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1.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 22(1): 13, 2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research regarding the association between severe obesity and in-hospital mortality is inconsistent. We evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) levels on mortality in the medical wards. The analysis was performed separately before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We retrospectively retrieved data of adult patients admitted to the medical wards at the Mount Sinai Health System in New York City. The study was conducted between January 1, 2011, to March 23, 2021. Patients were divided into two sub-cohorts: pre-COVID-19 and during-COVID-19. Patients were then clustered into groups based on BMI ranges. A multivariate logistic regression analysis compared the mortality rate among the BMI groups, before and during the pandemic. RESULTS: Overall, 179,288 patients were admitted to the medical wards and had a recorded BMI measurement. 149,098 were admitted before the COVID-19 pandemic and 30,190 during the pandemic. Pre-pandemic, multivariate analysis showed a "J curve" between BMI and mortality. Severe obesity (BMI > 40) had an aOR of 0.8 (95% CI:0.7-1.0, p = 0.018) compared to the normal BMI group. In contrast, during the pandemic, the analysis showed a "U curve" between BMI and mortality. Severe obesity had an aOR of 1.7 (95% CI:1.3-2.4, p < 0.001) compared to the normal BMI group. CONCLUSIONS: Medical ward patients with severe obesity have a lower risk for mortality compared to patients with normal BMI. However, this does not apply during COVID-19, where obesity was a leading risk factor for mortality in the medical wards. It is important for the internal medicine physician to understand the intricacies of the association between obesity and medical ward mortality.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Obesity/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e053641, 2022 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613006

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine receipt among healthcare workers and the role of vaccine confidence in decisions to vaccinate, and to better understand concerns related to COVID-19 vaccination. DESIGN: Cross-sectional anonymous survey among front-line, support service and administrative healthcare workers. SETTING: Two large integrated healthcare systems (one private and one public) in New York City during the initial roll-out of the COVID-19 vaccine. PARTICIPANTS: 1933 healthcare workers, including nurses, physicians, allied health professionals, environmental services staff, researchers and administrative staff. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was COVID-19 vaccine receipt during the initial roll-out of the vaccine among healthcare workers. RESULTS: Among 1933 healthcare workers who had been offered the vaccine, 81% had received the vaccine at the time of the survey. Receipt was lower among black (58%; OR: 0.14, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.2) compared with white (91%) healthcare workers, and higher among non-Hispanic (84%) compared with Hispanic (69%; OR: 2.37, 95% CI 1.8 to 3.1) healthcare workers. Among healthcare workers with concerns about COVID-19 vaccine safety, 65% received the vaccine. Among healthcare workers who agreed with the statement that the vaccine is important to protect family members, 86% were vaccinated. Of those who disagreed, 25% received the vaccine (p<0.001). In a multivariable analysis, concern about being experimented on (OR: 0.44, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.6), concern about COVID-19 vaccine safety (OR: 0.39, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.55), lack of influenza vaccine receipt (OR: 0.28, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.44), disagreeing that COVID-19 vaccination is important to protect others (OR: 0.37, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.52) and black race (OR: 0.38, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.59) were independently associated with COVID-19 vaccine non-receipt. Over 70% of all healthcare workers responded that they had been approached for vaccine advice multiple times by family, community members and patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated high overall receipt among healthcare workers. Even among healthcare workers with concerns about COVID-19 vaccine safety, side effects or being experimented on, over 50% received the vaccine. Attitudes around the importance of COVID-19 vaccination to protect others played a large role in healthcare workers' decisions to vaccinate. We observed striking inequities in COVID-19 vaccine receipt, particularly affecting black and Hispanic workers. Further research is urgently needed to address issues related to vaccine equity and uptake in the context of systemic racism and barriers to care. This is particularly important given the influence healthcare workers have in vaccine decision-making conversations in their communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Influenza Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , New York City , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260931, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581766

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, US populations have experienced elevated rates of financial and psychological distress that could lead to increases in suicide rates. Rapid ongoing mental health monitoring is critical for early intervention, especially in regions most affected by the pandemic, yet traditional surveillance data are available only after long lags. Novel information on real-time population isolation and concerns stemming from the pandemic's social and economic impacts, via cellular mobility tracking and online search data, are potentially important interim surveillance resources. Using these measures, we employed transfer function model time-series analyses to estimate associations between daily mobility indicators (proportion of cellular devices completely at home and time spent at home) and Google Health Trends search volumes for terms pertaining to economic stress, mental health, and suicide during 2020 and 2021 both nationally and in New York City. During the first pandemic wave in early-spring 2020, over 50% of devices remained completely at home and searches for economic stressors exceeded 60,000 per 10 million. We found large concurrent associations across analyses between declining mobility and increasing searches for economic stressor terms (national proportion of devices at home: cross-correlation coefficient (CC) = 0.6 (p-value <0.001)). Nationally, we also found strong associations between declining mobility and increasing mental health and suicide-related searches (time at home: mood/anxiety CC = 0.53 (<0.001), social stressor CC = 0.51 (<0.001), suicide seeking CC = 0.37 (0.006)). Our findings suggest that pandemic-related isolation coincided with acute economic distress and may be a risk factor for poor mental health and suicidal behavior. These emergent relationships warrant ongoing attention and causal assessment given the potential for long-term psychological impact and suicide death. As US populations continue to face stress, Google search data can be used to identify possible warning signs from real-time changes in distributions of population thought patterns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cell Phone/statistics & numerical data , Search Engine/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Suicide/psychology , Geographic Information Systems , Humans , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , New York City , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Search Engine/trends , Stress, Psychological , Time Factors , United States
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms at follow-up among healthcare workers after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic are unknown. METHODS: A web survey invitation was sent to healthcare worker listservs at a NYC medical center (April, 2020). The Primary Care (PC)-PTSD questionnaire was used to screen for PTSD symptoms at baseline and then every 2 weeks for 10 weeks. Incidence and prevalence of PTSD symptoms were determined at each time point. Multivariable generalized estimating equation models were performed to investigate the factors associated with a positive PC-PTSD screen at follow-up. RESULTS: Median age (interquartile range) of N = 230 participants was 36 (31-48) years; 79.6% were women; 82.6% worked in COVID-19-focused settings. The prevalence of PTSD symptoms decreased from 55.2% at baseline to 25.0% at 10 weeks (p < 0.001). Among participants who had a baseline negative screen for PTSD symptoms, the incidence of PTSD at 10 weeks was 12.2% (p-trend 0.034). In multivariable-adjusted analyses, being a nurse (odds ratio [OR]: 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-2.71), female (OR: 3.00, 95% CI: 1.59, 5.72), and working in a COVID-19-focused location (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.21) were associated with increased odds of PTSD symptoms at 10-weeks. CONCLUSIONS: PTSD symptoms improved over 3 months following the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, one out of four NYC healthcare workers still had an increased risk for PTSD at 10-weeks. Screening healthcare workers for PTSD symptoms should be considered during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
5.
Tex Heart Inst J ; 48(5)2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579718

ABSTRACT

Atypical presentations of ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have been reported in patients who have COVID-19. We have seen this occurrence in our center in Bronx, New York, where multitudes of patients sought treatment for the coronavirus. We studied the prevalence of atypical STEMI findings among patients with COVID-19 who presented during the first 2 months of the pandemic. Consistent with previous reports, 4 of our 10 patients with COVID-19 and STEMI had no identifiable culprit coronary lesion; rather, they often had diffuse ST-segment elevations on surface electrocardiograms along with higher levels of D-dimer and inflammatory markers. In contrast, 32 of 33 patients without COVID-19 (97%) had a culprit lesion. The patients with COVID-19 and a culprit lesion more often needed thrombectomy catheterization and administration of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. Our study confirms that patients with COVID-19 often have atypical STEMI presentations, including the frequent absence of a culprit coronary lesion. Our findings can help clinicians prepare for these atypical clinical presentations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
6.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0243263, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576004

ABSTRACT

As mobile device location data become increasingly available, new analyses are revealing the significant changes of mobility pattern when an unplanned event happened. With different control policies from local and state government, the COVID-19 outbreak has dramatically changed mobility behavior in affected cities. This study has been investigating the impact of COVID-19 on the number of people involved in crashes accounting for the intensity of different control measures using Negative Binomial (NB) method. Based on a comprehensive dataset of people involved in crashes aggregated in New York City during January 1, 2020 to May 24, 2020, people involved in crashes with respect to travel behavior, traffic characteristics and socio-demographic characteristics are found. The results show that the average person miles traveled on the main traffic mode per person per day, percentage of work trip have positive effect on person involved in crashes. On the contrary, unemployment rate and inflation rate have negative effects on person involved in crashes. Interestingly, different level of control policies during COVID-19 outbreak are closely associated with safety awareness, driving and travel behavior, and thus has an indirect influence on the frequency of crashes. Comparing to other three control policies including emergence declare, limits on mass gatherings, and ban on all nonessential gathering, the negative relationship between stay-at-home policy implemented in New York City from March 20, 2020 and the number of people involved crashes is found in our study.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Automobile Driving/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Safety/statistics & numerical data , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , New York City , Public Policy , Risk-Taking
7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1946, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hispanics in the United States are disproportionately affected by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). While social distancing and quarantining are effective methods to reduce its spread, Hispanics, who are more likely to be essential workers and live in multigenerational homes than non-Hispanics, may face challenges that limit their ability to carry out these preventative efforts. We elicited the experiences of Hispanic adults with social distancing and self-quarantining during the COVID-19 pandemic in New York. METHODS: In this qualitative study, Hispanic adults receiving care at a federally qualified community health center in East Harlem, New York, were recruited for remote one-on-one semi-structured interviews from 5/15/2020 to 11/17/2020. Interviews were conducted by a bilingual interviewer in Spanish or English, using a semi-structured topic guide informed by the Health Belief Model. Audio-recordings were professionally transcribed. We used thematic analysis to iteratively code the data. Each transcript was independently coded by two research team members, then reconciled by a third. Major themes and subthemes were identified. RESULTS: Among 20 participants, four major themes emerged; Hispanics were: (1) fearful of contracting and transmitting COVID-19, (2) engaging in practices to reduce transmission of COVID-19, (3) experiencing barriers to social distancing and quarantining, and (4) facing an enduring psychological and physical toll from COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Despite understanding the risks for contracting COVID-19 and taking appropriate precautions, Hispanics faced numerous challenges to social distancing and quarantining, such as living in crowded, multi-generational households, working as essential workers, and providing unpaid care to family members. Such challenges took a toll on their physical, emotional, and financial well-being. Our findings suggest that a tailored approach to public health messaging and interventions for pandemic planning are warranted among members of this community. Further research is needed to understand and mitigate the long term physical and psychological consequences of the pandemic among Hispanics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
8.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol ; 34(1): 132-135, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555961

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: New York State implemented an 11-week elective surgery ban in response to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, during which pediatric patients from the 10 New York Presbyterian network hospitals requiring urgent or emergent surgical procedures were cared for at Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital (MSCH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data was abstracted from the electronic medical record of all patients aged 0 to 20 years who had surgery at MSCH from March 23, 2020 to June 7, 2020. Comparative analysis of demographic and clinical data elements between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive and negative cohorts was conducted using the Fisher exact tests. RESULTS: A total of 505 surgical procedures were performed in 451 patients, with 32 procedures (6.3%) performed in 21 SARS-CoV-2-positive children. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in Medicaid beneficiaries was more than twice the prevalence in commercially insured (6.8% vs. 2.6%, P=0.04) children. SARS-CoV-2-positive patients were more likely to undergo multiple surgical procedures (23.8% vs. 7.2%, P=0.02), and to have higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class designations (69.8% III to V vs. 47.4% I to II, P=0.03). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 positivity across sex, age, race, or ethnicity groups, or in emergent case status or surgical procedure type. Thirty-day mortality rate was <0.1% overall, with no deaths in the SARS-CoV-2-positive group. CONCLUSIONS: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City, we found a higher prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in urgent/emergent pediatric surgical patients compared with other institutions in the United States. SARS-CoV-2-positive patients were more likely to be Medicaid beneficiaries, were clinically more complex, and had more surgical procedures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol ; 34(1): 116-121, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555364

ABSTRACT

In this narrative review, anesthesiologists at 2 large hospital systems in New York City and San Francisco compare early coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) public health outcomes while considering the role played by social vulnerability and relevant approaches in their 2 cities. An iterative search process allowed for a broad review of medical and public policy research, as well as newspaper reports, expert opinion, and multimedia sources, with the goal of exploring the importance of crowding, the labor force, and social identity in pandemic experiences. Related struggles, pitfalls, and successful interventions in both locales are summarized. Although technology in the form of vaccination will likely play an outsize role in the next phase of the pandemic, our review concludes that we must carefully consider how social vulnerabilities have and will continue to inform equitable and effective access to life-saving resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , New York City , SARS-CoV-2 , San Francisco , Social Vulnerability
10.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 9(3): 690-697, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542965

ABSTRACT

Emergency medicine (EM) is rapidly being recognized as a specialty around the globe. This has particular promise for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) that experience the largest burden of disease for emergency conditions. Specialty education and training in EM remain essentially an apprenticeship model. Finding the required expertise to educate graduate learners can be challenging in regions where there are low densities of specialty providers.We describe an initiative to implement a sustainable, bidirectional partnership between the Emergency Medicine Departments of Weill Cornell Medicine (WCM) in New York, NY, USA, and Bugando Medical Center (BMC) in Mwanza, Tanzania. We used synchronous and asynchronous telecommunication technology to enhance an ongoing emergency medicine education collaboration.The Internet infrastructure for this collaboration was created by bolstering 4G services available in Mwanza, Tanzania. By maximizing the 4G signal, sufficient bandwidth could be created to allow for live 2-way audio/video communication. Using synchronous and asynchronous applications such as Zoom and WhatsApp, providers at WCM and BMC can attend real-time didactic lectures, participate in discussion forums on clinical topics, and collaborate on the development of clinical protocols. Proof of concept exercises demonstrated that this system can be used for real-time mentoring in EKG interpretation and ultrasound technique, for example. This system was also used to share information and develop operations flows during the COVID-19 pandemic. The use of telecommunication technology and e-learning in a format that promotes long-term, sustainable interaction is practical and innovative, provides benefit to all partners, and should be considered as a mechanism by which global partnerships can assist with training in emergency medicine in LMICs.


Subject(s)
Curriculum , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical, Graduate/methods , Emergency Medicine/education , Emergency Medicine/methods , Academic Medical Centers , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Mobile Applications , New York City , Social Media , Tanzania
11.
J Affect Disord ; 298(Pt A): 618-624, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) treating patients with COVID-19 report psychological distress. We examined whether disturbed sleep was associated with psychological distress in New York City (NYC) HCWs during the initial peak of the COVID-19 pandemic (April-May 2020). METHODS: HCWs completed a survey screening for acute stress (4-item Primary Care PTSD screen), depressive (Patient Health Questionaire-2), and anxiety (2-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale) symptoms. Insomnia symptoms (modified item from the Insomnia Severity Index) and short sleep (SS, sleep duration <6 h/day) were assessed. Poisson regression analyses predicting psychological distress from SS and insomnia symptoms, adjusting for demographics, clinical role/setting, redeployment status, shifts worked, and multiple comparisons were performed. RESULTS: Among 813 HCWs (80.6% female, 59.0% white) mean sleep duration was 5.8 ± 1.2 h/night. Prevalence of SS, insomnia, acute stress, depressive, and anxiety symptoms were 38.8%, 72.8%, 57.9%, 33.8%, and 48.2%, respectively. Insomnia symptoms was associated with acute stress (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.35, 1.69), depressive (PR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.78, 2.33), and anxiety (PR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.55, 1.94) symptoms. SS was also associated with acute stress (PR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.29), depressive (PR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.233, 1.51), and anxiety (PR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.26, 1.50) symptoms. LIMITATIONS: Our cross-sectional analysis may preclude the identification of temporal associations and limit causal claims. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, SS and insomnia were associated with psychological distress symptoms in NYC HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sleep may be a target for interventions to decrease psychological distress among HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Mental Health , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep
12.
Harm Reduct J ; 18(1): 118, 2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While people who inject drugs (PWID) are vulnerable to the adverse outcomes of events like COVID-19, little is known regarding the impact of the current pandemic on PWID. We examine how COVID-19 has affected PWID in New York City across four domains: substance use, risk behaviors, mental health, and service utilization. METHODS: As part of a randomized trial to improve access to HCV treatment for PWID, we recruited 165 participants. Eligibility criteria included detectable HCV RNA and recent drug injection. The present cross-sectional analysis is based on a subsample of 106 participants. We compared responses between two separate samples: 60 participants interviewed prior to the pandemic (pre-COVID-19 sample) and 46 participants interviewed during the pandemic (COVID-19 sample). We also assessed differences by study group [accessible care (AC) and usual care (UC)]. RESULTS: Compared to the pre-COVID-19 sample, those interviewed during COVID-19 reported higher levels of mental health issues, syringe reuse, and alcohol consumption and greater reductions in syringe-service programs and buprenorphine utilization. In the analysis conducted by study group, the UC group reported significantly higher injection risk behaviors and lower access to buprenorphine treatment during COVID-19, while during the same period, the AC group reported lower levels of substance use and injection risk behaviors. CONCLUSION: The current study provides insight on how COVID-19 has negatively affected PWID. Placing dispensing machines of harm-reduction supplies in communities where PWID live and increasing secondary exchange, mobile services, and mail delivery of supplies may help maintain access to lifesaving supplies during big events, such as COVID-19. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03214679. Registered July 11 2017. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03214679 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology
13.
J Clin Invest ; 131(18)2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533156

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines is high, but breakthrough infections still occur. We compared the SARS-CoV-2 genomes of 76 breakthrough cases after full vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech), mRNA-1273 (Moderna), or JNJ-78436735 (Janssen) to unvaccinated controls (February-April 2021) in metropolitan New York, including their phylogenetic relationship, distribution of variants, and full spike mutation profiles. The median age of patients in the study was 48 years; 7 required hospitalization and 1 died. Most breakthrough infections (57/76) occurred with B.1.1.7 (Alpha) or B.1.526 (Iota). Among the 7 hospitalized cases, 4 were infected with B.1.1.7, including 1 death. Both unmatched and matched statistical analyses considering age, sex, vaccine type, and study month as covariates supported the null hypothesis of equal variant distributions between vaccinated and unvaccinated in χ2 and McNemar tests (P > 0.1), highlighting a high vaccine efficacy against B.1.1.7 and B.1.526. There was no clear association among breakthroughs between type of vaccine received and variant. In the vaccinated group, spike mutations in the N-terminal domain and receptor-binding domain that have been associated with immune evasion were overrepresented. The evolving dynamic of SARS-CoV-2 variants requires broad genomic analyses of breakthrough infections to provide real-life information on immune escape mediated by circulating variants and their spike mutations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Evolution, Molecular , Immune Evasion/genetics , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
14.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 32(4): 1978-1994, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528709

ABSTRACT

Objectives . We investigated the association of pre-existing economic variables with COVID-19 infections and mortality in New York City. Methods . We combined ZIP code-level data from New York City's Department of Health with five-year American Community Survey data. We estimated ordinary least squares models of the prevalence of positive COVID-19 test results and deaths per 100,000 population. Results . We found ZIP codes with higher concentrations of residents living in crowded living quarters, employees in high-risk occupations, and employees commuting more than half an hour were positively and significantly associated with higher infection rates. Higher rates of crowded housing were also significantly and positively related to mortality rates, though the positive point estimates for the other two economic variables were not statistically significant. Conclusions . Economic factors such as working and living conditions beyond common measures such as poverty generate significant public health effects. Policymakers should consider these associations while designing and modifying public health policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Housing , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Poverty , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): 86-94, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526234

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a record number of deaths in the United States and tremendous economic and personal strain. During 2020, in anticipation of a vaccine to slow the spread of disease, local and state governments in the United States developed plans for vaccine prioritization, given a limited initial supply. Recognizing the challenges inherent in prioritization, the New York City (NYC) health department sought guidance from members of the public about the fairest approach to early-stage vaccine distribution. OBJECTIVE: To solicit recommendations from NYC residents on priorities regarding vaccine access for essential worker occupations, considering risk factors and preferred approaches to fairness. IMPLEMENTATION: Five public deliberations were conducted with NYC residents (N = 91). Participants heard presentations on the COVID-19 vaccine, the local distribution of illness and death, and approaches to fairness in the context of deliberating on priorities for 6 essential worker occupations and 4 risk factors. Discussions were transcribed, and transcriptions were coded and analyzed using preidentified and emergent themes. Pre- and post-surveys, focused on factors relevant to prioritization, were administered during each public deliberation. RESULTS: Recommendations for prioritization emphasized risk of severe morbidity and mortality, and work and neighborhood conditions with fewer protections (eg, in-person work, exposure to many people). Participants prioritized elementary schoolteachers, grocery store workers, and bus drivers, underlying health conditions, and neighborhood of residence. Participants focused on equity, recognizing that those at highest risk were largely low-income populations of color and individuals living in low-resourced neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS: Participants' focus on equity, and acknowledgment of racial and ethnic disparities, revealed a nuanced understanding of the broader determinants of health. Recommendations reinforced the NYC health department's approach to vaccine distribution. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS: Results from these public deliberations confirmed community support for approaches prioritizing health equity, recognizing both societal and personal factors affecting vulnerability to poor health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , New York City , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
17.
Addiction ; 116(12): 3525-3530, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504719

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increased alcohol consumption has been proposed as a potential consequence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. There has been little scrutiny of alcohol use behaviors resulting in hospital visits, which is essential to guide pandemic public policy. We aimed to determine whether COVID-19 peak restrictions were associated with increased hospital visits for alcohol use or withdrawal. Secondary objectives were to describe differences based on age, sex and race, and to examine alcohol-related complication incidence. DESIGN: Multi-center, retrospective, pre-post study. SETTING: New York City health system with five participating hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Adult emergency department encounters for alcohol use, alcoholic gastritis or pancreatitis or hepatitis, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, withdrawal seizure or delirium tremens. MEASUREMENTS: Age, sex, race, site and encounter diagnosis. Encounters were compared between 2019 and 2020 for 1 March to 31 May. FINDINGS: There were 2790 alcohol-related visits during the 2019 study period and 1793 in 2020, with a decrease in total hospital visits. Of 4583 alcohol-related visits, median age was 47 years, with 22.3% females. In 2020 there was an increase in percentage of visits for alcohol withdrawal [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.67] and withdrawal with complications (aOR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.14-1.72), and a decline in percentage of hospital visits for alcohol use (aOR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.59-0.85) and use with complications (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.58-0.88). It is unknown whether use visit changes mirror declines in other chief complaints. The age groups 18-29 and 60-69 years were associated with increased visits for use and decreased visits for withdrawal, as were non-white race groups. Sex was not associated with alcohol-related visit changes despite male predominance. CONCLUSIONS: In New York City during the initial COVID-19 peak (1 March to 31 May 2020), hospital visits for alcohol withdrawal increased while those for alcohol use decreased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e053158, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501720

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among New York City Health and Hospitals (NYC H+H) healthcare workers during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, and describe demographic and occupational factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among healthcare workers. DESIGN: Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of data from SARS-CoV-2 serological tests accompanied by a demographic and occupational survey administered to healthcare workers. SETTING: A large, urban public healthcare system in NYC. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were employed by NYC H+H and either completed serological testing at NYC H+H between 30 April 2020 and 30 June 2020, or completed SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing outside of NYC H+H and were able to self-report results from the same time period. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: SARS-CoV-2 serostatus, stratified by key demographic and occupational characteristics reported through the demographic and occupational survey. RESULTS: Seven hundred and twenty-seven survey respondents were included in analysis. Participants had a mean age of 46 years (SD=12.19) and 543 (75%) were women. Two hundred and fourteen (29%) participants tested positive or reported testing positive for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgG+). Characteristics associated with positive SARS-CoV-2 serostatus were Black race (25% IgG +vs 15% IgG-, p=0.001), having someone in the household with COVID-19 symptoms (49% IgG +vs 21% IgG-, p<0.001), or having a confirmed COVID-19 case in the household (25% IgG +vs 5% IgG-, p<0.001). Characteristics associated with negative SARS-CoV-2 serostatus included working on a COVID-19 patient floor (27% IgG +vs 36% IgG-, p=0.02), working in the intensive care unit (20% IgG +vs 28% IgG-, p=0.03), being employed in a clinical occupation (64% IgG +vs 78% IgG-, p<0.001) or having close contact with a patient with COVID-19 (51% IgG +vs 62% IgG-, p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Results underscore the significance that community factors and inequities might have on SARS-CoV-2 exposure for healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): 1707-1710, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501054

ABSTRACT

Using a population-based, representative telephone survey, ~930 000 New York City residents had COVID-19 illness beginning 20 March-30 April 2020, a period with limited testing. For every 1000 persons estimated with COVID-19 illness, 141.8 were tested and reported as cases, 36.8 were hospitalized, and 12.8 died, varying by demographic characteristics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e3013-e3018, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New York City (NYC) experienced a surge of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in March and April 2020. Since then, universal polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based surveillance testing and personal protective equipment (PPE) measures are in wide use in procedural settings. There is limited published experience on the utility and sustainability of PCR-based surveillance testing in areas with receding and consistently low community COVID-19 rates. METHODS: The study was conducted at a tertiary care cancer center in NYC from 22 March to 22 August 2020. Asymptomatic patients underwent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing before surgeries, interventional radiology procedures, and endoscopy. Contact tracing in procedural areas was done if a patient with an initial negative screen retested positive within 48 hours of the procedure. RESULTS: From March 22 until August 22, 2020, 11 540 unique patients underwent 14 233 tests before surgeries or procedures at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Overall, 65 patients were positive, with a peak rate of 4.3% that fell below 0.3% after April 2020. Among the 65 positive cases, 3 were presymptomatic and 38 were asymptomatic. Among asymptomatic test-positive patients, 76% had PCR cycle threshold >30 at first detection. Five patients tested newly positive in the immediate postoperative period, exposing 82 employees with 1 case of probable transmission (1.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection identified on preprocedural surveillance was low in our study, which was conducted in an area with limited community spread at the later stage of the study. Universal PPE is protective in procedural settings. Optimal and flexible diagnostic strategies are needed to accomplish and sustain the goals of comprehensive preprocedure surveillance testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Personal Protective Equipment , Policy
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