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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0251060, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833536

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 lockdown in the US, many businesses were shut down temporarily. Essential businesses, most prominently grocery stores, remained open to ensure access to food and household essentials. Grocery shopping presents increased potential for COVID-19 infection because customers and store employees are in proximity to each other. This study investigated shoppers' perceptions of COVID-19 infection risks and put them in context by comparing grocery shopping to other activities outside home, and examined whether a proactive preventive action by grocery stores influence shoppers' perceived risk of COVID-19 infection. Our data were obtained via an anonymous online survey distributed between April 2 and 10, 2020 to grocery shoppers in New York State (the most affected by the pandemic at the time of the study) and Washington State (the first affected by the pandemic). We found significant factors associated with high levels of risk perception on grocery shoppers. We identified some effective preventive actions that grocery stores implement to alleviate anxiety and risk perception. We found that people are generally more concerned about in-store grocery shopping relative to other out-of-home activities. Findings suggest that a strict policy requiring grocery store employees to use facemasks and gloves greatly reduced shoppers' perceived risk rating of infection of themselves by 37.5% and store employees by 51.2%. Preventive actions by customers and businesses are critical to reducing the unwitting transmission of COVID-19 as state governments prepare to reopen the economy and relax restrictions on activities outside home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Consumer Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Perception/ethics , Consumer Behavior/economics , Family Characteristics , Food , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Health Risk Behaviors , Humans , New York , Perception/physiology , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Supermarkets , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Washington
3.
J Telemed Telecare ; 28(3): 224-229, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775068

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has accelerated the drive of health-care delivery towards virtual-care platforms. While the potential of virtual care is significant, there are challenges to the implementation and scalability of virtual care as a platform, and health-care organisations are at risk of building and deploying non-strategic, costly or unsustainable virtual-health systems. In this article, we share the NYU Langone Health enterprise approach to building and scaling an integrated virtual-health platform prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and offer lessons learned and recommendations for health systems that need to undertake or are currently undertaking the transition to virtual-care delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Telemedicine/standards , COVID-19/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Humans , New York , Telemedicine/methods , Universities , User-Computer Interface
6.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(2): 246-250, 2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737294

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The 2019 novel coronavirus pandemic has caused significant disruptions in the clinical operations of hospitals as well as clinical education, training, and research at academic centers. New York State was among the first and largest epicenters of the pandemic, resulting in significant disruptions across its 29 emergency medicine (EM) residency programs. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of EM residency programs in New York State to assess the impact of the pandemic on resident education and training programs. METHODS: We surveyed a cross-sectional sample of residency programs throughout New York State in June 2020, in the timeframe immediately after the state's first "wave" of the pandemic. The survey was distributed to program leadership and elicited information on pandemic-prompted curricular modifications and other educational changes. The survey covered topics related to disruptions in medical education and sought details on solutions to educational issues encountered by programs. RESULTS: Of the 29 accredited EM residency programs in New York State, leadership from 22 (76%) responded. Of these participating programs, 11 (50%) experienced high pandemic impact on clinical services, 21 (95%) canceled their own trainees' off-service rotations, 22 (100%) canceled or postponed visiting medical student rotations, 22 (100%) adopted virtual conference formats (most within the first week of the pandemic wave), and 11 (50%) stopped all prospective research (excluding COVID-19 research), while most programs continued retrospective research. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the profound educational impact of the pandemic on residency programs in one of the hardest- and earliest-hit regions in the United States. Specifically, it highlights the ubiquity of virtual conferencing, the significant impact on research, and the concerns about canceled rotations and missed training opportunities for residents, as well as prehospital and non-physician practitioner trainees. This data should be used to prompt discussion regarding the necessity of alternate educational modalities for pandemic times and the sequelae of implementing these plans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medicine , Internship and Residency , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Medicine/education , Humans , New York/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(37): 1306-1311, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727001

ABSTRACT

Data from randomized clinical trials and real-world observational studies show that all three COVID-19 vaccines currently authorized for emergency use by the Food and Drug Administration* are safe and highly effective for preventing COVID-19-related serious illness, hospitalization, and death (1,2). Studies of vaccine effectiveness (VE) for preventing new infections and hospitalizations attributable to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19), particularly as the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant has become predominant, are limited in the United States (3). In this study, the New York State Department of Health linked statewide immunization, laboratory testing, and hospitalization databases for New York to estimate rates of new laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations by vaccination status among adults, as well as corresponding VE for full vaccination in the population, across all three authorized vaccine products. During May 3-July 25, 2021, the overall age-adjusted VE against new COVID-19 cases for all adults declined from 91.8% to 75.0%. During the same period, the overall age-adjusted VE against hospitalization was relatively stable, ranging from 89.5% to 95.1%. Currently authorized vaccines have high effectiveness against COVID-19 hospitalization, but effectiveness against new cases appears to have declined in recent months, coinciding with the Delta variant's increase from <2% to >80% in the U.S. region that includes New York and relaxation of masking and physical distancing recommendations. To reduce new COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations, these findings support the implementation of a layered approach centered on vaccination, as well as other prevention strategies such as masking and physical distancing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Humans , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
8.
J Cogn Psychother ; 35(4): 255-267, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725130

ABSTRACT

This study assesses distress and anxiety symptoms associated with quarantine due to COVID-19 exposure among the first quarantined community in the United States and identifies potential areas of intervention. All participants were directly or peripherally related to "patient 1,"-the first confirmed community-acquired case of COVID-19 in the New York Area. As such, this is a historically significant sample whose experiences highlight a transitional moment from a pre-pandemic to a pandemic period in the United States. In March 2020, an anonymous survey was distributed to 1,250 members of a NYC area community that was under community-wide quarantine orders due to the COVID-19 outbreak. Distress was measured using the Subjective Units of Distress Scale (SUDS) and symptoms of anxiety were measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). A variety of psychosocial predictors relevant to the current crisis were explored. Three hundred and three individuals responded within forty-eight hours of survey distribution. Mean levels of distress in the sample were heightened and sustained, with 69% reporting moderate to severe distress on the SUDS and 53% of the sample reported mild, moderate, or severe anxiety symptoms on the BAI. The greatest percentage of variance of distress and anxiety symptoms was accounted for by modifiable factors amenable to behavioral and psychological interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Quarantine , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Humans , New York/epidemiology , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(3): 650-659, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714951

ABSTRACT

The emergence of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants in late 2020 and early 2021 raised alarm worldwide because of their potential for increased transmissibility and immune evasion. Elucidating the evolutionary and epidemiologic dynamics among novel SARS-CoV-2 variants is essential for understanding the trajectory of the coronavirus disease pandemic. We describe the interplay between B.1.1.7 (Alpha) and B.1.526 (Iota) variants in New York State, USA, during December 2020-April 2021 through phylogeographic analyses, space-time scan statistics, and cartographic visualization. Our results indicate that B.1.526 probably evolved in New York City, where it was displaced as the dominant lineage by B.1.1.7 months after its initial appearance. In contrast, B.1.1.7 became dominant earlier in regions with fewer B.1.526 infections. These results suggest that B.1.526 might have delayed the initial spread of B.1.1.7 in New York City. Our combined spatiotemporal methodologies can help disentangle the complexities of shifting SARS-CoV-2 variant landscapes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , New York/epidemiology , New York City/epidemiology , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(5): 909-912, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704399

ABSTRACT

A severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.1.345 variant carrying the E484K mutation was detected in 4 patients with no apparent epidemiological association from a hospital network in upstate New York. Subsequent analysis identified an additional 11 B.1.1.345 variants from this region between December 2020 and February 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Mutation , New York/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
11.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706244

ABSTRACT

Omicron, the novel highly mutated SARS-CoV-2 Variant of Concern (VOC, Pango lineage B.1.1.529) was first collected in early November 2021 in South Africa. By the end of November 2021, it had spread and approached fixation in South Africa, and had been detected on all continents. We analyzed the exponential growth of Omicron over four-week periods in the two most populated of South Africa's provinces, Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal, arriving at the doubling time estimates of, respectively, 3.3 days (95% CI: 3.2-3.4 days) and 2.7 days (95% CI: 2.3-3.3 days). Similar or even shorter doubling times were observed in other locations: Australia (3.0 days), New York State (2.5 days), UK (2.4 days), and Denmark (2.0 days). Log-linear regression suggests that the spread began in Gauteng around 11 October 2021; however, due to presumable stochasticity in the initial spread, this estimate can be inaccurate. Phylogenetics-based analysis indicates that the Omicron strain started to diverge between 6 October and 29 October 2021. We estimated that the weekly growth of the ratio of Omicron to Delta is in the range of 7.2-10.2, considerably higher than the growth of the ratio of Delta to Alpha (estimated to be in in the range of 2.5-4.2), and Alpha to pre-existing strains (estimated to be in the range of 1.8-2.7). High relative growth does not necessarily imply higher Omicron infectivity. A two-strain SEIR model suggests that the growth advantage of Omicron may stem from immune evasion, which permits this VOC to infect both recovered and fully vaccinated individuals. As we demonstrated within the model, immune evasion is more concerning than increased transmissibility, because it can facilitate larger epidemic outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/immunology , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Humans , New York/epidemiology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA/statistics & numerical data , South Africa/epidemiology , Time Factors
12.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264280, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702557

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, residents of the Bronx, New York experienced one of the first significant community COVID-19 outbreaks in the United States. Focusing on intensive longitudinal data from 78 Bronx-based older adults, we used a multi-method approach to (1) examine 2019 to early pandemic (February-June 2020) changes in momentary psychological well-being of Einstein Aging Study (EAS) participants and (2) to contextualize these changes with community distress scores collected from public Twitter posts posted in Bronx County. We found increases in mean loneliness from 2019 to 2020; and participants that were higher in neuroticism had greater increases in thought unpleasantness and feeling depressed. Twitter-based Bronx community scores of anxiety, depressivity, and negatively-valenced affect showed elevated levels in 2020 weeks relative to 2019. Integration of EAS participant data and community data showed week-to-week fluctuations across 2019 and 2020. Results highlight how community-level data can characterize a rapidly changing environment to supplement individual-level data at no additional burden to individual participants.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/pathology , Loneliness , Social Media , Affect , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , New York/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
13.
J Med Life ; 14(5): 645-650, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701759

ABSTRACT

Outpatients can be at heightened risk of COVID-19 due to interaction between existing non-communicable diseases in outpatients and infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study measured the magnitude of COVID-19 prevalence and explored related risk characteristics among adult outpatients visiting medicine clinics within a New York state-based tertiary hospital system. Data were compiled from 63,476 adult patients visiting outpatient medicine clinics within a New York-area hospital system between March 1, 2020, and August 28, 2020. The outcome was a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) of a COVID-19 were analyzed using univariable and multivariable Poisson regression with robust standard errors. The prevalence of COVID-19 was higher among these outpatients (3.0%) than in the total population in New York State (2.2%) as of August 28, 2020. Multivariable analysis revealed adjusted prevalence ratios significantly greater than one for male sex (PR=1.10), age 40 to 64 compared to <40 (PR=1.19), and racial/ethnic minorities in comparison to White patients (Hispanic: PR=2.76; Black: PR=1.89; and Asian/others: PR=1.56). Nonetheless, factors including the advanced age of ≥65 compared to <40 (PR=0.69) and current smoking compared to non-smoking (PR=0.60) were related to significantly lower prevalence. Therefore, the prevalence of COVID-19 in outpatients was higher than that of the general population. The findings also enabled hypothesis generation that routine clinical measures comprising sex, age, race/ethnicity, and smoking were candidate risk characteristics of COVID-19 in outpatients to be further verified by designs capable of assessing temporal association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Outpatients , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e220354, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699967

ABSTRACT

Importance: COVID-19 has disproportionately killed older adults and racial and ethnic minority individuals, raising questions about the relevance of advance care planning (ACP) in this population. Video decision aids and communication skills training offer scalable delivery models. Objective: To assess whether ACP video decision aids and a clinician communication intervention improved the rate of ACP documentation during an evolving pandemic, with a focus on African American and Hispanic patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Advance Care Planning: Communicating With Outpatients for Vital Informed Decisions trial was a pre-post, open-cohort nonrandomized controlled trial that compared ACP documentation across the baseline pre-COVID-19 period (September 15, 2019, to March 14, 2020), the COVID-19 wave 1 period (March 15, 2020, to September 14, 2020), and an intervention period (December 15, 2020, to June 14, 2021) at a New York metropolitan area ambulatory network of 22 clinics. All patients 65 years or older who had at least 1 clinic or telehealth visit during any of the 3 study periods were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was ACP documentation. Results: A total of 14 107 patients (mean [SD] age, 81.0 [8.4] years; 8856 [62.8%] female; and 2248 [15.9%] African American or Hispanic) interacted with clinicians during the pre-COVID-19 period; 12 806 (mean [SD] age, 81.2 [8.5] years; 8047 [62.8%] female; and 1992 [15.6%] African American or Hispanic), during wave 1; and 15 106 (mean [SD] 80.9 [8.3] years; 9543 [63.2%] female; and 2535 [16.8%] African American or Hispanic), during the intervention period. Clinicians documented ACP in 3587 patients (23.8%) during the intervention period compared with 2525 (17.9%) during the pre-COVID-19 period (rate difference [RD], 5.8%; 95% CI, 0.9%-7.9%; P = .01) and 1598 (12.5%) during wave 1 (RD, 11.3%; 95% CI, 6.3%-12.1%; P < .001). Advance care planning was documented in 447 African American patients (30.0%) during the intervention period compared with 233 (18.1%) during the pre-COVID-19 period (RD, 11.9%; 95% CI, 4.1%-15.9%; P < .001) and 130 (11.0%) during wave 1 (RD, 19.1%; 95% CI, 11.7%-21.2%; P < .001). Advance care planning was documented for 222 Hispanic patients (21.2%) during the intervention period compared with 127 (13.2%) during the pre-COVID-19 period (RD, 8.0%; 95% CI, 2.1%-10.9%; P = .004) and 82 (10.2%) during wave 1 (RD, 11.1%; 95% CI, 5.5%-14.5%; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This intervention, implemented during the evolving COVID-19 pandemic, was associated with higher rates of ACP documentation, especially for African American and Hispanic patients. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04660422.


Subject(s)
Advance Care Planning/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Clinical Decision-Making , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , New York/epidemiology , Patient Education as Topic , Videotape Recording
16.
Sex Reprod Healthc ; 31: 100697, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692869

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate factors associated with delays to obtaining contraception during the COVID-19 pandemic among pregnancy-capable adults in New York State. STUDY DESIGN: We administered a cross-sectional survey in June-July 2020 to female/transgender male New York State residents aged 18-44 years (n = 1,525). This analysis focused on respondents who were not pregnant and sought contraception (n = 953). We conducted bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses to assess sociodemographic, social, and health characteristics, by the outcome of delays to obtaining birth control (delayed due to COVID-19, delayed due to other reasons, no delay). We also analyzed a sub-sample who reported COVID-19 as a reason for delays (n = 317) and report the frequencies of type of contraceptive methods/procedures delayed and availability of telemedicine visits. RESULTS: Half of respondents had no contraceptive delays, 39% reported delays due to COVID-19, and 11% reported delays due to reasons other than COVID-19. In adjusted analyses, those who missed a rent/mortgage payment during the pandemic (aOR: 2.23; CI: 1.55, 3.22), participated in a supplemental government program in 2019 (aOR: 1.88; CI: 1.36, 2.60), and themselves/household member had COVID-19 (aOR: 1.48; CI: 1.04, 2.12) were more likely to report delays to contraception due to COVID-19 (versus no delays). In the sub-sample, 63% reported available virtual contraceptive visits, 28% unavailable, and 9% not sure. The most frequently (42%) reported delays were new prescriptions for the pill, patch, or ring. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing financial barriers that help individuals maintain their housing and living necessities, and promoting telemedicine visits, may help increase access to contraception.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Contraception , Contraception Behavior , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , New York/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(4): 881-883, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674280

ABSTRACT

Of 379 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 samples collected in New York, USA, we detected 86 Omicron variant sequences containing Delta variant mutation P681R. Probable explanations were co-infection with 2 viruses or contamination/amplification artifact. Repeated library preparation with fewer cycles showed the P681R calls were artifactual. Unusual mutations should be interpreted with caution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Artifacts , Humans , Mutation , New York/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2014, 2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671620

ABSTRACT

People worldwide use SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) visualizations to make life and death decisions about pandemic risks. Understanding how these visualizations influence risk perceptions to improve pandemic communication is crucial. To examine how COVID-19 visualizations influence risk perception, we conducted two experiments online in October and December of 2020 (N = 2549) where we presented participants with 34 visualization techniques (available at the time of publication on the CDC's website) of the same COVID-19 mortality data. We found that visualizing data using a cumulative scale consistently led to participants believing that they and others were at more risk than before viewing the visualizations. In contrast, visualizing the same data with a weekly incident scale led to variable changes in risk perceptions. Further, uncertainty forecast visualizations also affected risk perceptions, with visualizations showing six or more models increasing risk estimates more than the others tested. Differences between COVID-19 visualizations of the same data produce different risk perceptions, fundamentally changing viewers' interpretation of information.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Data Visualization , Pandemics , Perception/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , California/epidemiology , Communication , Female , Forecasting , Humans , Male , New York/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Uncertainty , Young Adult
20.
EBioMedicine ; 76: 103821, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although acute cardiac injury (ACI) is a known COVID-19 complication, whether ACI acquired during COVID-19 recovers is unknown. This study investigated the incidence of persistent ACI and identified clinical predictors of ACI recovery in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 2.5 months post-discharge. METHODS: This retrospective study consisted of 10,696 hospitalized COVID-19 patients from March 11, 2020 to June 3, 2021. Demographics, comorbidities, and laboratory tests were collected at ACI onset, hospital discharge, and 2.5 months post-discharge. ACI was defined as serum troponin-T (TNT) level >99th-percentile upper reference limit (0.014ng/mL) during hospitalization, and recovery was defined as TNT below this threshold 2.5 months post-discharge. Four models were used to predict ACI recovery status. RESULTS: There were 4,248 (39.7%) COVID-19 patients with ACI, with most (93%) developed ACI on or within a day after admission. In-hospital mortality odds ratio of ACI patients was 4.45 [95%CI: 3.92, 5.05, p<0.001] compared to non-ACI patients. Of the 2,880 ACI survivors, 1,114 (38.7%) returned to our hospitals 2.5 months on average post-discharge, of which only 302 (44.9%) out of 673 patients recovered from ACI. There were no significant differences in demographics, race, ethnicity, major commodities, and length of hospital stay between groups. Prediction of ACI recovery post-discharge using the top predictors (troponin, creatinine, lymphocyte, sodium, lactate dehydrogenase, lymphocytes and hematocrit) at discharge yielded 63.73%-75.73% accuracy. INTERPRETATION: Persistent cardiac injury is common among COVID-19 survivors. Readily available patient data accurately predict ACI recovery post-discharge. Early identification of at-risk patients could help prevent long-term cardiovascular complications. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Heart Injuries/diagnosis , Troponin I/metabolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Heart Injuries/epidemiology , Heart Injuries/etiology , Heart Injuries/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Logistic Models , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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