Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 537
Filter
1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263328, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883630

ABSTRACT

Patients on dialysis are at risk of severe course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Understanding the neutralizing activity and coverage of SARS-CoV-2 variants of vaccine-elicited antibodies is required to guide prophylactic and therapeutic COVID-19 interventions in this frail population. By analyzing plasma samples from 130 hemodialysis and 13 peritoneal dialysis patients after two doses of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccines, we found that 35% of the patients had low-level or undetectable IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S). Neutralizing antibodies against the vaccine-matched SARS-CoV-2 and Delta variant were low or undetectable in 49% and 77% of patients, respectively, and were further reduced against other emerging variants. The fraction of non-responding patients was higher in SARS-CoV-2-naïve hemodialysis patients immunized with BNT162b2 (66%) than those immunized with mRNA-1273 (23%). The reduced neutralizing activity correlated with low antibody avidity. Patients followed up to 7 months after vaccination showed a rapid decay of the antibody response with an average 21- and 10-fold reduction of neutralizing antibodies to vaccine-matched SARS-CoV-2 and Delta variant, which increased the fraction of non-responders to 84% and 90%, respectively. These data indicate that dialysis patients should be prioritized for additional vaccination boosts. Nevertheless, their antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 must be continuously monitored to adopt the best prophylactic and therapeutic strategy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Neutralization Tests , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibody Affinity , CHO Cells , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cricetulus , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Follow-Up Studies , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Risk Factors , /immunology
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2979, 2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868004

ABSTRACT

Neutralization capacity of antibodies against Omicron after a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents is not well studied. Therefore, we evaluated virus-neutralizing capacity against SARS-CoV-2 Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron variants by age-stratified analyses (<5, 5-11, 12-21 years) in 177 pediatric patients hospitalized with severe acute COVID-19, acute MIS-C, and in convalescent samples of outpatients with mild COVID-19 during 2020 and early 2021. Across all patients, less than 10% show neutralizing antibody titers against Omicron. Children <5 years of age hospitalized with severe acute COVID-19 have lower neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 variants compared with patients >5 years of age. As expected, convalescent pediatric COVID-19 and MIS-C cohorts demonstrate higher neutralization titers than hospitalized acute COVID-19 patients. Overall, children and adolescents show some loss of cross-neutralization against all variants, with the most pronounced loss against Omicron. In contrast to SARS-CoV-2 infection, children vaccinated twice demonstrated higher titers against Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron. These findings can influence transmission, re-infection and the clinical disease outcome from emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and supports the need for vaccination in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Viral Envelope Proteins
4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2956, 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864738

ABSTRACT

The Omicron SARS-CoV-2 has several distinct sublineages, among which sublineage BA.1 is responsible for the initial Omicron surge and is now being replaced by BA.2 worldwide, whereas BA.3 is currently at a low frequency. The ongoing BA.1-to-BA.2 replacement underscores the importance to understand the cross-neutralization among the three Omicron sublineages. Here we test the neutralization of BA.1-infected human sera against BA.2, BA.3, and USA/WA1-2020 (a strain isolated in late January 2020). The BA.1-infected sera neutralize BA.1, BA.2, BA.3, and USA/WA1-2020 SARS-CoV-2s with geometric mean titers (GMTs) of 445, 107, 102, and 16, respectively. Thus, the neutralizing GMTs against heterologous BA.2, BA.3, and USA/WA1-2020 are 4.2-, 4.4-, and 28.4-fold lower than the GMT against homologous BA.1, respectively. These findings have implications in COVID-19 vaccine strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Neutralization Tests
5.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268767, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862275

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, widespread infections have allowed SARS-CoV-2 to evolve in human, leading to the emergence of multiple circulating variants. Some of these variants show increased resistance to vaccine-elicited immunity, convalescent plasma, or monoclonal antibodies. In particular, mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 spike have drawn attention. To facilitate the isolation of neutralizing antibodies and the monitoring of vaccine effectiveness against these variants, we designed and produced biotin-labeled molecular probes of variant SARS-CoV-2 spikes and their subdomains, using a structure-based construct design that incorporated an N-terminal purification tag, a specific amino acid sequence for protease cleavage, the variant spike-based region of interest, and a C-terminal sequence targeted by biotin ligase. These probes could be produced by a single step using in-process biotinylation and purification. We characterized the physical properties and antigenicity of these probes, comprising the N-terminal domain (NTD), the receptor-binding domain (RBD), the RBD and subdomain 1 (RBD-SD1), and the prefusion-stabilized spike ectodomain (S2P) with sequences from SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern or of interest, including variants Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Epsilon, Iota, Kappa, Delta, Lambda, Mu, and Omicron. We functionally validated probes by using yeast expressing a panel of nine SARS-CoV-2 spike-binding antibodies and confirmed sorting capabilities of variant probes using yeast displaying libraries of plasma antibodies from COVID-19 convalescent donors. We deposited these constructs to Addgene to enable their dissemination. Overall, this study describes a matrix of SARS-CoV-2 variant molecular probes that allow for assessment of immune responses, identification of serum antibody specificity, and isolation and characterization of neutralizing antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Biotin , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Molecular Probes , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
J Clin Virol ; 150-151: 105162, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851456

ABSTRACT

A recently identified SARS-CoV-2 variant, Lambda, has spread to many countries around the world. Here, we measured and evaluated the reduced sensitivity of Lambda variant to the neutralization by plasma polyclonal antibodies elicited by the natural SARS-CoV-2 infection and inactivated vaccine. The combination of two substitutions appearing in the RBD of spike protein (L452Q and F490S) resulted in noticeably reduced neutralization against Lambda variant. F490S contributed more than L452Q in affecting the neutralization. In addition, the neutralization test with 12 published nAbs binding to RBD of SARS-CoV-2 with defined structures suggested that Lambda variant resisted the neutralization by some antibodies from Class 2 and Class 3. Overall, these results suggest that pre-existing antibody neutralization established by natural infection from non-Lambda variants or immunization could be significantly decreased, re-emphasizing the importance of ongoing viral mutation monitoring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
8.
Immunity ; 55(6): 925-944, 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851291

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies can block infection, clear pathogens, and are essential to provide long-term immunity. Since the onset of the pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies have been comprehensively investigated and critical information on their development, function, and potential use to prevent and treat COVID-19 have been revealed. With the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 immune escape variants, humoral immunity is being challenged, and a detailed understanding of neutralizing antibodies is essential to guide vaccine design strategies as well as antibody-mediated therapies. In this review, we summarize some of the key findings on SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies, with a focus on their clinical application.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Vaccination
9.
Cell Rep ; 39(9): 110905, 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850802

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) that target the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein have received emergency use approval for treatment of COVID-19. However, with the emergence of variants of concern, there is a need for new treatment options. We report a format that enables modular assembly of bi-paratopic tetravalent nAbs with antigen-binding sites from two distinct nAbs. The tetravalent nAb purifies in high yield and exhibits biophysical characteristics that are comparable to those of clinically used therapeutic antibodies. The tetravalent nAb binds to the spike protein trimer at least 100-fold more tightly than bivalent IgGs (apparent KD < 1 pM) and neutralizes a broad array of SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses, chimeric viruses, and authentic viral variants with high potency. Together, these results establish the tetravalent diabody-Fc-Fab as a robust, modular platform for rapid production of drug-grade nAbs with potencies and breadth of coverage that greatly exceed those of conventional bivalent IgGs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
10.
Cell ; 185(12): 2116-2131.e18, 2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850795

ABSTRACT

Highly transmissible Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 currently dominate globally. Here, we compare neutralization of Omicron BA.1, BA.1.1, and BA.2. BA.2 RBD has slightly higher ACE2 affinity than BA.1 and slightly reduced neutralization by vaccine serum, possibly associated with its increased transmissibility. Neutralization differences between sub-lineages for mAbs (including therapeutics) mostly arise from variation in residues bordering the ACE2 binding site; however, more distant mutations S371F (BA.2) and R346K (BA.1.1) markedly reduce neutralization by therapeutic antibody Vir-S309. In-depth structure-and-function analyses of 27 potent RBD-binding mAbs isolated from vaccinated volunteers following breakthrough Omicron-BA.1 infection reveals that they are focused in two main clusters within the RBD, with potent right-shoulder antibodies showing increased prevalence. Selection and somatic maturation have optimized antibody potency in less-mutated epitopes and recovered potency in highly mutated epitopes. All 27 mAbs potently neutralize early pandemic strains, and many show broad reactivity with variants of concern.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Epitopes , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
11.
JCI Insight ; 7(12)2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846629

ABSTRACT

Pregnancy confers unique immune responses to infection and vaccination across gestation. To date, there are limited data comparing vaccine- and infection-induced neutralizing Abs (nAbs) against COVID-19 variants in mothers during pregnancy. We analyzed paired maternal and cord plasma samples from 60 pregnant individuals. Thirty women vaccinated with mRNA vaccines (from December 2020 through August 2021) were matched with 30 naturally infected women (from March 2020 through January 2021) by gestational age of exposure. Neutralization activity against the 5 SARS-CoV-2 spike sequences was measured by a SARS-CoV-2-pseudotyped spike virion assay. Effective nAbs against SARS-CoV-2 were present in maternal and cord plasma after both infection and vaccination. Compared with WT spike protein, these nAbs were less effective against the Delta and Mu spike variants. Vaccination during the third trimester induced higher cord-nAb levels at delivery than did infection during the third trimester. In contrast, vaccine-induced nAb levels were lower at the time of delivery compared with infection during the first trimester. The transfer ratio (cord nAb level divided by maternal nAb level) was greatest in mothers vaccinated in the second trimester. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or infection in pregnancy elicits effective nAbs with differing neutralization kinetics that are influenced by gestational time of exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Mothers , Neutralization Tests , Vaccination
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2452: 361-378, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844276

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has emerged as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Virus neutralization assays are critical for the development and evaluation of vaccines and immunotherapeutics, as well as for conducting basic research into the immune response, spread, and pathogenesis of this disease. However, neutralization assays traditionally require the use of infectious virus which must be carefully handled in a BSL-3 setting, thus complicating the assay and restricting its use to labs with access to BSL-3 facilities. Pseudovirus-based assays are an alternative to the use of infectious virus. SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus contains only the spike structural protein, and infection results in a single round of replication, thus allowing for the assay to be run safely under BSL-2 conditions. In this chapter, we describe protocols and considerations for the production and titration of lentivirus-based SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus, as well as for running and analysis of FACS-based pseudovirus neutralization assays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2452: 353-360, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844275

ABSTRACT

Neutralization assays are often used as part of research and diagnostics to detect neutralizing antibodies and to determine a possible protective antibody titer after infection or vaccination. Here we describe a conventional plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to check the presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in patient samples (serum or plasma).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2452: 305-314, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844273

ABSTRACT

Assays measuring neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 are used to evaluate serological responses after SARS-CoV-2 infection and the potency of therapeutic antibodies and preventive vaccines. It is therefore imperative that neutralization assays be sensitive, specific, quantitative, and scalable for high throughput. Pseudoviruses are excellent surrogates for highly pathogenic viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 because they can be safely used to measure nAbs in a biosafety level-2 laboratory. In addition, pseudoviruses allow for easy introduction of mutations to study the effect of amino acid changes in the spike protein. In this chapter, we describe a recently optimized assay for measuring neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 that uses a HIV-based lentiviral vector pseudotyped with the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 to infect 293T cells stably expressing ACE2 and TMPRSS2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
15.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 35 Suppl 1: 59-63, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1836620

ABSTRACT

Current immune treatment directed to avoid viral replication relies mainly in convalescent plasma and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). No clinical benefit for convalescent plasma has been reported in a meta-analysis and systematic review compared to standard of care. MAbs are recombinant proteins capable to bind with SARS-CoV-2 preventing its entrance into cells. Several mAbs have shown reduction in viral load and/or progression of the disease such as casirivimab-imdevimab, bamlanivimab-etesevimab and sotrovimab. After the apparition of Omicron variant, it has been reported that sotrovimab retained its activity whereas the other two combinations exhibited loss of neutralizing activity. Several aspects as the target population, timing and doses, serological patient status and evolution of variants still require attention, monitorization and further studies for knowledge gaps.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Membrane Glycoproteins , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Envelope Proteins
16.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834918

ABSTRACT

The effect of treatment with favipiravir, an antiviral purine nucleoside analog, for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the production and duration of neutralizing antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 was explored. There were 17 age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched pairs of favipiravir treated versus control selected from a total of 99 patients recovered from moderate COVID-19. These subjects participated in the longitudinal (>6 months) analysis of (i) SARS-CoV-2 spike protein's receptor-binding domain IgG, (ii) virus neutralization assay using authentic virus, and (iii) neutralization potency against original (WT) SARS-CoV-2 and cross-neutralization against B.1.351 (beta) variant carrying triple mutations of K417N, E484K, and N501Y. The results demonstrate that the use of favipiravir: (1) significantly accelerated the elimination of SARS-CoV-2 in the case vs. control groups (p = 0.027), (2) preserved the generation and persistence of neutralizing antibodies in the host, and (3) did not interfere the maturation of neutralizing potency of anti-SARS-CoV-2 and neutralizing breadth against SARS-CoV-2 variants. In conclusion, treatment of COVID-19 with favipiravir accelerates viral clearance and does not interfere the generation or maturation of neutralizing potency against both WT SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Amides/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Neutralization Tests , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
17.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250780, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833531

ABSTRACT

The spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 is the molecular target for many vaccines and antibody-based prophylactics aimed at bringing COVID-19 under control. Such a narrow molecular focus raises the specter of viral immune evasion as a potential failure mode for these biomedical interventions. With the emergence of new strains of SARS-CoV-2 with altered transmissibility and immune evasion potential, a critical question is this: how easily can the virus escape neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) targeting the spike RBD? To answer this question, we combined an analysis of the RBD structure-function with an evolutionary modeling framework. Our structure-function analysis revealed that epitopes for RBD-targeting nAbs overlap one another substantially and can be evaded by escape mutants with ACE2 affinities comparable to the wild type, that are observed in sequence surveillance data and infect cells in vitro. This suggests that the fitness cost of nAb-evading mutations is low. We then used evolutionary modeling to predict the frequency of immune escape before and after the widespread presence of nAbs due to vaccines, passive immunization or natural immunity. Our modeling suggests that SARS-CoV-2 mutants with one or two mildly deleterious mutations are expected to exist in high numbers due to neutral genetic variation, and consequently resistance to vaccines or other prophylactics that rely on one or two antibodies for protection can develop quickly -and repeatedly- under positive selection. Predicted resistance timelines are comparable to those of the decay kinetics of nAbs raised against vaccinal or natural antigens, raising a second potential mechanism for loss of immunity in the population. Strategies for viral elimination should therefore be diversified across molecular targets and therapeutic modalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Epitopes/immunology , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Immune Evasion/immunology , Models, Molecular , Neutralization Tests/methods , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding/genetics , Protein Domains/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship
18.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 822599, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822354

ABSTRACT

For the clinical application of semi-quantitative anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests, the analytical performance and titer correlation of the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) need to be investigated. We evaluated the analytical performance and PRNT titer-correlation of one surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) kit and three chemiluminescent assays. We measured the total antibodies for the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein, total antibodies for the nucleocapsid protein (NP), and IgG antibodies for the RBD. All three chemiluminescent assays showed high analytical performance for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection, with a sensitivity ≥ 98% and specificity ≥ 99%; those of the sVNT were slightly lower. The representativeness of the neutralizing activity of PRNT ND50 ≥ 20 was comparable among the four immunoassays (Cohen's kappa ≈ 0.80). Quantitative titer correlation for high PRNT titers of ND50 ≥ 50, 200, and 1,000 was investigated with new cut-off values; the anti-RBD IgG antibody kit showed the best performance. It also showed the best linear correlation with PRNT titer in both the acute and convalescent phases (Pearson's R 0.81 and 0.72, respectively). Due to the slowly waning titer of anti-NP antibodies, the correlation with PRNT titer at the convalescent phase was poor. In conclusion, semi-quantitative immunoassay kits targeting the RBD showed neutralizing activity that was correlated by titer; measurement of anti-NP antibodies would be useful for determining past infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoassay , Neutralization Tests , Nucleocapsid Proteins , SARS-CoV-2
19.
EBioMedicine ; 80: 104025, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evolutionary pressure has led to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants, with the most recent Omicron variant containing an unparalleled 30 mutations in the spike protein. Many of these mutations are expected to increase immune evasion, thus making breakthrough cases and re-infection more common. METHODS: From June 2020 to December 2021 serial blood samples (initial post recovery, 6 months, 12 months) were collected from a COVID-19 convalescent cohort in Boston, MA. Plasma was isolated for use in Mesoscale Discovery based antibody binding assays. Unvaccinated donors or those vaccinated prior to the primary blood draw were excluded from this analysis, as were those who did not have at least two blood draws. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to compare pre- and post-vaccination titers and antibody response against different variants, while McNemar tests were used to compare the proportions of achieving ≥ 4 fold increases against different variants. FINDINGS: Forty-eight COVID convalescent donors with post-infection vaccination (hybrid immunity) were studied to evaluate the levels of cross-reactive antibodies pre- and post- vaccination against various SARS-CoV-2 Spike and receptor binding domain (RBD) proteins. Vaccination with BNT162b2, mRNA-1273 or Ad26.COV2.S led to a 6·3 to 7·8 fold increase in anti-Spike antibody titers and a 7·0 to 7·4 fold increase in anti-WT, Alpha and Delta RBD antibody. However, a lower response was observed for Beta and Omicron RBDs with only 7/48 (15%) and 15/48 (31%) donors having a ≥4 fold increase in post-vaccination titers against Beta and Omicron RBDs. Structural analysis of the Beta and Omicron RBDs reveal a shared immune escape strategy involving residues K417-E484-N501 that is exploited by these variants of concern. INTERPRETATION: Through mutations of the K417-E484-N501 triad, SARS-CoV-2 has evolved to evade neutralization by the class I/II anti-RBD antibody fraction of hybrid immunity plasma as the polyclonal antibody response post-vaccination shows limitations in the ability to solve the structural requirements to bind the mutant RBDs. FUNDING: Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness (280870.5116709.0016) and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (1R01AI161152-01A1).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2263, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815533

ABSTRACT

The emerging threat represented by SARS-CoV-2 variants, demands the development of therapies for better clinical management of COVID-19. MAD0004J08 is a potent Fc-engineered monoclonal antibody (mAb) able to neutralize in vitro all current SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoCs) including the omicron variant even if with significantly reduced potency. Here we evaluated data obtained from the first 30 days of a phase 1 clinical study (EudraCT N.: 2020-005469-15 and ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04932850). The primary endpoint evaluated the percentage of severe adverse events. Secondary endpoints evaluated pharmacokinetic and serum neutralization titers. A single dose administration of MAD0004J08 via intramuscular (i.m.) route is safe and well tolerated, resulting in rapid serum distribution and sera neutralizing titers higher than COVID-19 convalescent and vaccinated subjects. A single dose administration of MAD0004J08 is also sufficient to effectively neutralize major SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (alpha, beta, gamma and delta). MAD0004J08 can be a major advancement in the prophylaxis and clinical management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/blood , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL