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1.
Virulence ; 14(1): 2218077, 2023 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238214

ABSTRACT

Neutrophil dysregulation is well established in COVID-19. However, factors contributing to neutrophil activation in COVID-19 are not clear. We assessed if N-formyl methionine (fMet) contributes to neutrophil activation in COVID-19. Elevated levels of calprotectin, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and fMet were observed in COVID-19 patients (n = 68), particularly in critically ill patients, as compared to HC (n = 19, p < 0.0001). Of note, the levels of NETs were higher in ICU patients with COVID-19 than in ICU patients without COVID-19 (p < 0.05), suggesting a prominent contribution of NETs in COVID-19. Additionally, plasma from COVID-19 patients with mild and moderate/severe symptoms induced in vitro neutrophil activation through fMet/FPR1 (formyl peptide receptor-1) dependent mechanisms (p < 0.0001). fMet levels correlated with calprotectin levels validating fMet-mediated neutrophil activation in COVID-19 patients (r = 0.60, p = 0.0007). Our data indicate that fMet is an important factor contributing to neutrophil activation in COVID-19 disease and may represent a potential target for therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methionine , Humans , Neutrophil Activation , Peptides , N-Formylmethionine/pharmacology , Racemethionine , Neutrophils , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex
2.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1031336, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300731

ABSTRACT

Hospitalized patients have an increased risk of developing hospital-acquired sacral pressure injury (HASPI). However, it is unknown whether SARS-CoV-2 infection affects HASPI development. To explore the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HASPI development, we conducted a single institution, multi-hospital, retrospective study of all patients hospitalized for ≥5 days from March 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020. Patient demographics, hospitalization information, ulcer characteristics, and 30-day-related morbidity were collected for all patients with HASPIs, and intact skin was collected from HASPI borders in a patient subset. We determined the incidence, disease course, and short-term morbidity of HASPIs in COVID-19(+) patients, and characterized the skin histopathology and tissue gene signatures associated with HASPIs in COVID-19 disease. COVID-19(+) patients had a 63% increased HASPI incidence rate, HASPIs of more severe ulcer stage (OR 2.0, p<0.001), and HASPIs more likely to require debridement (OR 3.1, p=0.04) compared to COVID-19(-) patients. Furthermore, COVID-19(+) patients with HASPIs had 2.2x increased odds of a more severe hospitalization course compared to COVID-19(+) patients without HASPIs. HASPI skin histology from COVID-19(+) patients predominantly showed thrombotic vasculopathy, with the number of thrombosed vessels being significantly greater than HASPIs from COVID-19(-) patients. Transcriptional signatures of a COVID-19(+) sample subset were enriched for innate immune responses, thrombosis, and neutrophil activation genes. Overall, our results suggest that immunologic dysregulation secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection, including neutrophil dysfunction and abnormal thrombosis, may play a pathogenic role in development of HASPIs in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pressure Ulcer , Thrombosis , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pressure Ulcer/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Ulcer , Neutrophil Activation , Incidence , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Hospitals
3.
Br J Haematol ; 201(5): 851-856, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276305

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in preventing COVID-19 or in reducing severe illness in subjects hospitalized for COVID-19 despite vaccination has been unequivocally shown. However, no studies so far have assessed if subjects who get COVID-19 despite vaccination are protected from SARS-CoV-2-induced platelet, neutrophil and endothelial activation, biomarkers associated with thrombosis and worse outcome. In this pilot study, we show that previous vaccination blunts COVID-19-associated platelet activation, assessed by circulating platelet-derived microvesicles and soluble P-selectin, and neutrophil activation, assessed by circulating neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) biomarkers and matrix metalloproteinase-9, and reduces COVID-19-associated thrombotic events, hospitalization in intensive-care units and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Neutrophil Activation , Pilot Projects , Thrombosis/complications , Biomarkers , Platelet Activation , Vaccination
4.
J Clin Immunol ; 43(5): 882-893, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262994

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Following a severe COVID-19 infection, a proportion of individuals develop prolonged symptoms. We investigated the immunological dysfunction that underlies the persistence of symptoms months after the resolution of acute COVID-19. METHODS: We analyzed cytokines, cell phenotypes, SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific and neutralizing antibodies, and whole blood gene expression profiles in convalescent severe COVID-19 patients 1, 3, and 6 months following hospital discharge. RESULTS: We observed persistent abnormalities until month 6 marked by (i) high serum levels of monocyte/macrophage and endothelial activation markers, chemotaxis, and hematopoietic cytokines; (ii) a high frequency of central memory CD4+ and effector CD8+ T cells; (iii) a decrease in anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike and neutralizing antibodies; and (iv) an upregulation of genes related to platelet, neutrophil activation, erythrocytes, myeloid cell differentiation, and RUNX1 signaling. We identified a "core gene signature" associated with a history of thrombotic events, with upregulation of a set of genes involved in neutrophil activation, platelet, hematopoiesis, and blood coagulation. CONCLUSION: The lack of restoration of gene expression to a normal profile after up to 6 months of follow-up, even in asymptomatic patients who experienced severe COVID-19, signals the need to carefully extend their clinical follow-up and propose preventive measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Neutrophil Activation , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Thrombosis/etiology , Cytokines , Antibodies, Viral
6.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276460, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089429

ABSTRACT

Excessive neutrophil infiltration and dysfunction contribute to the progression and severity of hyper-inflammatory syndrome, such as in severe COVID19. In the current study, we re-analysed published scRNA-seq datasets of mouse and human neutrophils to classify and compare the transcriptional regulatory networks underlying neutrophil differentiation and inflammatory responses. Distinct sets of TF modules regulate neutrophil maturation, function, and inflammatory responses under the steady state and inflammatory conditions. In COVID19 patients, neutrophil activation was associated with the selective activation of inflammation-specific TF modules. SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positive neutrophils showed a higher expression of type I interferon response TF IRF7. Furthermore, IRF7 expression was abundant in neutrophils from severe patients in progression stage. Neutrophil-mediated inflammatory responses positively correlate with the expressional level of IRF7. Based on these results, we suggest that differential activation of activation-related TFs, such as IRF7 mediate neutrophil inflammatory responses during inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neutrophils , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Inflammation/genetics , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Neutrophil Activation/genetics , Neutrophil Activation/physiology , Neutrophils/metabolism , RNA, Viral , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Cell Analysis
7.
J Leukoc Biol ; 111(6): 1159-1173, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075036

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils play significant roles in immune homeostasis and as neutralizers of microbial infections. Recent evidence further suggests heterogeneity of neutrophil developmental and activation states that exert specialized effector functions during inflammatory disease conditions. Neutrophils can play multiple roles during viral infections, secreting inflammatory mediators and cytokines that contribute significantly to host defense and pathogenicity. However, their roles in viral immunity are not well understood. In this review, we present an overview of neutrophil heterogeneity and its impact on the course and severity of viral respiratory infectious diseases. We focus on the evidence demonstrating the crucial roles neutrophils play in the immune response toward respiratory infections, using influenza as a model. We further extend the understanding of neutrophil function with the studies pertaining to COVID-19 disease and its neutrophil-associated pathologies. Finally, we discuss the relevance of these results for future therapeutic options through targeting and regulating neutrophil-specific responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Cytokines , Humans , Inflammation Mediators , Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils , Virus Diseases/pathology
8.
Microbiol Immunol ; 66(6): 264-276, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764845

ABSTRACT

The prevention of the disease severity seems critical for reducing the mortality of Coronavirus (CoV) disease-19. The neutrophils play a key role in the induction of severity. It is proposed here that inhibition of neutrophil activation and/or cascade reactions of complement, leading to this cell activation at the early phase of the disease, is a potential tool to inhibit aggravation of the disease. The need for appropriate timing in intervention is emphasized as follows. (1) Intervention at the very early stage of severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2 infection may harm the defensive host response to the infection because of the critical function of neutrophils in this response, and (2) intervention at too late a stage will not stop the infiltration of fully activated neutrophils that produce large amounts of toxic substances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Cells ; 11(5)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715131

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 patients present a clinical and laboratory overlap with other hyperinflammatory conditions such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). However, the underlying mechanisms of these conditions remain to be explored. Here, we investigated the transcriptome of 1596 individuals, including patients with COVID-19 in comparison to healthy controls, other acute inflammatory states (HLH, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children [MIS-C], Kawasaki disease [KD]), and different respiratory infections (seasonal coronavirus, influenza, bacterial pneumonia). We observed that COVID-19 and HLH share immunological pathways (cytokine/chemokine signaling and neutrophil-mediated immune responses), including gene signatures that stratify COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and COVID-19_nonICU patients. Of note, among the common differentially expressed genes (DEG), there is a cluster of neutrophil-associated genes that reflects a generalized hyperinflammatory state since it is also dysregulated in patients with KD and bacterial pneumonia. These genes are dysregulated at the protein level across several COVID-19 studies and form an interconnected network with differentially expressed plasma proteins that point to neutrophil hyperactivation in COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit. scRNAseq analysis indicated that these genes are specifically upregulated across different leukocyte populations, including lymphocyte subsets and immature neutrophils. Artificial intelligence modeling confirmed the strong association of these genes with COVID-19 severity. Thus, our work indicates putative therapeutic pathways for intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Child , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Neutrophil Activation , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
10.
JCI Insight ; 7(7)2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691177

ABSTRACT

Studying temporal gene expression shifts during disease progression provides important insights into the biological mechanisms that distinguish adaptive and maladaptive responses. Existing tools for the analysis of time course transcriptomic data are not designed to optimally identify distinct temporal patterns when analyzing dynamic differentially expressed genes (DDEGs). Moreover, there are not enough methods to assess and visualize the temporal progression of biological pathways mapped from time course transcriptomic data sets. In this study, we developed an open-source R package TrendCatcher (https://github.com/jaleesr/TrendCatcher), which applies the smoothing spline ANOVA model and break point searching strategy, to identify and visualize distinct dynamic transcriptional gene signatures and biological processes from longitudinal data sets. We used TrendCatcher to perform a systematic temporal analysis of COVID-19 peripheral blood transcriptomes, including bulk and single-cell RNA-Seq time course data. TrendCatcher uncovered the early and persistent activation of neutrophils and coagulation pathways, as well as impaired type I IFN (IFN-I) signaling in circulating cells as a hallmark of patients who progressed to severe COVID-19, whereas no such patterns were identified in individuals receiving SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations or patients with mild COVID-19. These results underscore the importance of systematic temporal analysis to identify early biomarkers and possible pathogenic therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Humans , Neutrophil Activation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Transcriptome
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 479-489, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increased inflammation has been well defined in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), while definitive pathways driving severe forms of this disease remain uncertain. Neutrophils are known to contribute to immunopathology in infections, inflammatory diseases, and acute respiratory distress syndrome, a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in COVID-19. Changes in neutrophil function in COVID-19 may give insight into disease pathogenesis and identify therapeutic targets. METHODS: Blood was obtained serially from critically ill COVID-19 patients for 11 days. Neutrophil extracellular trap formation (NETosis), oxidative burst, phagocytosis, and cytokine levels were assessed. Lung tissue was obtained immediately postmortem for immunostaining. PubMed searches for neutrophils, lung, and COVID-19 yielded 10 peer-reviewed research articles in English. RESULTS: Elevations in neutrophil-associated cytokines interleukin 8 (IL-8) and interleukin 6, and general inflammatory cytokines IFN-inducible protien-19, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin 1ß, interleukin 10, and tumor necrosis factor, were identified both at first measurement and across hospitalization (P < .0001). COVID-19 neutrophils had exaggerated oxidative burst (P < .0001), NETosis (P < .0001), and phagocytosis (P < .0001) relative to controls. Increased NETosis correlated with leukocytosis and neutrophilia, and neutrophils and NETs were identified within airways and alveoli in lung parenchyma of 40% of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected lungs available for examination (2 of 5). While elevations in IL-8 and absolute neutrophil count correlated with disease severity, plasma IL-8 levels alone correlated with death. CONCLUSIONS: Literature to date demonstrates compelling evidence of increased neutrophils in the circulation and lungs of COVID-19 patients. Importantly, neutrophil quantity and activation correlates with severity of disease. Similarly, our data show that circulating neutrophils in COVID-19 exhibit an activated phenotype with enhanced NETosis and oxidative burst.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Critical Illness , Humans , Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Immunol ; 208(4): 979-990, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631932

ABSTRACT

Calprotectin is released by activated neutrophils along with myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteases. It plays numerous roles in inflammation and infection, and is used as an inflammatory biomarker. However, calprotectin is readily oxidized by MPO-derived hypohalous acids to form covalent dimers of its S100A8 and S100A9 subunits. The dimers are susceptible to degradation by proteases. We show that detection of human calprotectin by ELISA declines markedly because of its oxidation by hypochlorous acid and subsequent degradation. Also, proteolysis liberates specific peptides from oxidized calprotectin that is present at inflammatory sites. We identified six calprotectin-derived peptides by mass spectrometry and detected them in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of children with cystic fibrosis (CF). We assessed the peptides as biomarkers of neutrophilic inflammation and infection. The content of the calprotectin peptide ILVI was related to calprotectin (r = 0.72, p = 0.01, n = 10). Four of the peptides were correlated with the concentration of MPO (r > 0.7, p ≤ 0.01, n = 21), while three were higher (p < 0.05) in neutrophil elastase-positive (n = 14) than -negative samples (n = 7). Also, five of the peptides were higher (p < 0.05) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with CF with infections (n = 21) than from non-CF children without infections (n = 6). The specific peptides liberated from calprotectin will signal uncontrolled activity of proteases and MPO during inflammation. They may prove useful in tracking inflammation in respiratory diseases dominated by neutrophils, including coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Cystic Fibrosis/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , Peptides/metabolism , Respiratory System/metabolism , Child , Child, Preschool , Cystic Fibrosis/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/genetics , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/immunology , Male , Neutrophil Activation , Oxidation-Reduction , Peptides/genetics , Peptides/immunology , Proteolysis
13.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 146, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the end of 2019, the world witnessed the emergence and ravages of a viral infection induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Also known as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it has been identified as a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) by the World Health Organization (WHO) because of its severity. METHODS: The gene data of 51 samples were extracted from the GSE150316 and GSE147507 data set and then processed by means of the programming language R, through which the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that meet the standards were screened. The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed on the selected DEGs to understand the functions and approaches of DEGs. The online tool STRING was employed to construct a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs and, in turn, to identify hub genes. RESULTS: A total of 52 intersection genes were obtained through DEG identification. Through the GO analysis, we realized that the biological processes (BPs) that have the deepest impact on the human body after SARS-CoV-2 infection are various immune responses. By using STRING to construct a PPI network, 10 hub genes were identified, including IFIH1, DDX58, ISG15, EGR1, OASL, SAMD9, SAMD9L, XAF1, IFITM1, and TNFSF10. CONCLUSION: The results of this study will hopefully provide guidance for future studies on the pathophysiological mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Lung/pathology , Protein Interaction Maps/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Databases, Genetic , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Ontology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/genetics , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Lung/virology , Neutrophil Activation/genetics , Neutrophil Activation/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcriptome/genetics
14.
JCI Insight ; 7(2)2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575230

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening syndrome, constituted by respiratory failure and diffuse alveolar damage that results from dysregulated local and systemic immune activation, causing pulmonary vascular, parenchymal, and alveolar damage. SARS-CoV-2 infection has become the dominant cause of ARDS worldwide, and emerging evidence implicates neutrophils and their cytotoxic arsenal of effector functions as central drivers of immune-mediated lung injury in COVID-19 ARDS. However, key outstanding questions are whether COVID-19 drives a unique program of neutrophil activation or effector functions that contribute to the severe pathogenesis of this pandemic illness and whether this unique neutrophil response can be targeted to attenuate disease. Using a combination of high-dimensional single-cell analysis and ex vivo functional assays of neutrophils from patients with COVID-19 ARDS, compared with those with non-COVID ARDS (caused by bacterial pneumonia), we identified a functionally distinct landscape of neutrophil activation in COVID-19 ARDS that was intrinsically programmed during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, neutrophils in COVID-19 ARDS were functionally primed to produce high amounts of neutrophil extracellular traps. Surprisingly, this unique pathological program of neutrophil priming escaped conventional therapy with dexamethasone, thereby revealing a promising target for adjunctive immunotherapy in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/pathology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/immunology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Eur J Immunol ; 52(3): 484-502, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555185

ABSTRACT

To better understand the mechanisms at the basis of neutrophil functions during SARS-CoV-2, we studied patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. They had high blood proportion of degranulated neutrophils and elevated plasma levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), elastase, and MPO-DNA complexes, which are typical markers of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET). Their neutrophils display dysfunctional mitochondria, defective oxidative burst, increased glycolysis, glycogen accumulation in the cytoplasm, and increase glycogenolysis. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (ΗΙF-1α) is stabilized in such cells, and it controls the level of glycogen phosphorylase L (PYGL), a key enzyme in glycogenolysis. Inhibiting PYGL abolishes the ability of neutrophils to produce NET. Patients displayed significant increases of plasma levels of molecules involved in the regulation of neutrophils' function including CCL2, CXCL10, CCL20, IL-18, IL-3, IL-6, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ. Our data suggest that metabolic remodelling is vital for the formation of NET and for boosting neutrophil inflammatory response, thus, suggesting that modulating ΗΙF-1α or PYGL could represent a novel approach for innovative therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/blood , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Female , Glycogen Phosphorylase, Liver Form/blood , Granulocytes/immunology , Granulocytes/metabolism , Humans , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/blood , Male , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/immunology , Middle Aged , Neutrophil Activation , Peroxidase/blood , Respiratory Burst , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Am J Pathol ; 192(1): 112-120, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506166

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) increases the risk of myocardial injury that contributes to mortality. This study used multiparameter immunofluorescence to extensively examine heart autopsy tissue of 7 patients who died of COVID-19 compared to 12 control specimens, with or without cardiovascular disease. Consistent with prior reports, no evidence of viral infection or lymphocytic infiltration indicative of myocarditis was found. However, frequent and extensive thrombosis was observed in large and small vessels in the hearts of the COVID-19 cohort, findings that were infrequent in controls. The endothelial lining of thrombosed vessels typically lacked evidence of cytokine-mediated endothelial activation, assessed as nuclear expression of transcription factors p65 (RelA), pSTAT1, or pSTAT3, or evidence of inflammatory activation assessed by expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), tissue factor, or von Willebrand factor (VWF). Intimal EC lining was also generally preserved with little evidence of cell death or desquamation. In contrast, there were frequent markers of neutrophil activation within myocardial thrombi in patients with COVID-19, including neutrophil-platelet aggregates, neutrophil-rich clusters within macrothrombi, and evidence of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. These findings point to alterations in circulating neutrophils rather than in the endothelium as contributors to the increased thrombotic diathesis in the hearts of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Vessels , Myocarditis , Myocardium , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thrombosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Coronary Vessels/metabolism , Coronary Vessels/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/metabolism , Myocarditis/pathology , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology , Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils/metabolism , Neutrophils/pathology , Platelet Aggregation , Thrombosis/metabolism , Thrombosis/pathology
17.
Inflamm Res ; 71(1): 57-67, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491056

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Severe COVID-19 is characterized by a dysregulated immune response in which neutrophils play a critical role. Calprotectin reflects neutrophil activation and is involved in the self-amplifying thrombo-inflammatory storm in severe COVID-19. We aimed to evaluate the role of calprotectin in early prediction of severity in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This was a multicenter prospective observational study enrolling consecutive adult COVID-19 patients. On arrival to emergency department, blood samples were collected for laboratory tests, including serum calprotectin. The primary outcome was severe respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation and the secondary outcome was need for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. RESULTS: Study population included 395 patients, 57 (14.4%) required invasive mechanical ventilation and 100 (25.3%) were admitted to ICU. Median serum calprotectin levels were significantly higher in intubated (3.73 mg/L vs. 2.63 mg/L; p < 0.001) and ICU patients (3.48 mg/L vs. 2.60 mg/L; p = 0.001). Calprotectin showed a significant accuracy to predict the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (ROC AUC 0.723) and ICU admission (ROC AUC 0.650). In multivariate analysis, serum calprotectin was an independent predictor of invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 1.161) and ICU admission (OR 1.068). CONCLUSION: Serum calprotectin can be used as an early predictor of severity in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/blood , Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils/cytology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Immune System , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
18.
J Clin Invest ; 131(20)2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470549

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) manifests as a severe and uncontrolled inflammatory response with multiorgan involvement, occurring weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we utilized proteomics, RNA sequencing, autoantibody arrays, and B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire analysis to characterize MIS-C immunopathogenesis and identify factors contributing to severe manifestations and intensive care unit admission. Inflammation markers, humoral immune responses, neutrophil activation, and complement and coagulation pathways were highly enriched in MIS-C patient serum, with a more hyperinflammatory profile in severe than in mild MIS-C cases. We identified a strong autoimmune signature in MIS-C, with autoantibodies targeted to both ubiquitously expressed and tissue-specific antigens, suggesting autoantigen release and excessive antigenic drive may result from systemic tissue damage. We further identified a cluster of patients with enhanced neutrophil responses as well as high anti-Spike IgG and autoantibody titers. BCR sequencing of these patients identified a strong imprint of antigenic drive with substantial BCR sequence connectivity and usage of autoimmunity-associated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV) genes. This cluster was linked to a TRBV11-2 expanded T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire, consistent with previous studies indicating a superantigen-driven pathogenic process. Overall, we identify a combination of pathogenic pathways that culminate in MIS-C and may inform treatment.


Subject(s)
Autoimmunity , COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Adolescent , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Female , Humans , Infant , Inflammation/immunology , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/genetics , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/metabolism , Neutrophil Activation , Proteomics , RNA-Seq , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/genetics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/metabolism
19.
J Clin Invest ; 131(20)2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDMultisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare but potentially severe illness that follows exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Kawasaki disease (KD) shares several clinical features with MIS-C, which prompted the use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), a mainstay therapy for KD. Both diseases share a robust activation of the innate immune system, including the IL-1 signaling pathway, and IL-1 blockade has been used for the treatment of both MIS-C and KD. The mechanism of action of IVIG in these 2 diseases and the cellular source of IL-1ß have not been defined.METHODSThe effects of IVIG on peripheral blood leukocyte populations from patients with MIS-C and KD were examined using flow cytometry and mass cytometry (CyTOF) and live-cell imaging.RESULTSCirculating neutrophils were highly activated in patients with KD and MIS-C and were a major source of IL-1ß. Following IVIG treatment, activated IL-1ß+ neutrophils were reduced in the circulation. In vitro, IVIG was a potent activator of neutrophil cell death via PI3K and NADPH oxidase, but independently of caspase activation.CONCLUSIONSActivated neutrophils expressing IL-1ß can be targeted by IVIG, supporting its use in both KD and MIS-C to ameliorate inflammation.FUNDINGPatient Centered Outcomes Research Institute; NIH; American Asthma Foundation; American Heart Association; Novo Nordisk Foundation; NIGMS; American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Cell Death/immunology , Cell Lineage/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Fas Ligand Protein/immunology , Female , Humans , Infant , Interleukin-1beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Leukocyte Count , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/blood , Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils/classification , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood
20.
Blood ; 139(14): 2130-2144, 2022 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1457448

ABSTRACT

Modulation of neutrophil recruitment and function is crucial for targeting inflammatory cells to sites of infection to combat invading pathogens while, at the same time, limiting host tissue injury or autoimmunity. The underlying mechanisms regulating recruitment of neutrophils, 1 of the most abundant inflammatory cells, have gained increasing interest over the years. The previously described classical recruitment cascade of leukocytes has been extended to include capturing, rolling, adhesion, crawling, and transmigration, as well as a reverse-transmigration step that is crucial for balancing immune defense and control of remote organ endothelial leakage. Current developments in the field emphasize the importance of cellular interplay, tissue environmental cues, circadian rhythmicity, detection of neutrophil phenotypes, differential chemokine sensing, and contribution of distinct signaling components to receptor activation and integrin conformations. The use of therapeutics modulating neutrophil activation responses, as well as mutations causing dysfunctional neutrophil receptors and impaired signaling cascades, have been defined in translational animal models. Human correlates of such mutations result in increased susceptibility to infections or organ damage. This review focuses on current advances in the understanding of the regulation of neutrophil recruitment and functionality and translational implications of current discoveries in the field with a focus on acute inflammation and sepsis.


Subject(s)
Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils , Animals , Humans , Inflammation , Integrins , Neutrophil Infiltration
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