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1.
No Shinkei Geka ; 49(5): 1093-1104, 2021 Sep.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456522

ABSTRACT

Although surgical site infections(SSIs)are usually controllable, their occasional occurrence is unavoidable. SSIs in neurosurgery comprise surgical-wound infections and surgical-organ/space infections. Data from the Japan Nosocomial Infections Surveillance revealed an overall infection rate of 1.1% during the first half of 2020. Responses to two questionnaire-based surveys on SSI prevention and complications related to cranial implant/artificial bone revealed the real world situation in neurosurgery. In 2020, neurosurgical information was added to the practical guidelines concerning the proper use of prophylactic antibacterial drug for SSIs. COVID-19 hygiene control protocols may have reduced the incidence of SSIs. It may be prudent to continue this stringent hygiene control after the COVID-19 pandemic has abated. Information of medical material on SSI is presented in this article, including the Plus suture®, DuraGen®, DuraSeal®, Adherus®, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene(SKULPIO®, CRANIOFIT-PE®), Bioglide® and Bactiseal® shunt systems, and olanexidine. Minimizing SSIs requires proper knowledge on infection control, taking care while performing neurosurgical procedures, and compassion for the patients. In addition, information and material must be updated over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurosurgery , Humans , Neurosurgical Procedures/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control
2.
Neurosurg Rev ; 44(6): 3421-3425, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118237

ABSTRACT

Hygiene measures were intensified when the COVID-19 pandemic began. Patient contacts were limited to a minimum. Visitors were either not allowed for a certain period or limited for the rest of the time. The hospital staff began to wear masks and gloves continuously. Clinical examinations and routine wound controls were also performed under intensified hygiene standards. These circumstances result in a limitation of direct physical interactions between the nursing staff, the physicians and the patients. We analyzed to what extent the intensification of hygiene measures affects the rate of surgical site infections (SSI) after neurosurgical procedures. The rate of SSI during the 6-month interval after the beginning of COVID-19 measures was compared with the SSI rate before. The numbers of the period before COVID-19 were analyzed as mean values resulting from the analysis of two separate time periods each consisting of 6 months. The spectrum of surgical procedures was compared. Patient-related risk factors for SSIs were noted. Microorganisms were analyzed. We focused on SSIs occurring at a maximum of 60 days after the primary surgery. Overall, in the two respective 6-month periods before COVID-19, a mean of 1379 patients was surgically treated in our institution. After the beginning of COVID-19 (starting from 04/2020) our surgical numbers dropped by 101, resulting in a total number of 1278 patients being operated after 03/2020 until 09/2020. The SSI rate was 3.6% (03/2019-09/2019, 50 SSIs) and 2.2% (09/2019-03/2020, 29 SSIs), resulting in a mean of 2.9% before COVID-19 began. After the beginning of COVID-19 hygiene measures, this rate dropped to 1.4% (16 SSIs) resembling a significant reduction (p=0.003). Risk factors for the development of SSI were present in 81.3% of all patients. Pre- and post-COVID-19 patient groups had similar baseline characteristics. The same holds true when comparing the percentage of cranial and spinal procedures pre- and post-COVID-19 (p=0.91). Comparing the numbers (p=0.28) and the species (p=0.85) of microorganisms (MO) causing SSI, we found a similar distribution. Despite equal demographics and characteristics of SSI, the rate of SSI dropped substantially. This argues for an effective reduction of postoperative SSI resulting from the implementation of strict hygiene measures being established after the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. We therefore advocate continuing with strict and intensive hygiene measures in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurosurgery , Humans , Neurosurgical Procedures/adverse effects , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control
3.
Adv Med Sci ; 66(1): 221-230, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116131

ABSTRACT

Transnasal endoscopic skull base surgery (eSBS) has been adopted in recent years, in great part to replace the extended procedures required by external approaches. Though sometimes perceived as "minimally invasive", eSBS still necessitates extensive manipulations within the nose/paranasal sinuses. Furthermore, exposure of susceptible cerebral structures to light and heat emanated by the telescope should be considered to comprehensively evaluate the safety of the method. While the number of studies specifically targeting eSBS safety still remains scarce, the problem has recently expanded with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which also has implications for the safety of the surgical personnel. It must be stressed that eSBS may directly expose the surgeon to potentially high volumes of virus-contaminated aerosol. Thus, the anxiety of both the patient and the surgeon must be taken into account. Consequently, safety requirements must follow the highest standards. This paper summarizes current knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 biology and the peculiarities of human immunology in respect of the host-virus relationship, taking into account the latest information concerning the SARS-CoV-2 worrisome affinity for the nervous system. Based on this information, a workflow proposal is offered for consideration. This could be useful not only for the duration of the pandemic, but also during the unpredictable timeline involving our coexistence with the virus. Recommendations include technical modifications to the operating theatre, personal protective equipment, standards of testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection, prophylactic pretreatment with interferon, anti-IL6 treatment and, last but not least, psychological support for the patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery , Neurosurgical Procedures , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Skull Base/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery/adverse effects , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Neurosurgical Procedures/adverse effects , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Risk Management/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
6.
World Neurosurg ; 140: 374-377, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647933

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel viral strain known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has created a worldwide pandemic known as coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Early reports from China have highlighted the risks associated with performing endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery in patients with SARS-CoV-2. We present a rare complication of nasoseptal flap (NSF) necrosis associated with COVID-19, further emphasizing the challenges of performing these procedures in this era. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 78-year-old man underwent an extended endoscopic endonasal transplanum resection of a pituitary macroadenoma for decompression of the optic chiasm. The resulting skull base defect was repaired using a pedicled NSF. The patient developed meningitis and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak on postoperative day 13, requiring revision repair of the defect. Twelve days later, he developed persistent fever and rhinorrhea. The patient was reexplored endoscopically, and the NSF was noted to be necrotic and devitalized with evident CSF leakage. At that time, the patient tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Postoperatively, he developed acute respiratory distress syndrome complicated by hypoxic respiratory failure and death. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of NSF necrosis in a patient with COVID-19. We postulate that the thrombotic complications of COVID-19 may have contributed to vascular pedicle thrombosis and NSF necrosis. Although the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 and its effect on the nasal tissues is still being elucidated, this case highlights some challenges of performing endoscopic skull base surgery in the era of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections , Neurosurgical Procedures/adverse effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Skull Base/surgery , Surgical Flaps/surgery , Aged , COVID-19 , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak/etiology , Humans , Male , Necrosis/etiology , Postoperative Complications/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Flaps/virology
7.
Stroke ; 51(9): e215-e218, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Young patients with malignant cerebral edema have been shown to benefit from early decompressive hemicraniectomy. The impact of concomitant infection with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and how this should weigh in on the decision for surgery is unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all COVID-19-positive patients admitted to the neuroscience intensive care unit for malignant edema monitoring. Patients with >50% of middle cerebral artery involvement on computed tomography imaging were considered at risk for malignant edema. RESULTS: Seven patients were admitted for monitoring of whom 4 died. Cause of death was related to COVID-19 complications, and these were either seen both very early and several days into the intensive care unit course after the typical window of malignant cerebral swelling. Three cases underwent surgery, and 1 patient died postoperatively from cardiac failure. A good outcome was attained in the other 2 cases. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19-positive patients with large hemispheric stroke can have a good outcome with decompressive hemicraniectomy. A positive test for COVID-19 should not be used in isolation to exclude patients from a potentially lifesaving procedure.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Decompressive Craniectomy/methods , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Stroke/complications , Stroke/surgery , Adult , Brain Edema/complications , Brain Edema/surgery , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Clinical Decision-Making , Critical Care , Decompressive Craniectomy/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Physiologic , Neurosurgical Procedures/adverse effects , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
8.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 12(7): 643-647, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-327010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection from the SARS-CoV-2 virus has led to the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the large number of patients affected, healthcare personnel and facility resources are stretched to the limit; however, the need for urgent and emergent neurosurgical care continues. This article describes best practices when performing neurosurgical procedures on patients with COVID-19 based on multi-institutional experiences. METHODS: We assembled neurosurgical practitioners from 13 different health systems from across the USA, including those in hot spots, to describe their practices in managing neurosurgical emergencies within the COVID-19 environment. RESULTS: Patients presenting with neurosurgical emergencies should be considered as persons under investigation (PUI) and thus maximal personal protective equipment (PPE) should be donned during interaction and transfer. Intubations and extubations should be done with only anesthesia staff donning maximal PPE in a negative pressure environment. Operating room (OR) staff should enter the room once the air has been cleared of particulate matter. Certain OR suites should be designated as covid ORs, thus allowing for all neurosurgical cases on covid/PUI patients to be performed in these rooms, which will require a terminal clean post procedure. Each COVID OR suite should be attached to an anteroom which is a negative pressure room with a HEPA filter, thus allowing for donning and doffing of PPE without risking contamination of clean areas. CONCLUSION: Based on a multi-institutional collaborative effort, we describe best practices when providing neurosurgical treatment for patients with COVID-19 in order to optimize clinical care and minimize the exposure of patients and staff.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Health Personnel/standards , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Neurosurgical Procedures/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/surgery , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , COVID-19 , Humans , Neurosurgical Procedures/adverse effects , Operating Rooms/methods , Operating Rooms/standards , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , SARS-CoV-2
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