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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257437, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456086

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This article presents the Louisiana Hepatitis C Elimination Program's evaluation protocol underway at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-New Orleans. With the availability of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents, the elimination of Hepatitis C (HCV) has become a possibility. The HCV Elimination Program was initiated by the Louisiana Department of Health (LDH) Office of Public Health (OPH), LDH Bureau of Health Services Financing (Medicaid), and the Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections (DPSC) to provide HCV treatment through an innovative pricing arrangement with Asegua Therapeutics, whereby a fixed cost is set for a supply of treatment over five years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study design will be used. Data will be gathered from two sources: 1) an online survey administered via REDCap to a sample of Medicaid members who are receiving HCV treatment, and 2) a de-identified data set that includes both Medicaid claims data and OPH surveillance data procured via a Data Use Agreement between LSUHSC-NO and Louisiana Medicaid. DISCUSSION: The evaluation will contribute to an understanding of the scope and reach of this innovative treatment model, and as a result, an understanding of areas for improvement. Further, this evaluation may provide insight for other states considering similar contracting mechanisms and programs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Services Accessibility , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Humans , Louisiana/epidemiology , Medicaid , New Orleans/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
2.
Am J Med Sci ; 363(1): 18-24, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following the high morbidity and mortality due to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in New Orleans, Louisiana, we sought to assess progress toward herd immunity. METHODS: Ochsner Health employees and patients who volunteered for Abbott SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody test between March 1 and May 1, 2020 were included. We estimated IgG prevalence and used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for variables associated with IgG test status. RESULTS: Of the 13,343 participants with IgG test results, 78.6% were women, 70.6% were non-Hispanic White, 21.1% non-Hispanic Black, 2.9% Hispanic Americans and 5.4% belonged to other races. Overall, 7.99% (95% CI: 7.53-8.45%) of the participants tested IgG positive. In age-, sex- and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted analyses, non-Hispanic Blacks were 2.7-times more likely to test positive than non-Hispanic Whites (OR=2.72; 95% CI: 2.33-3.19). Corresponding ORs (95% CIs) were 1.29 (0.84-1.99) for Hispanic Americans and 1.22 (0.85-1.75) for Other race/ethnicities. Compared to participants in administrative occupations, physician assistants (OR=7.14; 95% CI: 1.72-29.6) and therapists (OR=4.74; 95% CI: 1.49-15.03) were significantly more likely to have IgG antibodies while the association among nurses was not significant (OR=2.35; 95% CI: 0.96-5.77). Relative to 1.40, the test threshold for positivity, our measurements indicate a strong immune response (5.38±1.69), especially among those with a higher BMI. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-COV-2 IgG antibodies were prevalent only in 8% of the participants. IgG prevalence was highest among non-Hispanic Blacks and participants with higher BMI but was lower among older participants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , New Orleans/epidemiology , Patients/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
3.
J Diabetes Complications ; 35(12): 108054, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440173

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Obese patients with respiratory failure need more intensive care and invasive mechanical ventilation than their non-obese counterparts. We aimed to evaluate the impact of body mass index and obesity related conditions on fatal outcome during a hospitalization for COVID-19. METHODS: From March 1 to April 30, 2020, 425 consecutive patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were hospitalized at University Medical Center, in New Orleans. Clinical variables, comorbidities, and hospital course were extracted from electronic medical records. Special attention was given to obesity related conditions like hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Severe obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥35-<40 kg/m2 and morbid obesity as body mass index ≥40 kg/m2. Risk of mortality was determined by applying multivariate binary logistic regression modeling to risk factor variables (age, sex, race, and Charlson comorbid score). RESULTS: Patients were mostly African American (77.9%) and 51.0% were women. Age and Charlson comorbidity index scores averaged 60 (50-71 years) and 3.0 (1.25-5), respectively. In-hospital mortality was greater in morbidly obese than non-morbidly obese patients. Of the 64 severely obese patients, 16 had no obesity related conditions, and 48 had at least one obesity related condition: hypertension (60%), type 2 diabetes mellitus (28%), and dyslipidemia (20%). In-hospital mortality was greater in severely obese patients with than without at least one obesity related condition. CONCLUSION: During a hospitalization for COVID-19, severely obese patients with at least one obesity related condition and morbidly obese patients have a high mortality.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Obesity, Morbid/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Comorbidity , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , New Orleans/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(11): e019708, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247457

ABSTRACT

Background COVID-19 was temporally associated with an increase in out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We sought to determine if patients with implantable defibrillators residing in areas with high COVID-19 activity experienced an increase in defibrillator shocks during the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods and Results Using the Medtronic (Mounds View, MN) Carelink database from 2019 and 2020, we retrospectively determined the incidence of implantable defibrillator shock episodes among patients residing in New York City, New Orleans, LA, and Boston, MA. A total of 14 665 patients with a Medtronic implantable defibrillator (age, 66±13 years; and 72% men) were included in the analysis. Comparing analysis time periods coinciding with the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020 with the same periods in 2019, we observed a larger mean rate of defibrillator shock episodes per 1000 patients in New York City (17.8 versus 11.7, respectively), New Orleans (26.4 versus 13.5, respectively), and Boston (30.9 versus 20.6, respectively) during the COVID-19 surge. Age- and sex-adjusted hurdle model showed that the Poisson distribution rate of defibrillator shocks for patients with ≥1 shock was 3.11 times larger (95% CI, 1.08-8.99; P=0.036) in New York City, 3.74 times larger (95% CI, 0.88-15.89; P=0.074) in New Orleans, and 1.97 times larger (95% CI, 0.69-5.61; P=0.202) in Boston in 2020 versus 2019. However, the binomial odds of any given patient having a shock episode was not different in 2020 versus 2019. Conclusions Defibrillator shock episodes increased during the higher COVID-19 activity in New York City, New Orleans, and Boston. These observations may provide insights into COVID-19-related increase in cardiac arrests.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Defibrillators, Implantable , Electric Countershock , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Aged , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/epidemiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Electric Countershock/instrumentation , Electric Countershock/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , New Orleans/epidemiology , New York City/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/etiology , Poisson Distribution , SARS-CoV-2
6.
World Neurosurg ; 151: e68-e77, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medical subspecialties including neurosurgery have seen a dramatic shift in operative volume in the wake of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The goal of this study was to quantify the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on operative volume at 2 academic neurosurgery centers in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA from equivalent periods before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted analyzing neurosurgical case records for 2 tertiary academic centers from March to June 2020 and March to June 2019. The records were reviewed for variables including institution and physician coverage, operative volume by month and year, cases per subspecialty, patient demographics, mortality, and morbidity. RESULTS: Comparison of groups showed a 34% reduction in monthly neurosurgical volume per institution during the pandemic compared with earlier time points, including a 77% decrease during April 2020. There was no change in mortality and morbidity across institutions during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on neurosurgical practice and will likely continue to have long-term effects on patients at a time when global gross domestic products decrease and relative health expenditures increase. Clinicians must anticipate and actively prepare for these impacts in the future.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Internship and Residency/trends , Neurosurgical Procedures/education , Neurosurgical Procedures/trends , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Academic Medical Centers/methods , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Internship and Residency/methods , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Neurosurgery/education , Neurosurgery/methods , Neurosurgery/trends , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , New Orleans/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies
7.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 44(5): 856-864, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142954

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Specific details about cardiovascular complications, especially arrhythmias, related to the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) are not well described. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the incidence and predictive factors of cardiovascular complications and new-onset arrhythmias in Black and White hospitalized COVID-19 patients and determine the impact of new-onset arrhythmia on outcomes. METHODS: We collected and analyzed baseline demographic and clinical data from COVID-19 patients hospitalized at the Tulane Medical Center in New Orleans, Louisiana, between March 1 and May 1, 2020. RESULTS: Among 310 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, the mean age was 61.4 ± 16.5 years, with 58,7% females, and 67% Black patients. Black patients were more likely to be younger, have diabetes and obesity. The incidence of cardiac complications was 20%, with 9% of patients having new-onset arrhythmia. There was no significant difference in cardiovascular outcomes between Black and White patients. A multivariate analysis determined age ≥60 years to be a predictor of new-onset arrhythmia (OR = 7.36, 95% CI [1.95;27.76], p = .003). D-dimer levels positively correlated with cardiac and new-onset arrhythmic event. New onset atrial arrhythmias predicted in-hospital mortality (OR = 2.99 95% CI [1.35;6.63], p = .007), a longer intensive care unit length of stay (mean of 6.14 days, 95% CI [2.51;9.77], p = .001) and mechanical ventilation duration(mean of 9.08 days, 95% CI [3.75;14.40], p = .001). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that new onset atrial arrhythmias are commonly encountered in COVID-19 patients and can predict in-hospital mortality. Early elevation in D-dimer in COVID-19 patients is a significant predictor of new onset arrhythmias. Our finding suggest continuous rhythm monitoring should be adopted in this patient population during hospitalization to better risk stratify hospitalized patients and prompt earlier intervention.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/ethnology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , /statistics & numerical data , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , New Orleans/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Ambul Care Manage ; 44(1): 2-6, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944462

ABSTRACT

Federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) are on the front lines of the COVID-19 pandemic. Their mission of providing essential medical care to underserved populations is now even more vital. CrescentCare, an FQHC in New Orleans, evaluated and tested 3366 patients between March 16 and July 2, with an overall rate of 12% SARS-CoV-2 positivity. The clinic's experience demonstrates how to effectively and rapidly integrate COVID-19 programing, while preserving essential health services. Strategies include developing a walk-in COVID-19 testing site, ensuring appropriate clinical evaluation, providing accurate public health information, and advocating for job safety on behalf of our patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Community Health Centers/organization & administration , Medically Underserved Area , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , New Orleans/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 479(2): 266-275, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-793467

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During a pandemic, it is paramount to understand volume changes in Level I trauma so that with appropriate planning and reallocation of resources, these facilities can maintain and even improve life-saving capabilities. Evaluating nonaccidental and accidental trauma can highlight potential areas of improvement in societal behavior and hospital preparedness. These critical questions were proposed to better understand how healthcare leaders might adjust surgeon and team coverage of trauma services as well as prepare from a system standpoint what resources will be needed during a pandemic or similar crisis to maintain services. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) How did the total observed number of trauma activations, defined as patients who meet mechanism of injury requirements which trigger the notification and aggregation of the trauma team upon entering the emergency department, change during a pandemic and stay-at-home order? (2) How did the proportion of major mechanisms of traumatic injury change during this time period? (3) How did the proportion and absolute numbers of accidental versus nonaccidental traumatic injury in children and adults change during this time period? METHODS: This was a retrospective study of trauma activations at a Level I trauma center in New Orleans, LA, USA, using trauma registry data of all patients presenting to the trauma center from 2017 to 2020. The number of trauma activations during a government mandated coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) stay-at-home order (from March 20, 2020 to May 14, 2020) was compared with the expected number of activations for the same time period from 2017 to 2019, called "predicted period". The expected number (predicted period) was assumed based on the linear trend of trauma activations seen in the prior 3 years (2017 to 2019) for the same date range (March 20, 2020 to May 14, 2020). To define the total number of traumatic injuries, account for proportion changes, and evaluate fluctuation in accidental verses nonaccidental trauma, variables including type of traumatic injury (blunt, penetrating, and thermal), and mechanism of injury (gunshot wound, fall, knife wound, motor vehicle collision, assault, burns) were collected for each patient. RESULTS: There were fewer total trauma activations during the stay-at-home period than during the predicted period (372 versus 532 [95% CI 77 to 122]; p = 0.016). The proportion of penetrating trauma among total activations was greater during the stay-at-home period than during the predicted period (35% [129 of 372] versus 26% [141 of 532]; p = 0.01), while the proportion of blunt trauma was lower during the stay-at-home period than during the predicted period (63 % [236 of 372] versus 71% [376 of 532]; p = 0.02). The proportion of gunshot wounds in relation to total activations was greater during the stay-at-home period than expected (26% [97 of 372] versus 18% [96 of 532]; p = 0.004). There were fewer motor vehicle collisions in relation to total activations during the stay-at-home period than expected (42% [156 of 372] versus 49% [263 of 532]; p = 0.03). Among total trauma activations, the stay-at-home period had a lower proportion of accidental injuries than the predicted period (55% [203 of 372] versus 61% [326 of 532]; p = 0.05), and there was a greater proportion of nonaccidental injuries than the predicted period (37% [137 of 372] versus 27% [143 of 532]; p < 0.001). In adults, the stay-at-home period had a greater proportion of nonaccidental injuries than the predicted period (38% [123 of 328] versus 26% [123 of 466]; p < 0.001). There was no difference between the stay-at-home period and predicted period in nonaccidental and accidental injuries among children. CONCLUSION: Data from the trauma registry at our region's only Level I trauma center indicate that a stay-at-home order during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a 70% reduction in the number of traumatic injuries, and the types of injuries shifted from more accidental blunt trauma to more nonaccidental penetrating trauma. Non-accidental trauma, including gunshot wounds, increased during this period, which suggest community awareness, crisis de-escalation strategies, and programs need to be created to address violence in the community. Understanding these changes allows for adjustments in staffing schedules. Surgeons and trauma teams could allow for longer shifts between changeover, decreasing viral exposure because the volume of work would be lower. Understanding the shift in injury could also lead to a change in specialists covering call. With the often limited availability of orthopaedic trauma-trained surgeons who can perform life-saving pelvis and acetabular surgery, this data may be used to mitigate exposure of these surgeons during pandemic situations. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Health Services Needs and Demand/trends , Infection Control/trends , Needs Assessment/trends , Trauma Centers/trends , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , New Orleans/epidemiology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Young Adult
11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(13): e016997, 2020 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-683343

ABSTRACT

Medicine and public health have traditionally separated the prevention and treatment of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has challenged this paradigm, particularly in the setting of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Overall, individuals with underlying CVD who acquire severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 experience up to a 10-fold higher case-fatality rate compared with the general population. Although the impact of the pandemic on cardiovascular health continues to evolve, few have defined this association from a frontline, public health perspective of populations disproportionately affected by CVD and COVID-19. Louisiana is ranked within the bottom 5 states for cardiovascular health, and it is home to several parishes that have experienced among the highest COVID-19 case-fatality rates nationally. Herein, we review CVD prevention and implications of COVID-19 in New Orleans, LA, a city holding a sobering yet resilient history with previous public health disasters. In particular, we discuss potential pandemic-driven changes in access to health care, preventive pharmacotherapy, and lifestyle behaviors, all of which may adversely affect CVD prevention and management, while amplifying racial disparities. Through this process, we highlight proposed recommendations for how CVD prevention efforts can be improved in the midst of the current COVID-19 pandemic and future public health crises.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Life Style , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Public Health , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , New Orleans/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S197-S198, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610273

ABSTRACT

The hidden and often unspoken impact of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has been the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV). This commentary addresses this issue and highlights a study undertaken to address this public health issue by generating empirical research on the relationship between COVID-19 and IPV. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Family Conflict , Infection Control , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Resilience, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , New Orleans/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology
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