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1.
World Neurosurg ; 156: 96-102, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475124

ABSTRACT

Connectivity is a driving force for productivity across a wide variety of sectors in the 21st century, with health care being no exception. Fifth generation cellular technology (5G) is frequently alluded to in the mainstream media but understanding of the technology and its potential impact is not widespread in clinical communities. It promises unprecedented improvement in speed, bandwidth, reliability, and latency, all of which have significant implications for the way we use wireless data. 5G can be subdivided into 3 parallel technological architectures: extended mobile broadband (eMBB), ultra-reliable low latency communication (URLLC), and massive machine type communication (mMTC). These domains each present different and exciting prospects for the future of health care. This narrative review aims to elucidate the nature of 5G, its context within the development of telecommunications, and describe some of the notable opportunities it presents to the neurosurgical community. In many cases the requisite hardware has already been developed, but use has been limited by the requirements of a fast, reliable, and omnipresent network connection. Examples include telesurgical robots, remote supervision of procedures, integrated smart operating rooms, and clinician telepresence. The events of 2020 and the COVID-19 pandemic have brought the world's attention to digital transformation. The mechanics of 5G connectivity creates the capacity for these changes to be applied practically. An understanding of this technology is essential to appreciate the development and opportunities which will be part of our professional future.


Subject(s)
Neurosurgery/trends , Wireless Technology/trends , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
World Neurosurg ; 156: 43-52, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401928

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic exposed existing stressors in the neurosurgical care infrastructure in the United States. We aimed to detail innovative technologic solutions inspired by the pandemic-related restrictions that augmented neurosurgical education and care delivery. METHODS: Several digital health and audiovisual innovations were implemented, including use of remote video technology to facilitate inpatient consultations and outpatient ambulatory virtual visits, optimize regional hospital neurosurgical coverage, expand interdisciplinary patient management conferences (i.e., tumor board), and further enhance the neurosurgical resident education program. Enterprise patient experience data were queried to evaluate patient satisfaction following the switch to virtual visits. RESULTS: Between January 2020 and April 2021, use of virtual visits more than doubled in the Department of Neurosurgery. A survey of 10,772 patients following ambulatory visits showed that virtual visits were equal if not better in providing satisfactory patient care than in-person visits. After switching our interdisciplinary spine tumor board to a virtual meeting, we increased surgeon participation and attendance by 49.29%. Integration of remote audiovisual technology in resident didactics and clinical training improved our ability to provide comprehensive and personalized educational experiences our trainees. CONCLUSIONS: Digital health technology has improved neurosurgical care and comprehensive training at our institution. Investment in the technologic infrastructure required for these remote audiovisual services during the COVID-19 pandemic will facilitate the expansion of neurosurgical care provision for patients across the United States in the future. Governing bodies within organized neurosurgery should advocate for the continued financial and licensing support of these service on a national fiscal and policy level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurosurgery/methods , Neurosurgery/trends , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/trends , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , United States
3.
World Neurosurg ; 155: e412-e417, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364511

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the ACGME recommended all interviews for the 2021 residency application cycle be held virtually. Because this is major shift from neurosurgical interviews in past years, this study aims to evaluate both applicant and interviewer satisfaction of conducting interviews virtually. METHODS: For faculty, an 11-question online survey was sent to 116 United States neurosurgery training programs. A 14-question online survey was sent to 255 neurosurgery applicants. The resulting data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. RESULTS: From applicants, 118 responses were received. From faculty, 171 individual responses were received. Thirty-five percent (34.7%) of applicants agreed that they were satisfied with the virtual interview process as a whole. Although 44.5% of faculty disagreed with the statement "I would like to replace in-person interviews with virtual interviews in the future", 57.3% of faculty agreed that they were likely to implement virtual interviews in the future. CONCLUSIONS: Some things might be better assessed through in-person interviews, but there are clear benefits to virtual interviews. Future iterations of the interview process, incorporating virtual interviews, might help determine how and in which situations virtual interviews can be utilized in future residency application cycles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Faculty, Medical/trends , Internship and Residency/trends , Job Application , Neurosurgery/trends , Surveys and Questionnaires , COVID-19/prevention & control , Faculty, Medical/psychology , Humans , Neurosurgery/education , Online Systems/trends , United States/epidemiology
4.
World Neurosurg ; 151: e857-e870, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297240

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a significant transformation in medical practice and training. This nationwide survey study aims to evaluate the 1-year impact of the pandemic on training of neurosurgical residents. METHODS: A 38-question Web-based survey was sent to 356 neurosurgery residents. Two hundred and thirty-five participated in the study (66% response rate), representing more than half of all neurosurgical residents in the country. RESULTS: Assignment to direct COVID-19 medical care was common (85.5%). Many of the neurosurgery residents (37.9%) were tested positive for COVID-19. Almost half of the respondents reported a decrease in work hours. Most participants (84.3%) reported a decline in total operative case volume (mean change, -29.1% ± 1.6%), largely as a result of a decrease in elective (-33.2% ± 1.6%) as opposed to emergency cases (-5.1% ± 1.8%). For theoretic education, most respondents (54.9%) indicated a negative impact, whereas 25.1% reported a positive impact. For practical training, most respondents (78.7%) reported an adverse effect. A decrease in elective surgical case volume predicted a positive impact on theoretic training but a negative impact on practical training. Research productivity was reported by 33.2% to have decreased and by 23% to have increased. Forty-two percent indicated an increase in concerns about their training and career, with a negative impact on practical training being the most important predictor. Most (57.4%) had considered extending residency training to overcome negative effects of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has had a significant impact on neurosurgical practice and training. Effective measures should be used to mitigate these effects and better prepare for the future challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Internship and Residency/trends , Neurosurgery/education , Neurosurgery/trends , Surveys and Questionnaires , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Neurosurgery/psychology , Time Factors , Turkey/epidemiology , Workload/psychology
5.
World Neurosurg ; 151: e395-e398, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID) pandemic has presented a significant challenge to health care providers. Neurosurgical patients are often critically ill and at particularly high risk for COVID, and the pandemic has produced ever-shifting circumstances to allow their continued care. This study explores the psychologic impact of the pandemic on neurosurgical residents at a single institution. METHODS: Residents completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Inventory of Depressive Symptomology 30 (IDS-30), two validated surveys, before and during the pandemic. PSS scores range from 0 to 40 with higher scores indicative of increased stress. IDS-30 ranges from 0 to 84 with higher scores indicating more severe levels of depression. Survey results were compared collectively among residents and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The surveys had 19 out of 28 total responders (68%). Mean score on the PSS was 16.1 prepandemic and 14.7 during the pandemic (P > 0.05). The mean score on the IDS-30 was 14.7 prepandemic and 12.0 during the pandemic (P > 0.05). Matching the survey questionnaire results by each resident revealed an average decrease of 2.3 and 2.4 for the PSS and IDS-30, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant changes in perceived stress or depressive symptoms among neurosurgical residents during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Internship and Residency , Neurosurgery/education , Neurosurgery/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Stress, Psychological/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Internship and Residency/trends , Neurosurgery/trends , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 86: 135-138, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230072

ABSTRACT

The evaluation and management of patients with movement disorders has evolved considerably due to the COVID-19 pandemic, including the assessment of candidates for deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy. Members of the Neuropsychology Focus Group from the Parkinson Study Group Functional Neurosurgical Working Group met virtually to discuss current practices and solutions, build consensus, and to inform the DBS team and community regarding the complexities of performing DBS neuropsychological evaluations during COVID-19. It is our viewpoint that the practice of neuropsychology has adapted successfully to provide tele-neuropsychological pre-DBS evaluations during the global pandemic, thus permanently changing the landscape of neuropsychological services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Brain Stimulation/trends , Movement Disorders/psychology , Movement Disorders/surgery , Neuropsychological Tests , Neuropsychology/trends , Neurosurgery/trends , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/psychology , Parkinson Disease/surgery , Deep Brain Stimulation/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Telemedicine
9.
J Clin Neurosci ; 88: 128-134, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1176834

ABSTRACT

Early COVID-19-targeted legislations reduced public activity and elective surgery such that local neurosurgical care greatly focused on emergent needs. This study examines neurosurgical trauma patients' dispositions through two neighboring trauma centers to inform resource allocation. We conducted a retrospective review of the trauma registries for two Level 1 Trauma Centers in Santa Clara County, one academic and one community center, between February 1st and April 15th, 2018-2020. Events before a quarantine, implemented on March 16th, 2020, and events from 2018 to 19 were used for reference. Encounters were characterized by injuries, services, procedures, and disposition. Categorical variables were analyzed by the χ2 test, proportions of variables by z-score test, and non-parametric variables by Fisher's exact test. A total of 1,336 traumas were identified, with 31% from the academic center and 69% from the community center. During the post-policy period, relative to matching periods in years prior, there was a decrease in number of TBI and spinal fractures (24% versus 41%, p < 0.001) and neurosurgical consults (27% versus 39%, p < 0.003), but not in number of neurosurgical admissions or procedures. There were no changes in frequency of neurosurgery consults among total traumas, patients triaged to critical care services, or patients discharged to temporary rehabilitation services. Neurosurgical services were similarly rendered between the academic and community hospitals. This study describes neurosurgical trauma management in a suburban healthcare network immediately following restrictive quarantine during a moderate COVID-19 outbreak. Our data shows that neurosurgery remains a resource-intensive subspeciality, even during restrictive periods when overall trauma volume is decreased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurosurgery/trends , Pandemics , Quarantine , Trauma Centers/trends , Academic Medical Centers , Adult , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/epidemiology , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/surgery , California/epidemiology , Child , Community Health Centers , Female , Humans , Male , Neurosurgery/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Cord Injuries/epidemiology , Spinal Cord Injuries/surgery , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
10.
World Neurosurg ; 151: e68-e77, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medical subspecialties including neurosurgery have seen a dramatic shift in operative volume in the wake of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The goal of this study was to quantify the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on operative volume at 2 academic neurosurgery centers in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA from equivalent periods before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted analyzing neurosurgical case records for 2 tertiary academic centers from March to June 2020 and March to June 2019. The records were reviewed for variables including institution and physician coverage, operative volume by month and year, cases per subspecialty, patient demographics, mortality, and morbidity. RESULTS: Comparison of groups showed a 34% reduction in monthly neurosurgical volume per institution during the pandemic compared with earlier time points, including a 77% decrease during April 2020. There was no change in mortality and morbidity across institutions during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on neurosurgical practice and will likely continue to have long-term effects on patients at a time when global gross domestic products decrease and relative health expenditures increase. Clinicians must anticipate and actively prepare for these impacts in the future.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Internship and Residency/trends , Neurosurgical Procedures/education , Neurosurgical Procedures/trends , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Academic Medical Centers/methods , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Internship and Residency/methods , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Neurosurgery/education , Neurosurgery/methods , Neurosurgery/trends , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , New Orleans/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies
11.
World Neurosurg ; 150: e645-e656, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Global use of telemedicine has increased rapidly during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic to bridge the gap in existing health care services. Intercontinental trends in neurosurgeons' perception and practices of telemedicine have been sparingly reported. METHODS: We conducted an online anonymized and validated survey using a structured questionnaire to gain insight into neurosurgeons' experience with telemedicine across various continents and rated its usefulness on a 5-point Likert scale. RESULTS: We received 286 responses across 5 continents. There was a trend to support a major paradigm shift favoring teleconsultations during the COVID-19 pandemic in respondents from North America (P = 0.06). Signed prescriptions were e-mailed along with video-based teleconsultations preferentially in Europe and North America. In comparison, audio- or text-based teleconsultations along with unsigned prescriptions were prevalent in Asia and Africa (P = 0.0005). Acceptability and perceived usefulness for telemedicine during the pandemic were similar across the globe, regardless of neurosurgeons' experience (mean satisfaction score 3.72 ± 1.09; P = 0.62). A majority of neurosurgeons from Asia and South America complained of difficulties during teleconsultations owing to lack of appropriate infrastructure, internet connectivity/prescription-related issues, and potential risk of litigation (P = 0.0005). Approximately 46% of neurosurgeons, predominantly from Europe and North America, thought that telemedicine could play a vital role in clinical practice even after the COVID-19 pandemic subsides (mean satisfaction score 3.26 ± 1.16; P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Telemedicine in neurosurgery is a viable alternative to physical outpatient services during the COVID-19 pandemic and could potentially play a vital role after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurosurgery/trends , Pandemics , Remote Consultation/trends , Ambulatory Care , Humans , Internet , Neurosurgeons , Neurosurgery/economics , Neurosurgery/methods , Prescriptions , Remote Consultation/economics , Remote Consultation/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/trends
12.
World Neurosurg ; 150: e539-e549, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142298

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically changed health care, forcing providers to adopt and implement telehealth technology to provide continuous care for their patients. Amid this rapid transition from in-person to remote visits, differences in telehealth utilization have arisen among neurosurgical subspecialties. In this study, we analyze the impact of telehealth on neurosurgical healthcare delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic at our institution and highlight differences in telehealth utilization across different neurosurgical subspecialties. METHODS: To quantify differences in telehealth utilization, we analyzed all outpatient neurosurgery visits at a single academic institution. Internal surveys were administered to neurosurgeons and to patients to determine both physician and patient satisfaction with telehealth visits. Patient Likelihood-to-Recommend Press-Ganey scores were also evaluated. RESULTS: There was a decrease in outpatient visits during the COVID-19 pandemic in all neurosurgical subspecialties. Telehealth adoption was higher in spine, tumor, and interventional pain than in functional, peripheral nerve, or vascular neurosurgery. Neurosurgeons agreed that telehealth was an efficient (92%) and effective (85%) methodology; however, they noted it was more difficult to evaluate and bond with patients. The majority of patients were satisfied with their video visits and would recommend video visits over in-person visits. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, neurosurgical subspecialties varied in adoption of telehealth, which may be due to the specific nature of each subspecialty and their necessity to perform in-person evaluations. Telehealth visits will likely continue after the pandemic as they can improve clinical efficiency; overall, both patients and physicians are satisfied with health care delivery over video.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurosurgery/trends , Pandemics , Telemedicine/trends , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ambulatory Care , Attitude of Health Personnel , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/surgery , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Neurosurgeons , Patient Satisfaction , Patients , Physician-Patient Relations , Retrospective Studies , Specialization , Young Adult
13.
World Neurosurg ; 149: e274-e280, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The world currently faces the novel COVID-19 pandemic, with cutbacks in patient care. Little is known about the effects of a pandemic on the presentation and admission to an outpatient clinic. Our aim was to gain a better understanding of the effects of reduced neurosurgical care access from the patient perspective, especially in terms of anxiety and urgency of treatment, and to improve outpatient management in case of a potential second wave and potential restrictions on health care. METHODS: We performed a questionnaire study over a period of 4 weeks following the COVID-19 lockdown at our academic neurosurgical department. A 15-item questionnaire was distributed to the patients with 3 additional questions to be answered by the treating neurosurgeon. RESULTS: A total of 437 questionnaires were analyzed. Overall anxiety to visit a general practitioner or the outpatient facility within the hospital was very low among patients. A quarter of all appointments had to be postponed due to COVID-19, in 0.6% postponement was perceived as incorrect by the treating neurosurgeon. We noted that 43% did not get an appointment due to the restrictions, 20% did not want to bother the medical system, and only 4% were afraid to get infected in the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Despite COVID-19, patients in need of neurosurgical service were hardly afraid to visit doctors and/or hospitals. Nonetheless, because legal requirements, access has been restricted, causing potential collateral damage in a small subset of neurosurgical patients.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Ambulatory Surgical Procedures , COVID-19 , Neurosurgery/trends , Pandemics , Patients , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/psychology , Appointments and Schedules , Attitude , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Medical Services , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Care Management , Quarantine , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
15.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol ; 33(1): 1-2, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030104
18.
World Neurosurg ; 146: e323-e327, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957482

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The health care field has been faced with unprecedented challenges during the COVID 19 pandemic. One such challenge was the implementation of enhanced telehealth capabilities to ensure continuity of care. In this study, we aim to understand differences between subspecialties with regard to patient consent and satisfaction following telehealth implementation. METHODS: A retrospective review of the electronic medical record was performed from March 2 to May 8, 2020 to evaluate surgical consents before and after telehealth implementation. Press Ganey survey results were also obtained both pre- and posttelehealth implementation and compared. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the percentage of new patients consented for surgery (after being seen via telehealth only) between the cranial and spine services. For procedures in which >10 patients were consented for surgery, the highest proportion of patients seen only via telehealth was for ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement/endoscopic third ventriculostomy for the cranial service, and lumbar laminectomy and microdiscectomy for the spine service. Additionally, the spine service experienced marked improvement in Press Ganey scores posttelehealth implementation with overall doctor ranking improving from the 29th to the 93rd percentile, and likelihood to recommend increasing from the 24th to the 94th percentile. CONCLUSIONS: There were clear trends with regard to which pathologies and procedures were most amenable to telehealth visits, which suggests a potential roadmap for future clinic planning. Additionally, the notable improvement in spine patient satisfaction following the implementation of a telehealth program suggests the need for long-term process changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Electronic Health Records/trends , Neurosurgery/trends , Telemedicine/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Neurosurgery/methods , Retrospective Studies , Telemedicine/methods
19.
World Neurosurg ; 146: e1079-e1082, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had a great impact over all elective neurosurgical activity and important implications in management of neurosurgical urgencies. During the pandemic, some pediatric hospitals reported their experiences. After the emergency phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, the health care system needs to be reorganized to again manage all nonurgent activities, while ensuring safety of both patients and health care workers. METHODS: We developed preventive measures to limit any possibility of COVID-19 spread, according to the principles of epidemiologic prevention and suggestions from recent literature. To evaluate the efficacy of these measures, we retrospectively reviewed the neurosurgical activity at our institution from May 4 to July 15, 2020. RESULTS: One hundred nineteen patients were admitted to the neurosurgical ward, and 80 surgical procedures were performed. Furthermore, 130 outpatient clinics were scheduled. A total of 258 nasopharyngeal swabs and 249 specific interviews were performed. In our series, no cases of positivity for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection were found, and no surgical cases were postponed. DISCUSSION: We present the management of the neurosurgical activity after the emergency phase at the Neurosurgical Department of Giannina Gaslini Children's Hospital in Genoa, Italy. CONCLUSIONS: The Italian health care system is undertaking a process of reorganization of resources, in an attempt to restore all nonurgent activities while ensuring safety. After the emergency phase, we are learning to live together with COVID-19 and, although epidemiologic data are encouraging, we must be prepared for an eventual second peak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/trends , Hospitals, Pediatric/trends , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Neurosurgical Procedures/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Elective Surgical Procedures/trends , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Neurosurgery/methods , Neurosurgery/trends , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital/trends , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , Retrospective Studies
20.
World Neurosurg ; 146: e768-e772, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917451

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected patient care across specialties. Ramifications for neurosurgery include substantial disruptions to surgical training and changes in nonurgent patient presentations to the emergency department. This study quantifies the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of emergency department patients who were referred to the neurosurgery department for further consultation and treatment and identifies and describes trends in the characteristics of these visits. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of neurosurgical consultations at a single high-volume institution for 28 call-day periods before and after the official announcement of the pandemic. Primary outcomes included consultations per call-day, patient presentation category, and patient admission. RESULTS: The neurosurgical service was consulted regarding 629 patients (367 male patients) during the study period, with 471 (75%) and 158 (25%) patients presenting before and after the announcement of the COVID-19 pandemic, respectively. The mean number of neurosurgical consultations per call-day was significantly lower in the COVID-19 period (5.6 consultations) compared with the pre-COVID-19 period (16.8 consultations) (P < 0.001). After adjusting for patient demographics, the rate of presentation for general nonurgent concerns, such as back pain, headaches, and other general weaknesses, significantly decreased (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.60 [0.47-0.77], P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Neurosurgical consultations significantly decreased after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, with a substantially lower overall number of consultations necessitating operative interventions. Furthermore, the relative number of patients with nonemergent neurological conditions significantly decreased during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neurosurgery/trends , Propensity Score , Referral and Consultation/trends , Tertiary Care Centers/trends , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neurosurgery/methods , Retrospective Studies
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