneficial to training and practice. CONCLUSION: Initial application of LPDM is rewarded with both high acceptance and high rating among participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Neurosurgery , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Neurosurgery/education , Nigeria , Pandemics , Sweden
7.
Neurosurg Rev ; 45(2): 1101-1110, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460346

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted neurosurgical training worldwide, with the shutdown of academic institutions and the reduction of elective surgical procedures. This impact has disproportionately affected LMICs (lower- and/or middle-income countries), already burdened by a lack of neurosurgical resources. Thus, a systematic review was conducted to examine these challenges and innovations developed to adapt effective teaching and learning for medical students and neurosurgical trainees. A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) and The Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions. MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases were accessed, searching and screening literature from December 2019 to 5th December 2020 with set inclusion and exclusion criteria. Screening identified 1254 articles of which 26 were included, providing data from 96 countries. Twenty-three studies reported transition to online learning, with 8 studies also mentioned redeployment into COVID wards with 2 studies mentioning missed surgical exposure as a consequence. Of 7 studies conducted in LMICs, 3 reported residents suffering financial insecurities from reduced surgical caseload and recession. Significant global disruption in neurosurgical teaching and training has arisen from the COVID-19 pandemic. Decreased surgical exposure has negatively impacted educational provision. However, advancements in virtual technology have allowed for more affordable, accessible training especially in LMICs. Using this, initiatives to reduce physical and mental stress experienced by trainees should be paramount.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurosurgery , Humans , Neurosurgery/education , Pandemics
8.
World Neurosurg ; 157: e198-e206, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, disruption of surgical hands-on training has hampered the skills acquisition by budding neurosurgeons. Online and virtual classrooms have not been able to substitute the hands-on experience and learning via direct interaction with senior colleagues. To overcome these challenges, we organized a hybrid workshop where simulation-based learning modules, and direct and virtual interaction with surgeons during live surgeries or didactic lectures were utilized to help delegates in understanding the nuances of neurosurgery. METHODS: A 3-day hybrid workshop was held in March 2021, which was attended by 133 delegates. A structured questionnaire was utilized to record their feedback. RESULTS: An overwhelming majority of the respondents (94.1%, n = 64) found hybrid conferences to be better than an online conference. Most of the respondents (88.3%, n = 60) rated the utility of direct face-to-face interaction to be more satisfying as compared with online interaction with faculty during a webinar. Again, many the respondents (86.8%, n = 59) believed that similar hybrid events will be the new normal given the current situation of COVID-19 pandemic. A large majority (88.2%, n = 60) of the respondents reported that they will prefer a hybrid event over an online conference. CONCLUSIONS: In this era of the COVID-19 pandemic, "hybrid" microneurosurgery workshops offer unique opportunities to enhance surgical skills acquisition by hands-on simulation-based learning and observing live surgical demonstrations, apart from 2-way interactions with experts under one roof. This may be a stepping stone for what lies ahead in the future of neurosurgical training.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical, Graduate/methods , Neurosurgery/education , Humans , Neurosurgical Procedures/education , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 210: 106958, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439944

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed unprecedented new stressors to medical student education. This national survey investigated the prevalence of burnout in U.S. medical students interested in pursuing neurosurgical residency during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A 24-question survey was sent to all American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) medical student chapter members. The abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory (aMBI) was used to measure the following burnout metrics: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Bivariate analyses were conducted and multivariate analyses were performed using a logistic regression models. RESULTS: 254 medical students were included (response rate of 14.5%). The majority were male (55.1%), White (66.1%), and between their 2nd and 3rd years in medical school (62.6%). Burnout was identified in 38 (15.0%) respondents, a rate lower than reported in the pre-COVID era. In multivariate analysis, burnout was significantly associated with choosing not to pursue, or feeling uncertain about pursuing, a medical career again if given the choice (OR = 3.40, p = 0.0075), having second thoughts about choosing to pursue neurosurgery (OR = 3.47, p = 0.0025), attending a medical program in the Northeast compared to the Southeast (OR = 0.32, p = 0.027) or Southwest U.S. (OR = 0.30, p = 0.046), and indicating that one's future clinical performance will have worsened due to COVID-19 (OR = 2.71, p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates relatively low rates of burnout among U.S. medical students interested in pursuing neurosurgery during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings also demonstrate multiple factors may aid in early identification of burnout, highlighting potential opportunities for intervention.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Neurosurgery/psychology , Students, Medical/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Burnout, Professional/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Internship and Residency , Male , Neurosurgery/education , Young Adult
10.
World Neurosurg ; 154: e590-e604, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440406

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a shift to virtual residency interviews for the 2020-2021 neurosurgery match, with unknown implications for stakeholders. This study seeks to analyze the perceptions of residency program directors (PDs) and associate program directors (APDs) regarding the current virtual format used for residency selection and interviews. METHODS: An anonymous, 30-question survey was constructed and sent to 115 neurosurgery PDs and 26 APDs to assess respondent demographics, factors used to review applicants, perceptions of applicants and applicant engagement, perceptions of standardized letters and interview questions, the effect of the virtual interview format on various stakeholders, and the future outlook for the virtual residency interview format. RESULTS: A total of 38 PDs and APDs completed this survey, constituting a response rate of 27.0%. Survey respondents received significantly more Electronic Residency Application Service applications in the 2020-2021 cycle compared with the 2019-2020 cycle (P = 0.0029). Subinternship performance by home-rotators, (26.3%), letters of recommendation (23.7%), and Step 1 score (18.4%) were ranked as the most important factors for evaluating candidates during the current virtual application cycle. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights that applicants applied to a greater number of residency programs compared with years prior, that the criteria used by PDs/APDs to evaluate applicants remained largely consistent compared to previous years, and that the virtual residency interview format may disproportionately disadvantage Doctor of Osteopathic medicine and international medical graduate applicants. Further exploring attitudes toward signaling mechanisms and standardized letters may serve to inform changes to future neurosurgery match cycles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Internship and Residency , Neurosurgery/education , Pandemics , School Admission Criteria/trends , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
World Neurosurg ; 154: e428-e436, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a detrimental effect on residents' operative training. Our aim was to identify the proportion of procedures performed by residents across 2 neurosurgical centers (1 in the United Kingdom and 1 in Germany) during the pandemic-affected months of March 2020-May 2020, inclusive, compared with March 2019-May 2019, inclusive. METHODS: All neurosurgical procedures performed at the United Kingdom and German institutions, between March 1, 2019 and May 31, 2019 (pre-COVID months) and March 1, 2020 and May 31, 2020 (COVID months), were extracted and operative notes evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed on SPSS version 22. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant reduction in operative volume in the United Kingdom center from the pre-COVID months to the COVID months (χ2(5) = 84.917; P < 0.001) but no significant difference in the operative volume in the German center (P = 0.61). A Mann-Whitney U test showed a statistically significant difference in the volume of residents operating in the COVID months compared with pre-COVID months in both United Kingdom and German centers (P < 0.001). The average number of procedures performed by residents in the United Kingdom center as the primary surgeon decreased from 82 to 72 per month (pre-COVID vs. COVID months), whereas German residents' operating volume increased from 68 to 89 per month (pre-COVID vs. COVID months). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly reduced the volume of operating by neurosurgical residents in the United Kingdom center, whereas residents in the German center performed more procedures compared with 2019. This finding may reflect variations in national practice on maintaining surgical activities and provision of critical care beds during the first wave of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Neurosurgery/education , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Education, Medical, Graduate , Female , Germany , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Neurosurgeons , Retrospective Studies , United Kingdom , Young Adult
13.
World Neurosurg ; 155: e412-e417, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364511

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the ACGME recommended all interviews for the 2021 residency application cycle be held virtually. Because this is major shift from neurosurgical interviews in past years, this study aims to evaluate both applicant and interviewer satisfaction of conducting interviews virtually. METHODS: For faculty, an 11-question online survey was sent to 116 United States neurosurgery training programs. A 14-question online survey was sent to 255 neurosurgery applicants. The resulting data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. RESULTS: From applicants, 118 responses were received. From faculty, 171 individual responses were received. Thirty-five percent (34.7%) of applicants agreed that they were satisfied with the virtual interview process as a whole. Although 44.5% of faculty disagreed with the statement "I would like to replace in-person interviews with virtual interviews in the future", 57.3% of faculty agreed that they were likely to implement virtual interviews in the future. CONCLUSIONS: Some things might be better assessed through in-person interviews, but there are clear benefits to virtual interviews. Future iterations of the interview process, incorporating virtual interviews, might help determine how and in which situations virtual interviews can be utilized in future residency application cycles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Faculty, Medical/trends , Internship and Residency/trends , Job Application , Neurosurgery/trends , Surveys and Questionnaires , COVID-19/prevention & control , Faculty, Medical/psychology , Humans , Neurosurgery/education , Online Systems/trends , United States/epidemiology
14.
World Neurosurg ; 154: e547-e554, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331292

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: After the official announcement of the coronavirus disease-19 pandemic on March 11, 2020, the disease impacted most aspects of health care delivery, especially postgraduate education and training. METHOD: A cross-sectional, online questionnaire-based assessment was performed. The study participants involved neurosurgery residents and program directors (PDs) across the country between May 16 and May 27, 2020. RESULTS: Approximately 74 of 95 (77.9%) of the residents experienced an impact on their training calendar. Before the pandemic, 51 residents (53.3%) were involved in 2-3 surgeries per week, but during the pandemic, 66 (69.5%) were attending 0-1 case per week. Fifty-three residents (55.8%) agreed that academic sessions were affected despite the helpful effort of online teaching sessions. Thirty-four (35.8%) residents graded their anxiety during coronavirus disease-19 times as high. Ten PDs (58.8%) confirmed spending 3-5 hours per week on educational activities normally, whereas during the pandemic, 15 PDs (88.2%) reduced their educational hours to 0-2 hours per week. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that educational activities significantly decreased and shifted toward virtual teaching methods. Operative volume showed a substantial reduction for both junior and senior residents. Academic and clinical teaching was the main concern for PDs, and they faced challenges interviewing newly matched residents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , Neurosurgery/education , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Neurosurgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Saudi Arabia , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
15.
World Neurosurg ; 154: e320-e324, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309404

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasing restrictions over trainees' working hours and the recent coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic warrant new educational methods of surgical skills. We assessed a novel video-recording system for neuroendovascular skill education, developed with the installation of a hybrid operating room (OR) at our institution. METHODS: A single-plane angiography unit with a large flat display (FlexVision XL; Philips Medical Systems) was installed in our OR. All media sources in the OR, including live fluoroscopy and ceiling-mounted camcorders, were connected to a video switcher. This video switcher laid up to 8 video images into one big image, which was transferred to the large display and the professional-use Blu-ray recorder. The recording was performed continuously during the procedure. This recording system was evaluated retrospectively with a questionnaire administered to the 5 trainees. RESULTS: Using this system, 68 interventional procedures were recorded. Among the potential merits, the trainees assigned the greatest value to the simultaneous recording of the operator's hand motions and the fluoroscopy images. Among the potential limitations of the system, the prolonged time and the increased volume of the video data bothered the trainees the most. The recorded video looked like a live demonstration. CONCLUSIONS: Our "selfie" video recording system was useful for skill training of neuroendovascular interventions.


Subject(s)
Endovascular Procedures/education , Neurosurgery/education , Neurosurgical Procedures/education , Operating Rooms , Video Recording , Angiography , COVID-19 , Clinical Competence , Education, Medical, Graduate , Fluoroscopy , Humans , Internship and Residency , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
World Neurosurg ; 154: e283-e291, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has placed tremendous strain on the national health care systems throughout Europe. As a result, there has been a significant influence on residents' education. We surveyed European neurosurgery residents to estimate the magnitude of the pandemic's impact on neurosurgical training. METHODS: An anonymous, voluntary, 44-question, web-based survey was administered to European neurosurgical residents from November 2, 2020, to January 15, 2021, by e-mail invitation. Close-ended, multiple-choice questions were used to examine the perspectives of neurosurgical trainees of different training programs in Europe regarding the pandemic's impact on education, as well as to evaluate the online webinars as a sufficient alternative educational tool, and their future role. RESULTS: The total number of participants was 134 from 22 European countries. Nearly 88.8 % of respondents reported that the pandemic had a negative influence on their education. A statically significant decrease in surgical exposure, outpatient clinic involvement, and working hours was observed (P < 0.05). Webinars, although widely disseminated, were not considered as a sufficient training alternative. CONCLUSIONS: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic had a significant impact on neurosurgical training. During the last year, with the outbreak of the pandemic, formal training education was heavily compromised. Online webinars do not seem to be a sufficient alternative, and some trainees estimate that a whole year of training has been compromised. Our current data have to be cautiously considered for possibly reorganizing the whole training experience. The pandemic may well function as a stimulus for optimizing neurosurgical training.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Neurosurgery/education , Pandemics , Education, Distance , Europe , Humans , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital , Surveys and Questionnaires , Training Support , Work Schedule Tolerance , Workload
17.
World Neurosurg ; 151: e857-e870, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297240

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a significant transformation in medical practice and training. This nationwide survey study aims to evaluate the 1-year impact of the pandemic on training of neurosurgical residents. METHODS: A 38-question Web-based survey was sent to 356 neurosurgery residents. Two hundred and thirty-five participated in the study (66% response rate), representing more than half of all neurosurgical residents in the country. RESULTS: Assignment to direct COVID-19 medical care was common (85.5%). Many of the neurosurgery residents (37.9%) were tested positive for COVID-19. Almost half of the respondents reported a decrease in work hours. Most participants (84.3%) reported a decline in total operative case volume (mean change, -29.1% ± 1.6%), largely as a result of a decrease in elective (-33.2% ± 1.6%) as opposed to emergency cases (-5.1% ± 1.8%). For theoretic education, most respondents (54.9%) indicated a negative impact, whereas 25.1% reported a positive impact. For practical training, most respondents (78.7%) reported an adverse effect. A decrease in elective surgical case volume predicted a positive impact on theoretic training but a negative impact on practical training. Research productivity was reported by 33.2% to have decreased and by 23% to have increased. Forty-two percent indicated an increase in concerns about their training and career, with a negative impact on practical training being the most important predictor. Most (57.4%) had considered extending residency training to overcome negative effects of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has had a significant impact on neurosurgical practice and training. Effective measures should be used to mitigate these effects and better prepare for the future challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Internship and Residency/trends , Neurosurgery/education , Neurosurgery/trends , Surveys and Questionnaires , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Neurosurgery/psychology , Time Factors , Turkey/epidemiology , Workload/psychology
18.
World Neurosurg ; 151: e395-e398, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID) pandemic has presented a significant challenge to health care providers. Neurosurgical patients are often critically ill and at particularly high risk for COVID, and the pandemic has produced ever-shifting circumstances to allow their continued care. This study explores the psychologic impact of the pandemic on neurosurgical residents at a single institution. METHODS: Residents completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Inventory of Depressive Symptomology 30 (IDS-30), two validated surveys, before and during the pandemic. PSS scores range from 0 to 40 with higher scores indicative of increased stress. IDS-30 ranges from 0 to 84 with higher scores indicating more severe levels of depression. Survey results were compared collectively among residents and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The surveys had 19 out of 28 total responders (68%). Mean score on the PSS was 16.1 prepandemic and 14.7 during the pandemic (P > 0.05). The mean score on the IDS-30 was 14.7 prepandemic and 12.0 during the pandemic (P > 0.05). Matching the survey questionnaire results by each resident revealed an average decrease of 2.3 and 2.4 for the PSS and IDS-30, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant changes in perceived stress or depressive symptoms among neurosurgical residents during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Internship and Residency , Neurosurgery/education , Neurosurgery/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Stress, Psychological/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Internship and Residency/trends , Neurosurgery/trends , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
World Neurosurg ; 152: e250-e265, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, medical students training in neurosurgery relied on external subinternships at institutions nationwide for immersive educational experiences and to increase their odds of matching. However, external rotations for the 2020-2021 cycle were suspended given concerns of spreading COVID-19. Our objective was to provide foundational neurosurgical knowledge expected of interns, bootcamp-style instruction in basic procedures, and preinterview networking opportunities for students in an accessible, virtual format. METHODS: The virtual neurosurgery course consisted of 16 biweekly 1-hour seminars over a 2-month period. Participants completed comprehensive precourse and postcourse surveys assessing their backgrounds, confidence in diverse neurosurgical concepts, and opinions of the qualities of the seminars. Responses from students completing both precourse and postcourse surveys were included. RESULTS: An average of 82 students participated live in each weekly lecture (range, 41-150). Thirty-two participants completed both surveys. On a 1-10 scale self-assessing baseline confidence in neurosurgical concepts, participants were most confident in neuroendocrinology (6.79 ± 0.31) and least confident in spine oncology (4.24 ± 0.44), with an average of 5.05 ± 0.32 across all topics. Quality ratings for all seminars were favorable. The mean postcourse confidence was 7.79 ± 0.19, representing an improvement of 3.13 ± 0.38 (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Feedback on seminar quality and improvements in confidence in neurosurgical topics suggest that an interactive virtual course may be an effective means of improving students' foundational neurosurgical knowledge and providing networking opportunities before application cycles. Comparison with in-person rotations when these are reestablished may help define roles for these tools.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/statistics & numerical data , Neurosurgery/education , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , COVID-19/complications , Curriculum/statistics & numerical data , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Educational Status , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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