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Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 225: 110061, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-828109


Our previous study demonstrated that ginseng stem-leaf saponins (GSLS) in combination with selenium (GSLS-Se) have adjuvant effect on the live vaccine of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in intraocular-and-intranasal immunization in chickens. The present study was to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms involved in the immunomodulation of GSLS-Se on the Harderian gland (HG). It was found that the window allowing animals susceptible to infections due to low antibody titers became smaller or even completely closed because of increased NDV-specific HI titers when NDV vaccine and GSLS-Se were coadministered for immunization at early life in chickens. In addition, NDV-specific sIgA and the numbers of IgG+, IgA+, IgM+ plasma cells were significantly more in GSLS-Se group than the control in the HGs. Transcriptome analysis of HGs identified 1184 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between GSLS-Se treated and non-treated groups. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses identified 42 significantly enriched GO terms and 13 canonical immune pathways. These findings indicated that GSLS-Se might exert immunomodulatory effects through influencing the antioxidant regulation and modulating the activity of immune related enzymes. Besides, Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway might be involved primarily in the immunomodulation. Therefore, enhanced antibody responses in GSLS-Se group may be attributed to the immunomodulatory effects of GSLS-Se on the immune-related gene profile expressed in the immunocompetent cells of the HGs.

Harderian Gland/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Newcastle Disease/prevention & control , Panax/chemistry , Saponins/administration & dosage , Selenium/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Chickens , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Newcastle Disease/immunology , Newcastle disease virus , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Saponins/immunology , Selenium/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage
Poult Sci ; 99(6): 2944-2954, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824735


This trial assessed the efficacy of a commercial essential oil (EO) product on the immune response to vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND) and subsequent challenge with virulent ND virus genotype VII (vNDv genotype VII) by using the following experimental groups of broiler chickens (Each group had 21 birds with 3 replicates in each, n = 7): NC (negative control), PC (positive control), VC (vaccinated), and VTC (vaccinated and treated with EOs). Moreover, in a trial to study the effect of EOs on vNDv genotype VII in vivo as a preventive or therapeutic measure, 2 additional ND-vaccinated groups were used (PRV: medicated 1 D before vNDv challenge for 5 D; and TTT: medicated 2 D after vNDv challenge for 5 D). In addition, the immune-modulatory effect of EOs on the avian influenza (AI), infectious bronchitis (IB), and infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccines was assessed through the serological response. The use of EOs along with administration of ND vaccines (VTC) revealed a lower mortality rate (42.86%), clinical signs, and postmortem lesion score (11) than ND vaccines alone (VC) (52.28% mortality and score 15), in addition to lower hemagglutination inhibition (P < 0.05) (6.5 ± 0.46) and viral shedding (10 log 2.28 ± 0.24) titres 1 wk after challenge in comparison with VC (8.63 ± 0.65 and 10 log 3.29 ± 0.72, respectively). Nevertheless, the EOs mixture (VTC) (1952 ± 28.82) did not significantly (P > 0.05) improve growth performance compared with the nontreated birds (NC and VC) (1970 ± 19.56 and 1904 ± 38.66). EOs showed an antiviral effect on vNDv in vivo (in chickens) as a preventive measure (PRV) as well as some therapeutic effect (TTT) through decreasing the viral shedding titres (loNC0), mortality rate, and severity of clinical signs and postmortem lesions, in addition to serum malondialdhyde level. Regarding the other viruses, the EOs mixture did not improve the immune response to the AI and IB vaccines but significantly (P < 0.05) increased the ELISA antibody titre for IBD virus at the 28th D of age (2,108 ± 341.05). The studied EOs mixture showed an immune-stimulating response to ND and IBD vaccines, antiviral effect against ND virus, especially if administered before the challenge; however, it did not have a growth-promoting effect.

Chickens , Immunity, Humoral , Newcastle Disease/prevention & control , Newcastle disease virus/immunology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , Animals , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/classification
Br Poult Sci ; 62(1): 32-37, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740058


1. A vaccination regime is a schedule for the administration of vaccines which may vary according to country or even by farm. This study aimed to measure the production and health performance of broilers treated with different vaccination regimes. 2. A total of 108 Cobb 500 broiler birds were randomly divided into three treatment groups, with six replicates consisting of six birds per replicate. Each treatment group was administered with different vaccination regimes against Newcastle Disease (ND), Infectious Bronchitis (IB) and Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD). Treatment 1 (T1) broilers were vaccinated against ND+IB and IBD on days 7 and 14 of age, respectively (control); Treatment 2 (T2) broilers were vaccinated against ND+IB on days 3 and 7 of age, and IBD on day 14; and Treatment 3 (T3) broilers were vaccinated against ND+IB on days 7 and 21 and IBD on day 14. Throughout the 42-day study period, data and samples were collected to determine the growth performance, immune status, carcase characteristics and meat quality. 3. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) on growth performance (body weight, body weight gain, feed intake and cumulative feed conversion ratio), white blood cell count (heterophils percentage, lymphocytes percentage and heterophils to lymphocytes ratio), carcase characteristics (kill-out weight, de-feathered weight, dressing percentage, drumsticks and gastrointestinal tract weight) and meat quality (cooking loss and drip loss) between treatments. T1 broilers showed better growth, white blood cell count, carcase characteristics and meat quality compared to T2 and T3 broilers. 4. Based on findings from the current work, vaccination against ND+IB and IBD on days 7 and 14 proved to be the best vaccination regime for broiler production, due to the better production performance and health status of broilers.

Animal Feed , Chickens , Newcastle Disease , Vaccination , Animals , Meat , Newcastle Disease/prevention & control , Vaccination/veterinary